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한국 예이츠 저널 [The Yeats Journal of Korea]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    한국예이츠학회 [The Yeats Society of Korea]
  • ISSN
    1226-4946
  • 간기
    연3회
  • 수록기간
    1991~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    인문학 > 영어와문학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 840 DDC 821.9
제27권 (13건)
No
1

셰이머스 히니의 식민언어 유희하기

강민건

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.5-29

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Motivated with the poetic utterance that "all this is signified by their language" as Heaney's own word, this essay shows that Seamus Heaney, not just by resisting past colonial domination with a decolonial literary system, has successively served for playing the colonial language in his poetic representation and finally achieved the poetic autonomy. Under and after the colonial experience, Most of Irish poets have continually struggled against English political system and its language as a colonial one. But Heaney has consistently defended poetry as agent for redressing injustices in the corrupt world and at the same time as something to be re-established and celebrated in his own right. The process of Haney's quest for playing colonial language of his Irish identity as a poet can be effectively understood by examining the way in which he employs the poetic of redress. The main subject of Heaney's poetry is to find out his Irish identification with the past linguistic tradition and its continuity. The subject is linked with the questioning of how to turn to playing the colonial language between English language and Irish language so called Gaelic which has been dominated by the ideology of colonialism. The major focus of this essay is in his redress of poetic language and playing colonial language as well as how he appropriate language in his poetry. In this regard, This essay tries to search for the true linguistic attitude which Heaney has made every effort to materialize in his poetry. In short, Heaney's poetics can help his writings maintain the positionality of the decolonial dicourse and the decolonial literature.

6,300원

2

「초자연의 노래들」에 나타난 초자연적 무아경

고준석, 정호영

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.31-52

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This paper is to discuss the supernatural ecstasy in the “Supernatural Songs”. When focusing his poetry on the physical, Yeats turned his attention more and more toward the East. While seizing upon an increasingly physical and sexual emphasis, Yeats's secular spiritualism moved in an Eastern, monistic direction. As far as he was concerned, sexual spirituality was much more compatible with indian spirituality. To embody these instincts and passions, he posited a mythical character by the name of Ribh as the cental character of the “Supernatural Songs”. He tried to display a transcendental ecstasy. He associated early Christian Ireland with India. He described the fictional character of Ribh as an early Christian hermit, who is ninety years old. In the East, Yeats found a propensity toward unity of being that would underscore the essential unity of flesh and spirit so necessary to his thought. The “Supernatural Songs” thus brought together an Eastern amalgamation of Christianity and Asian religiosity, merging the supernatural-spiritual with the natural-physical. Yeats espoused tantric sex, a form of Kundalini, with its emphasis on self and the sexual act as the way to spiritual energy and fulfillment. The word Kundalini means coil, which Yeats reflects in the serpent imagery. In conclusion, Yeats found an imaginative way whereby he was able to fuse the spiritual with the physical in the “Supernatural Songs”. This secular spirituality allowed Yeats the sexual freedom he sought for. The intense moment of climax is that conflagration in which all antinomies are resolved, time stands still, and natural bonds with supernatural. His emphasis on unity of being is compatible with an Eastern worldview, which merges all into a monistic unity. Indeed, poetry itself is in Yeats's mind an imaginative alchemy, the transmutation of life into art, a fusing of the spiritual with the material.

5,800원

3

예이츠의 앵글로 아이리쉬 정체성 담론 : 비극적 영웅주의, 문화, 전통

박미정

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.53-78

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This paper examines the ways in which Yeats constructs and idealizes his Anglo-Irish Identity. After bitter disputes over Synge's plays he realized the insoluble opposition between the Irish Catholic and the Anglo-Irish, which meant his failure to unify Ireland through his Celtic Romanticism. He needed to make a new poetics to justify his predicament and to form a new identity. He creates, in his essays and poems, the identity and tradition of the Anglo-Irish from Burke through Swift, Goldsmith, Parnell to Synge and Yeats, the intellectuals who tried to enlighten the native Irish people only to fail and be isolated from them. According to Yeats, the reason the Anglo-Irish intellectuals had to meet the same fate in Ireland is due to the ignorance and sectarian hate of native Catholic Irish people. Although the Anglo-Irish always become victims, their defeat is considered by Yeats to be inescapable and even worthier than success in the reality where ignorance prevails. This is the discourse of tragic heroism. Yeats constructed the identity that is based on the dichotomy between the few Anglo-Irish and the Irish people, by which he attributes culture to the one, and nature to the other. Here culture is supposed to be superior to nature and that sense of superiority rests on the ability to culturalize nature. Yeats connected the culture with breeding which means being cultivated by discipline and education. In writing, it was through his poetics of mask, what he called “the sense of style,” that he could overcome his rage and hate to the mass and futhermore transform them to the higher virtues such as reason, manners and beauty. As the poems dealing with the Anglo-Irish big house and the Thoor Ballylee show, in their tradition what they have inherited is a heroic spirit of overcoming and transforming the adversity each generation has faced. Some critics have asserted Yeats shows de-mystifying recognition when he reveals his ancestors' illicit and unjust violence to the native Irish in the past. But we have to note that it finally leads to justifying his Anglo-Irish violence, for he thought it had been transformed by their overcoming spirit and efforts into order and culture whereas the violence of the Irish mass resulted into disorder and chaos. David Lloyd's opinion needs to be reconsidered in this regard. He praised Yeats's de-mystifying insights in some later poems and asserted, borrowing Paul de Man's terms, his writing is allegorical rather than symbolic. But in the poems he cited Yeats seems to be more interested in heroicizing and idealizing his Anglo-Irish identity and tradition. Yeats's Anglo-Irish identity should be understood as an response to the changed reality and is formed by his peculiar writing or representation.

6,400원

4

예이츠 시의 감각적 요소

신원철

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.79-95

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Generally speaking, W. B. Yeats's early poetry has been thought as romantic and dreamy and criticized as a negative poetic example. But students would rather like to read these poems than his later philosophical poems. Maybe these early poems are more attractive to them because the dim yearning, homesickness and mysticism evoke their young emotion. But I think there is a more important element to attract reader's interest, that is the physical sense. The sense - sensory feeling gives a kind of elasticity of energy to Yeats's early poems. Without this sense, these poems would have degraded as those of dim exclamation about lost love or escape from the world. To study Yeats's sense we need to research some other poets who could affect young Yeats, and compare them: Keats and Hopkins. There are many good examples of sensory feeling in their poems. Thus I see a kind of affective relationship between them and realize this sensory feeling is a very important element of English poetry which we hardly find in Korean poems.

5,100원

5

예이츠와 키이츠의 시간의 극복 : 「비잔티움으로의 항해」와 「가을에게」를 중심으로

한기웅

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.97-114

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Yeats and Keats differently introduced their notions of time circulation and eternal life. One expressed limitations of human which could be overcome by art. And the other introduced time flowing in harmony and peace. And in one poem, we can see something lively such as young people, birds, trees, salmon-falls, and in the other poem we can find laziness and leisure. However, there is some similarity in that they introduce the subjects of circulation of life and eternal life. Yeats shows the passage of time by the Great Wheel or gyre which develops in the course of formation, fullness, decline. And Keats also presents the passage of time by using the phrases such as “swell the gourd,” “plum the hazel shell,” “warm day will never cease.” These symbolize swelling and continuance of time. So we can find the way how time is flowing in their poems. In Yeats's “Sailing to Byzantium,” time travels from a youth to an old age, and in “To Autumn,” time travels from summer to autumn. In this circulation Yeats's immortality can be reached by the media of art. And Keats gets it by the circulation of seasons. So one continues to voyage with eagerness for Byzantium in which he could find his everlasting life through the mosaic of 15th century, and the other comfortably waits for next seasons. Two poets respectively develop their poems in different ways, but they finally achieve the same subjects of ever-lasting life in the passage of time. In conclusion, Yeats pursued immortality by separating spirit from the body, because the flesh would be decayed. On the other hand, Keats thought that the immortality could be acquired by being one with time. Unlike Yeats's “Sailing to Byzantium”, Keats's “To Autumn” has a tendency to keep harmony and reconciliation, instead of confrontation. Therefore, autumn enjoys “sitting,” and “asleep” without haste.

5,200원

6

셰이머스 히니의 「스테이션 아일랜드」(“Station Island”)와 기억 이미지

한지희

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.115-130

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Seamus Heaney’s “Station Island” has been viewed as a psychological drama in which Heaney explores alter-egos that he might have become. Such an approach becomes more complicated if we consider that the stage of the drama is Ricoeurian typology of mnemonic phenomena where the narrator “I” is splitted into the subject in the process of recollection and the self fixed in the pure memory. According to Paul Ricoeur, the epistemological process of recollection involves the evocation of past memories at the present moment, so that the subject-in-recollection imagines the self fixed in the pure memory to be “the other than self” and relives past memories as if real. In this sense, Ricoeur argues that memory exists in the typology of mnemonic phenomena as memory-images and that the subject-in-recollection tend to imagine the past in the way he can satisfy his desire. Likewise, in “Station Island” Heaney’s narrator “I” re-imagines his past memories as if they were memory-images and re-lives past feelings as “the other than self.” By becoming “the other than self” in the process of recollection, he reviews the burden of a national poet and finally accepts the limitation of his fellow Irish people as well as his own self. For Heaney, accepting the limitations and scars as they are becomes the foundation for love, friendship, and goodness toward his people because it lets him realize reasons for the necessity of co-dependency and reciprocity.

4,900원

7

셰이머스 히니 시에서의 부재 또는 무

허현숙

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.131-153

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At the outset of his poetic career Seamus Heaney sought his identity through his own digging into his roots in Irish history and culture. He struggled to come to terms with the violent and coarse surfaces of life and his poetic works represented the identity of the subject in the knowing of objects. But the works in The Haw Lantern and Seeing Things deal with the invisibles or absence with firmer views. A central aim of Heaney's work before these works seems to turn the visible into the invisible. But an absence catches the poet's interests more than the politics in Northern Ireland in his works after the 1980s: his aim is now to make the absent realm or the invisible present and visible by the ordinary expressions. Thus the absence or nothingness expands its meaning beyond itself towards the source of the poet's second thought and the source of the poetic revelation. And some of his works explore the equality of being between the material and the immaterial, between the invisible inner motions and the visible outer world. He gives lights on absences that exist in past or in this phenomenal world. Certain phenomenal objects, if a poet really sees them and apprehends their potentiality, serve as stations to an otherwise inaccessible underworld of nothingness or absent world. By discovering the meaning of absent being one can understand that of the present and replace or resurrect the absent being. It is an act of deterritorialization of his poetic works and towards the freedom as a poet.

6,000원

8

“The Hawk” and Yeats’s Decolonization Process

Kim, Jooseong

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.155-171

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Yeats looked into the past and prophesied the future and dreamed a unified Irish society that could then resist English oppression. He adopted the language of the oppressor to manufacture or invent a cultural space, and used that cultural space to find a voice with which to critique the oppressive culture. He used his literary works, like "The Hawk," to set free his colonized homeland. Also new literary forms of expression came to be known as modernism in literature and included the expression of such feelings as discontinuity, ambiguity, and fragmentation. This was the world milieu in which Yeats wrote. And he saw how to use words as weapons turned against the colonizer and how to use words to discover Ireland. At the same time that he was implicated in Anglo-Irish colonialism, he also developed a system of symbols that he believed explained cycles of history and would transcend contemporary quarrels. Yeats also persistently used and interacted with Irish political and historical leaders. He names many of the political figures in much of his writing and uses historical events as subjects. Not only does his writing overtly interact with historical figures; in at least some of his poetry, Yeats makes subtle allusions to Irish leaders of the past. "The Hawk" may be a poem about a real individual, but one who is never named at all; this poem provides an example of art that, upon closer inspection, serves politics. The poem not only shows the political relationship between the Fenians and the English government, but it also introduces an element of the mystical; as Yeats uses the hawk as a symbol of the Fenian resistance in the poem to illuminate the political situation. He makes the Hawk of the Fenian movement into the hawk of the poem, he certainly presents the reader with a striking parallel; and he binds together history, politics, culture, spirituality, and poetry into the configuration of his famous interpenetrating gyres.

5,100원

9

Occult Influence on Yeats’s View of History in A Vision

Shin, Hyun Ho

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.173-192

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Yeats's poetry and writings were a display of his passion for mysticism and the occult. This view on Yeats has been largely expressed in various publications. Many of Yeats's critics, including Ellmann, agree that the roots of Yeats's system are in Theosophy. The roots of Yeats's philosophy are in Theosophy, being a comprehensive, unifying systems of all occult tradition, and the first metaphysical system that Yeats encountered. Being faced with the dilemma between faith and disbelief, Yeats contacted numerous texts on the subject occultism and met Blavatsky, the founder of Theosophy society, claimed to have the ability to offer a "synthesis" of religion, science, and philosophy. After many metaphysical conversations with her and many hours of long thought on the issue, Yeats took one of his first steps on his path of occult wisdom. Yeats's fascination with occultism and mysticism was so profound, and his need to create a unifying mythology so great, that he decided to develop an esoteric system of his own. Thus, between 1917 and 1925, Yeats had written A Vision, an elaborate, complicated system that is of importance in understanding Yeats's works. The first version, published in 1925, was later revised, and final version was published in 1937. In Book IV and V of A Vision Yeats had expounded the notion that history moves in great two-thousand-year cycles. This circle represents the moon and the twenty-eight phases of the moon which are closely related to the progression of time and world history. Yeats suggested all things are subject to a cycle of changes, which can be regarded as bi-polar, passing from a state of objectivity to one of subjectivity before returning to objectivity again. In this view he was strongly influenced by the Theosophists, especially Blavatsky and the Kabbalists, who saw the law of periodicity as one of the fundamental and absolute laws of the universe. Yeats believed that history was cyclic and that every 2,000 years a new cycle begins, which is the opposite of the cycle that has preceded it. In his poem "The Second Coming," the birth of Christ begins one cycle, which ends, as the poem ends, with a "rough beast," mysterious and menacing, who "slouches towards Bethlehem to be born." Yeats's theory of the historical cycle is directly related to his belief in a universal duality -- the existence of opposite but equal forces that dominate a cycle alternately. This view is in accordance with the occult traditions which teach that the First Cause exhibits periodically different aspects of itself. Yeats believed that kingdoms rise movement of history is an hour within the day of a large movement, and that all these cycles are caught within one all-inclusive "Great Year" which has a cosmic purpose. The Kabbalah says the alternation between judgement and mercy must be on equal terms. The germ finally goes back to its root principle, the Unity out of which everything proceeds.

5,500원

10

Yeats’s Mysticism and Nationalism in his Early Years

Yoo, Baekyun

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.193-214

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The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between W.B. Yeats's obsession with mysticism and his nationalism in his early years (1885-1895). My basic argument is that he knocked at the door of mysticism to find a metaphysical symbol with which he could unify politically, religiously, and culturally divided Ireland. In fact, Yeat's turn to mysticism in his early years attracts many scholars's attentions. But a reading of many studies on this topic leads us to believe that Yeats studied mysticism for other purposes. Elizabeth Cullingford and Richard Ellmann argue that Yeats's preoccupation with mysticism was his antipathy to materialism which was prevalent due to the Industrial Revolution. Seamus Dean explains Yeats's interest in mystical and occult traditions as his efforts to establish an Irish cultural identity. Denis Donoghue maintains that Yeats wanted to separate Irishness from Englishness by dedicating himself to the study of mysticism. In addition to these purposes, I believe, one of Yeats's political agenda was to unify various cultural, religious, and political forces of Ireland before the turn of the century. Yeats firmly believed that the identity of the Irish should be based upon intellectual life and spiritual principles which could solve and transcend the cultual, religious, and political discords of Ireland. The spiritual creeds Yeats was looking for should be founded on the common Irish spirit which could appeal to the Irish whether they were Anglo or Gaelic, Protestants or Catholics, or Unionists or Separatists. In other words, spiritual principles should not be confined to one church. In this sense, Yeats’s choice of Indian thought and occultism is suitable because they have universal appeal. Yeats believed that Indian thought would provide Ireland with the common spiritual tradition which predated both Catholicism and Protestantism. Furthermore, the religious concepts of pantheism and mysticism were the very ideas Yeats needed to bring the conflicting religious and political parties into perfect harmony and balance. Namely, Yeats tried to find a metaphysical model for the unity of Catholics and Protestants through the mystical union.

5,800원

11

Acceptance of Hybridity and the Expansion of Identity : Focusing on Seamus Heaney and William Butler Yeats

Hong, Sung Sook

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.215-229

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I insist in this paper that hybridity and identity are two aspects of modernity, not the separate words like in the aesthetic theory of 'discordia concors' and that modernity carries both in it, expanding relative values. A new version of culture will be able to come out, depending upon how to arrange hybridity and identity. The modern Irish culture, especially in its literature, offers a good example. As for the Irish people, the disaster of Great Famine brought an awakening that the Irish was not the British. And the Irish Literary Revival made the will to differentiate. However, even after the Irish Literary Revival, the Irish people found out that their own culture had been hybridized and that the cultural conflict existed. However, the Irish writers have tried to recreate their own culture based on the pride of their own culture-a firm religious, political and cultural tradition. W.B. Yeats's contribution lies in his attachment to things Irish. His spirit and taste for the supernatural world can be identified with Irishness. However, for Yeats the expression of identity cannot but be limited because he himself was hybrid in blood. Meanwhile, for Heaney, the expression of his own identity is seen in his concern about landscape, history and Gaelic language. His will to search for identity starts from the sense of dispossession, experiencing the Ulster Trouble. However he comes to recognize that they are hybridized. Despite this, his studious will to recreate identity has continued by accepting the hybridity. In brief, Yeats and Heaney are the poets who, moving beyond hybridity, wanted to make the new cultural identity or to complete 'discordia concors' in culture. My last conclusion is that Yeats and Heaney seek to expand the cultural identity by accepting the hybridity and heterogeneity of their culture, and that, however, their last convergence is to search for the essence of the Irish spirit- light, freedom and song.

4,800원

보고서

12

4,900원

13

한국예이츠학회 최근 학술활동 현황

한국예이츠학회 한국 예이츠 저널 제27권 2007.06 pp.247-265

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5,400원

 
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