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This paper is trying to read the text with the current theory decolonialism. To this, The writer adopted the text Seamus Heaney's early poetry Death of a Naturalist. Seamus Heaney is known to be the most important poet since W. B. Yeats as a winner of Nobel Prize for Literature in 1995. I assume that a growing interest among readers reflects this prevailing enthusiasm for his work. His method and idea owe more to decolonial attitude more than that of naturalist or romantist. This seems to be an attractive factor to draw a reader's attention. In fact, his poetry has the proper qualities to absorb the devotees of 'decolonialism' still dominant in dealing with the poetry. Decolonialism as a literary theory is becoming an influential textual strategy rather than remaining as one of the academic master discourse. So far, the established textual reading theories have been closely related to logocentrism, and they failed to be acknowledge as objective way of reading. For this reason, the decolonialism has an important implication in the sense that it subverts the colonial ideology within the context of colonized society, and at the same time, reconstructs counter-discourse to find out self-identity and decolonized space. Meanwhile, Heaney have been witnessed historical moments of the death of his mother land, Ireland as well as of the Irish people, as the history of Ireland manifests. In doing so, the Irish people broke the cycle of imperial situation. The consciousness of them became consciousness of the nation. By way of this historical experience of authentic decolonization, Heaney's aesthetics became, more and more, politicized against the crisis which the repressive force of imperialism caused to occur. Under this traumatic disasters of Ireland, Heaney's poetic quest makes him and practical struggle against the colonial power in a poetic way. The main subject of his poetry is to find out his Irish identity with the past tradition and its continuity. The subject is linked with the question to find out the Celtic identity between the past and the present which is dominated by colonialism. To regard this, this paper analyses Heaney's text focusing on the decolonialism expressed by his poetry. I try to examine the process of his poetic writings and its attitude against English colonialism. To do this, My major interest is in his Celtic myth and language employed in his poetry. And I attempt to search for the true Irishness which Heaney makes every effort to materialize the reality of Ireland in his poetry. To conclude, the decolonial discourse and its textual strategy has an tactics and also has an important implications that lay bare the dominant ideology hidden by the seemingly impersonal intention of colonialism.
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This paper is an attempt to discuss Yeats' meditative poem and its formative process. Before taking up the main subject, I will survey the background of the meditative poem. The most notable of meditative practices were the Ignation meditations that synthesized several medieval branches of meditation and gave them new echo in the early modern world. These meditation then formed the structural backbone of poems that also demanded a similar type of ordered contemplation by Donne, Herbert, Hopkins and Wordsworth. Also Yeats clearly fits into this English meditative tradition due to the Irish and mystical elements but works with meditative techniques in a quite novel manner. The techniques of meditation become significant for their impact on how a poem works to trace the mind's progress. Yeats's poems, especially his mature poems, develop many of the imageable patterns and employ similar technique. There is a close correspondence between meditative discipline and the creative imagination. If we cannot imagination ourselves as different from what we are and assume that second self, we cannot impose a discipline upon ourselves. It is the creation of this self that a meditative poem records. A self is ideally one with itself, with other human beings, with created nature, and with the supernatural. Thus the self of meditative poetry speaks a language based on that of common men, but includes whatever in its own experience is unique and individual. In conclusion, Yeats' meditation allows him to reach that Unity of Being where the oppositions of change and changelessness, time and eternity, are reconciled. Toward the union of "the powers of the soul," Yeats's "Unity of Being" by disciplined effort makes his way, while creation of the poetry plays its part in the struggle. Unity of Being is both the resolution to the tension between opposites and the point at which all things connect.
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In recent years, many of literary works in English has been produced from the so-called Third World. The notion of "contemporary poetry, however, remains strikingly provincial in the anglophone Western World. Also, even though the conceptions of American poetry have expanded to include minority writers of the Third World, the story of the glottalization of English poetry remains largely untold. Why is postcolonial poetry so much less visible in modern literary world? The term postcolonial has often been criticized for erasing cultural and historical differences, so it can be useful in highlighting similarities and differences among various cultures still grappling with their colonial histories. Yeats has been placed in many literary and hermetic societies. For the constituencies of Yeats studies, the claiming Yeats as postcolonial can help renew attention to a poet who, often charged with antifeminism and reactionary politics, has been losing ground to postmodernism, antiformalism, and ethnic writing. Yeats's postcolonization can strengthen the claim of Irish studies to be a player in the vibrant field of postcolonial studies. If we define the Easter Rising is the crucial moment, "Easter, 1916" would qualify as postcolonial. If postcoloniality is construed not as after decolonialization but as since colonization, then Yeats is more easily swept whole into the postcolonial canon, but so would be all kinds of Irish literature since the early 20th century, perhaps stretching the term postcolonial beyond use. So, we can have difficulties in defining Yeats as a postcolonial poet.
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Yeats held a life-long interest in Japanese culture, and employed the images, knowledge and inspiration he gained from Japan in many of his literary works. On the whole, it was the Japanese literary form that was most significant in his development as a writer. It was through the translations of Ezra Pound and Ernest Fenollosa that Yeats became acquainted with Noh, the medieval Japanese drama. It is generally agreed that Yeats’s encounter with Noh marked a turning point in his career as a dramatist. The Noh led him to create “a form of drama, distinguished, indirect and symbolic...an aristocratic form.” In “Note to At the Hawk’s Well,” Yeats writes:
I have found my first model—and in literature, if we would not be parvenus, we must have a model—in the ‘Noh’ stage of aristocratic Japan.
From this statement, we can see how significant the Noh-form was to Yeats in his development as a playwright. When Yeats was first introduced to Noh, he immediately perceived affinities with Irish legends and beliefs. The Noh was not something completely new or alien to Yeats. It was the discovery of an ideal, an ideal form for him to express his perennial themes of the tension between the physical and spiritual worlds. Yeats’s Noh-inspired plays are often categorized as “dance plays” and we can see that “dance” was an important symbol which Yeats developed through his experience with Noh. Yeats wrote in his “Introduction” to Certain Noble Plays of Japan that it was a Japanese dancer, Ito Michio, who inspired him to write his new play, At the Hawk’s Well (1916). In Noh, the dance which is usually danced by a supernatural figure, is placed at the centre. Here, the supernatural dominates the stage and the action develops toward a moment of enlightenment. Yeats precisely points out this fact and writes that in his new play, instead of “the players working themselves into a violence of passion...the music, beauty of form and voice all come to climax in pantomimic dance.” However, since Yeats intended Cuchulain as the central figure of At the Hawk’s Well, the theatrical effect of the dance had to differ from that of Noh. Another characteristic of this play is that it dramatizes the ‘transformation’ of the Guardian of the Well, the role which Ito Michio played, through spirit possession. This change in personality is conveyed by means of a change in costume(she throws off her cloak to reveal a dress suggesting a hawk). This is a method resembling ‘monogi(物着),’ one of the most important dramatic conventions of Noh. Yeats explores this device again, in The Only Jealousy of Emer(1919), another dance play modeled on Noh, but this time using different masks to show the change in personality. Yeats’s interest in this motif of spirit possession eventually led him to write The Words Upon the Window-Pane(1930), a play where he dramatizes a seancē. Here, the dramatic tension is concentrated mainly on a supernatural manifestation through the ‘protagonist’ who is a professional spiritual medium. In this paper, I have discussed Yeats’s relationship with Noh through a detailed analysis of At the Hawk’s Well. In this play, we can see many aspects of Noh. The simplified stage, the musicians, the mask, the dance, the use of a square blue cloth to represent a well; these are characteristics reminiscent of Noh. However, we must note that this play was not merely an imitation of Noh but a completely new form of creative writing. Richard Taylor indicates the influence of Yoro, a felicitous Waki-noh, or God Play on this play. A comparison of these two plays reveal that Yeats had no intention of following the Noh paradigms faithfully. However, the inspiration he gained from Noh opened a wide range of dramatic experiments enabling him to write a sequence of dance plays. In later plays such as The Words Upon the Window-Pane and Purgatory, Yeats succeeded in achieving a dramatic effect closer to that of Noh.
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The purpose of this paper is to examine the value of W. B. Yeats’s penultimate play, Purgatory. It is a one-act verse play. There are only two characters: An Old Man and A Boy. Its story is simple. The Old Man tells his son (A Boy) of his family’s past: the mésalliance of his mother and his father’s squandering of everything she had, which he considers pollution to his family and declares as a capital offence. The Old Man kills his son with the knife he used to kill his father to stop the pollution from passing on to the next generation, and to stop the ‘Dreaming Back’ process for his mother. Purgatory is as much a play about the end of a historical cycle as it is a personal story. The obvious decline of the old man’s family fortune is an image of a ruined Ireland, its vigour spent and its thought forced in upon its own past. The qualities that have caused Purgatory to be one of Yeats’s most admired plays is the condensation and compression of his material, coupled with a lucid and immediately accessible realistic plot. The characters, actions and images are both natural and symbolic, moving and meaningful. The real strength of Purgatory lies in its unobtrusive poetic quality, the harmony of realistic subject matter and symbolist design within a lyrical composition of undoubted concentration and power. In Purgatory, more than anything else, Yeats solved the problem of speech in verse drama, which is one of his contributions to modern drama. Instead of contrasting voice patterns, he unified the action with a freely varied verse form in iambic tetrameters which is admirably suited to the terse, sharp idiom of modern speech. The most remarkable feature of this very natural verse form is its ability to reflect emotional intensification as the rising dramatic action moves through contrast and reversal to its inevitable climax.
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This paper is an attempt to practice Jungian ways into a great poem of Yeats’s, “Among School Children,” over which home and foreign academic societies concerned have been under much controversy till now. But it is very regrettable that I have no belief if the views issued from some noted scholars in the societies have been plausible or appropriate. In the sense, as suggested by the title, the encounter between Great psychologist C. G. Jung and Great poet W. B. Yeat is very significant in that they both had pursued the same ultimate subject as a supreme state of humanity respectively represented as archetype of ‘Self’ and ‘Unity of Being.’ For Jungian ways applied to the poem, first symbols, images and psychological situations lurking in it can be useful as the interpretative clues. These representations can function as faithful agents helping us to reach the gate of the poetic truth, urging us to mobilize Jungian esoteric terms corresponded to several kinds of psychological situations people must go through. ‘Great Mother,’ maternal archetype, who stands for earth and womb and takes two characteristics, construction and destruction, possessing opposite qualities of Witch Kali and Virgin Mary, exercises serious effect upon a male child as an earthly hero. Some ideal aim or mission that the hero strives to grasp is just equivalent to hurriedly return to the womb as his biological origin, namely secular realization of the principle of ‘entrophy’ meaning the second principle of thermodynamics; does mean the hero’s life whatever else? It can be associated with the biblical situation, Pieta, the holy picture describing Mary’s lamenting in bitter grief with embracing his dead son, Jesus Christ. In fact, the hero is determined to death resulting from energetic emission of burning libido, which can be embellished with either establishment of duty or sacrifice to community. Thus, ‘Great mother’ longing for the runaway baby from her womb, in turn, is expecting his death to suffice emptiness of womb and heal her chronic complex, hysteria. In conclusion, in the poem, we can find that the destiny that after “children” in the “school” go through a initial step of ‘individuation,’ the perfect state which further can be indivisible, they, absurd beings, are cast into the tough world with each secular mission is just to aid the scheme of ‘Great Mother.’ “school” is a temple teaching “dance” and “children” in it dancers learning “dance.” Accordingly, the enigmatic relation of “dancer” and “dance” in the eighth stanza would be unraveled: The former can come under an archetypal pattern and the latter can correspond to its practitioner. Thus, “dance,” playing a role of ‘complex’ as compelling force and driving us to imitate it, tires us, dancers, finally to death, as an erotic dancer Salome’s dance murdered a spiritual dancer John the Baptist. After all, we can never get to the core of “dance” only to hang around its brink, which Yeats should know. As usual, getting captivated by “dance,” we continually shout hoarse to others: Shall we dance?
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The last century saw three great poets: Yeats, Eliot, and Stevens. They each had created new poems different from the previous ones. The current topic finds Eliot most discordant from the other two, who has started from Romantic poetics. By "Romantic" I mean that the poet grew out of Romantic poetics and/or is Romantic temperamentally. In Eliot's case, because of his stance on Romanticism and his educational background, unfortunately, both poets and scholars have been blinded to the fact that Eliot is deeply Romantic, stylistically and temperamentally. Read any portion of any poem by Eliot; it is there in the very poem, such as "Prufrock." It indeed is a good poem, witty and modern. But the drawback with Eliot is he is exclusive, thus the poetic range is limited. Compared with him, Stevens is a pure Romantic, who profoundly succeeds in renewing Romantic poetics in modern times, as evidenced in "Sunday Morning." Which is the counterpoint to Milton's "Paradise Lost." Of course, in terms of poetic gestures. Yeats is, compared with Eliot and Stevens, unique. He is against science, and goes back to myths and folklore and man. His "Long-legged Fly" is the epitome of his great poetics, a victory over the materialistic society of last century. Still, it is hard to understand how he could go over what seems to have been an impossible barrier, with such an outmoded thing, as mysticism, mythology, Romanticism, that all thought dead.
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Globalization has been remaking the world order in terms of world economy, cosmopolitan culture and international social movements. Through globalization, we could enjoy many cultures and communicate between us without any obstacle. On the other hand, it was thought to be the extension of modernization, bringing about many problems. In connection with the expansion of globalization, Samuel Huntington's theory of ' The Clash of Civilizations' is worth mentioning. According to him, the 21th century as de-cold period, is faced with the collision of cultures based on religions. As far as globalization is considered to be the expansion of American culture, the world- wide resistance is already predicted. Especially the countries which had gone through colonization are seeking their own alternatives to the global culture. In connection with this, modern Irish poets are the representatives who are moving toward the ideal glocalism. What I mean by ideal glocalism includes making definition of localism, the appropriation of global power, objectifying the local culture and seeking for the new humanism. The modern Irish poets show the successful model for appropiating 'the third-space' of Homi Bhabha. They explore 'the third-space' of Homi Bhabha as the space of recreation, not that of imitation, by solidifying the local culture and accepting the hybridity at the same time. W.B. Yeats is the first contributor in making differentiation of the Irish culture from the English one. And, also, he tries to make the Irish culture global trend. He recreated hybridity as something new. However, he cannot narrow the cultural gap between the Anglo-Irish as a global power and the Gaelic Catholic as a local power. John Montague begins his career as a critic of Irish local culture. And he chose the exile. However, from him, we can also see the romantic attachment to the local culture through its objectification. Seamus Heaney begins his career as an archeologist of the local culture. However he also experiences the conflict between the local and the global. At last his recognition of hybridity of the local culture brings him to the reconciliation. The last conclusion is the following: the three Irish poets go beyond globalism toward glocalism through redefining and remaking their local culture.
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