JER [Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국운동재활학회 [Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
  • 주제분류
    의약학 > 재활의학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 514.03 DDC 617.03
Vol.14 No.3 (34건)



Exercise rehabilitation new genre pioneering

Chang-Ju Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 p.321

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Review Article


Urology as rehabilitation medicine: a literature review

Tae Beom Kim, Chang Hee Kim, Kwang Taek Kim, Sang Jin Yoon, Kyung Jin Chung

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.322-326

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As a urologist, we usually encounter with two representative functional behaviors, namely, voiding and sexual function. These are not only im-portant but also complex and synchronized so if these functions are im-paired, patients need active functional rehabilitation to recover. These functional impairments should be recognized and corrected early be-cause they could not only cause direct damage to the affected func-tions but also have harmful consecutive consequences such as kidney damage due to voiding abnormality and self-esteem damage due to de-creased sexual function. Numerous rehabilitative methods are current-ly available, which help minimize the negative effects of these function-al impairments. In terms of voiding function, pelvic floor muscle exer-cise, biofeedback, functional magnetic stimulation, neuromodulation, and clean intermittent self-catheterization are representative rehabilita-tion modalities. In case of children, extra-attention should be paid be-cause this might affect their entire life. In impairment of sexual function, early intervention to maintain male erection is the main target of reha-bilitation to prevent corporal fibrosis and penile deformity and increase recovery chance in patients who underwent radical prostatectomy or major surgery. In this review, we will elucidate various rehabilitation methods in urology to further increase our understanding of the rehabil-itative characteristics of urology and widen our view of rehabilitation medicine.


Original Article


Late starting treadmill exercise improves spatial leaning ability through suppressing CREP/BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway following traumatic brain injury in rats

Il-Gyu Ko, Sung-Eun Kim, Lakkyong Hwang, Jun-Jang Jin, Chang-Ju Kim, Bo-Kyun Kim, Hong Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.327-334

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Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes deficit in spatial learning and mem-ory function. Physical activity ameliorates neurological dysfunction af-ter TBI. We investigated the effect of late starting treadmill exercise on spatial learning ability in relation with cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB)/brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling pathway using TBI rats. For this study, radial 8-arm maze test, TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end label-ing) staining, caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, BDNF, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), CREB, and phosphorylated CREP (p-CREB) were performed. TBI was induced by an electromag-netic-controlled cortical impact. The rats in the exercise groups were scheduled to run on a treadmill for 30 min once a day for 8 weeks start-ing 3 weeks after TBI. TBI impaired spatial learning ability and in-creased caspase-3 expression in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. TBI enhanced Bax expression and suppressed Bcl-2 expression in the hip-pocampus. TBI increased BDNF and TrkB expressions, resulted in the enhancement of p-CREB/CREB ratio in the hippocampus. However, treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability, decreased caspase-3 expression, suppressed Bax expression, and increased Bcl-2 expression. Treadmill exercise alleviated TBI-induced over-expres-sion of BDNF and TrkB, which suppressed phosphorylation of CREB in the hippocampus. In the present study, late starting treadmill exercise improved spatial learning ability through suppressing TBI-induced acti-vation of CREB/BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway after TBI.



Treadmill exercise with bone marrow stromal cells transplantation facilitates neuroprotective effect through BDNF-ERK1/2 pathway in spinal cord injury rats

You-Mi Kim, Jun-Jang Jin, Sam-Jun Lee, Tae-Beom Seo, Eun-Sang Ji

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.335-340

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Transplantation of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) has been known as one of the effective therapeutic methods for functional recov-ery of spinal cord injury (SCI). Treadmill exercise also facilitates the functional recovery of SCI. Previously, we reported that combination of BMSCs transplantation with treadmill exercise potentiated the locomo-tor function in SCI rats. In the present study, we investigated whether recovery effect of BMSCs transplantation or treadmill exercise appears through the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-extracellular sig-nal–regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathway. The spinal cord contusion injury was performed at the T9-T10 level using the impactor. Cultured BMSCs were transplanted directly into the lesion 1 week after SCI. Treadmill exercise was performed 6 days per a week for 6 weeks. Western blot for Bax, Bcl-2, BDNF, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), and phos-phorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), phosphorylated JNK was performed. In the present results, combination of BMSCs transplantation with tread-mill exercise potently decreased Bax expression, potently increased Bcl-2 expression, and potently enhanced BDNF and TrkB expressions in the injured spinal cord. Combination of BMSCs transplantation with treadmill exercise further facilitated p-ERK1/2 and p-c-Jun expression levels. The present findings demonstrated the synergistic effect of treadmill exercise on neuroregenerative effect of BMSCs transplanta-tion appeared through the activation of BDNF-ERK1/2 pathway in SCI.



Simulated altitude exercise training damages small intestinal mucosa barrier in the rats

Meng Li, Tianyu Han, Weijia Zhang, Wei Li, Yang Hu, Sang Ki Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.341-348

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This study investigated the effect of simulated altitude training on the changes of small intestinal mucosa barrier, bacterial overgrowth and inflammatory response in the small intestine of rat. Male 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal oxygen sedentary group (n=30), normal oxygen exercise group (n=30), low oxygen sedentary group (n=30) and low oxygen exercise group (n=30). Exercise training was on a treadmill for 1 hr per day on days 3, 6, and 9 in the hypoxia condition. Hematological profiles, hematolxylin and eosin staining, fluorescence in situ hybridization, reverse transcrip-tion-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot were used to analyze the effect of simulated altitude training on the amount of bacteria, and expression of mRNA and protein. Simulated exercise training signifi-cantly increased red blood cells and hematocrit. The small intestinal mucosa barrier was significantly injured by the simulated altitude exer-cise training. Comparatively more bacterial growth was evident in the small intestine by the simulated altitude exercise training. mRNA levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and pro-tein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) were significantly el-evated by simulated altitude exercise training. These results suggest that the simulated altitude exercise training may impair the small intes-tinal mucosa barrier via elevation of bacterial growth and inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and the up-regulation of NF-κB in the rats.



Relationship between attention and balance : a dual-task condition study in children

Vanesa Abuin-Porras

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.349-355

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This study explored the relationship between motor functions and at-tention in children aged 4–5 years. A sample of 85 children was collect-ed from a primary school (44 boys and 41 girls). We applied a standard-ized continuous attention performance test, the Kiddie Continuous Per-formance Test, under two conditions (sitting and balancing). Data were collected from two standardized balance tests, the Battelle and Pediat-ric Balance Scale. There was a significant relationship between atten-tion and balance and gender differences that may condition the way to address balance issues in boys and girls. Gender should be considered when addressing balance problems to get efficient interventions. Bal-ance skill may be a contributing factor in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.



The effectiveness on sociality and social relationship by therapeutic recreation based on partner and group activity in the institutionalized elderly

Hyunna Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.356-360

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This research examined the effects on sociality and social relationship of therapeutic recreation program (TRP) based on partner and group activity in the institutionalized elderly as the level of psycho-social reha-bilitations. TRP sessions were designed to encourage interaction and social relationship between two people or groups performing different types of tasks applied on Mosey’s 5-step interaction skills. TRP was conducted for a total of 8 sessions, once a week, for 8 weeks. Using a pre-post experimental design, eight volunteer’s data were analyzed to examine changes in sociality and social relationship. As the result, the degree of sociality was significantly changed from 3.14 to 3.73 (P= 0.002), as well as notable improvements of social relationships were found to have statistically increased from 3.27 to 4.10 (P=0.001). There-fore, this study suggests that partner and group-based recreation pro-grams while considering how and when facilitate interaction between participants should be applied as a way to solve the social problems and isolation of the elderly in the future.



The effect of the type of physical activity on the perceived stress level in people with activity limitations

Kyo-Man Koo, Chun-Jong Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.361-366

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of the type of physical activity that people with activity limitations participate in on their perceived stress level. We analyzed the data of the Korean Na-tional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) conducted annually from 2007 to 2015. The subjects of the study were adults aged 19 or older who had activity limitations. The data analysis was done us-ing the SPSS ver. 18.0 program, and complex sampling design frequen-cies analysis and logistic regression analysis were conducted. The sta-tistical significance level was set at P<0.05. The results of this study are as follows: First, in the case of males with activity limitations, the odds ratio (OR) for the perceived stress level for those who participated in walking exercise compared to those who did not was 0.707 (95% confi-dence interval [CI], 0.535–0.934; P<0.05). Second, for males with activity limitations, the OR for the perceived stress level for those who partici-pated in walking exercise for 5 days or more compared to the nonpar-ticipation group was 0.630 (95% CI, 0.472–0.841; P<0.05). Third, for fe-males with activity limitations, the OR for the perceived stress level for those who participated in flexibility exercise compared to those who did not was 0.869 (95% CI, 0.727–1.039; P<0.05). Fourth, for females with activity limitations, the OR for the perceived stress level for those who participated in flexibility exercise for 5 days or more compared to the nonparticipation group was 0.672 (95% CI, 0.539–0.838; P<0.05).



Applications of psychological skills training for Paralympic table tennis athletes

Tae-Hee Lim, Chang-Yong Jang, David O’Sullivan, Hyunkyoung Oh

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.367-374

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This study examined effects of psychological skills training (PST) for Korean national table tennis athletes with spinal cord injuries (SCI), who were training for the 2012 London Paralympics. Participants were three male table tennis players with level two SCI, and all participants attend-ed a total of eight sessions of PST over a period of 3 months. The PST consisted of self-talk, imagery, cognitive reconstructing, and routine. To examine the effectiveness of mental coaching, the Test of Performance Strategies questionnaire was administered over three different periods of time: pre-PST, post-PST, and postcompetition. Pre- and posttest out-comes indicated that there were positive changes in self-talk, emotion-al control, and goal setting of athletes with SCI. With the exception of relaxation, Athlete 1 was able to maintain and use all of the improved mental skills in Paralympic competitions. However, although the mental skills of the athletes 2 and 3 generally improved, they were not able to take full advantage of these improvements in Paralympic competitions. PST can be developed and effectively utilized by athletes with SCI. Dis-ability-specific issues should be considered to provide a better inter-vention program.



Progressive muscle relaxation technique on anxiety and depression among persons affected by leprosy

Senthilkumar Ramasamy, Suganya Panneerselvam, Pitchaimani Govindharaj, Archana Kumar, Rashmi Nayak

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.375-381

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Anxiety and depression have been found to be increasing among peo-ple with leprosy and it may lead to decreased social participation. The progressive muscle relaxation technique (PMRT) is widely used today in choice of treatment for reducing the anxiety and depression. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of PMRT in reducing anxiety and depression among the hospitalized leprosy affected person in a tertiary care centre. This study is a case series of 50 leprosy affected people aged between 18–60 years who were admitted for leprosy com-plications in tertiary leprosy referral hospital. The Anxiety-Depression scale was developed and validated by the investigators and adminis-tered before intervention of PMRT and after 2 weeks. The follow-up as-sessment was done at 6 weeks after the initial intervention. The finding shows that a statistically significant difference was observed on anxiety domain before and after application of PMRT. The anxiety means score showed steady decline from 6.76 at pretest to 3.0 (t=25.068, P≤0.001) at post test and 1.12 (t=22.679, P≤0.001) at follow-up. In depression do-main, a statistically significant difference was seen in before and after application of PMRT. The depression means score showed steady de-cline from 6.92 at pre test to 3.28 (t=16.082, P≤0.001) at post test and to 1.16 (t=18.918, P≤0.001) at follow-up. This study proved that the PMRT as a valid treatment option for hospitalized person with leprosy in mini-mizing the anxiety and depression related symptoms and to benefit the psychosocial wellbeing of leprosy affected patients.



The influence of environmental constraints within hospitals on physical activity level of cancer patients

Ik Young Chang, Eun-Surk Yi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.382-386

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This study aims to examine the influence of hospital environmental con-straints on physical activity level of cancer patients. The subjects of this study were 194 cancer patients from five general hospitals in the Seoul metropolitan area (Seoul, Gyeonggi-do, and Incheon). The collected data was analyzed by using SPSS ver. 23.0. As a result of analyzing the effect of environmental constraints on the physical activity level of can-cer patients, the constraints related to hospital facilities and programs had no effect on patients’ time spent in a hospital bed and their time spent on daily. However, the time cancer patients spend on intentional physical movements is affected by hospital facilities or programs. This means that hospital facilities or programs play an important role in pa-tients’ intentional physical activities. In conclusion, for hospitalized can-cer patients, physical activity levels are influenced by environmental constraints in the hospital. Therefore, it is important to improve the hos-pital environment to increase physical activities such as walking and physical exercise, which are an important factor for cancer recovery and prevention of recurrence.



Factors associated with physical activity of women aged over 75 in South Korea

Soon-Rim Suh, Young-Mi Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.387-393

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Physical activity (PA) and the activity-related factors of aged women dwelling in a city community of Korea were examined for 253 partici-pants aged over 75, regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, health status, physical performance, depression, cognitive function, self-efficacy, outcome expectations, and PA. Descriptive statistics, analysis of covariance, Pearson correlation, and multiple regressions were performed to analyze cross-sectional data. The data indicated the participants carry out low-intensity physical activities, such as house chores, light gardening, and walking for pleasure. Moderate and vigor-ous-intensity physical activities were performed rare. The frequency per week was 15.62±8.60 for all listed activities. Frequency of PA de-creased significantly in participants aged over 80, of poor perceived health, depression, and cognitive decline. There was a negative cor-relation between PA and the figure 8 walks (r=-0.20, P=0.002). PA showed significantly positive correlation with self-efficacy (r=0.34, P=0.001) and outcome expectations (r=0.36, P=0.001). In a regression analysis, explanation rate of factors influencing PA was 21.9% (P= 0.001). Outcome expectations (β=0.23), cognitive function (β=-0.20), and self-efficacy (β=0.19) influenced the PA. These findings indicate that interventions stimulating cognitive function and enhancing positive expectation and self-confidence should be included for PA promotion of older women aged 75 years and over.



Meta-analysis on the effect of combined exercise program intervention on Korean middle-aged women

Dal-Com Moon

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.394-398

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The purpose of this study is to present a basis of application of an exer-cise program through a systematic analysis of the effect of combined exercise program for middle-aged women using meta-analysis. It ap-pears that the overall effect size (0.606) of the combined exercise pro-gram was positive for improving physical strength and physiological function. The physiologically related variables showed an effect size which is equal to or greater than a middle level. This may be an objec-tive basis to prove that the combined exercise program is an effective intervention method to overcome loss of functions and weakened func-tions by improving physical strength and preventing reduction of hor-mones. The combined exercise program was found to be most effective when it was conducted two times a week; for over 1 hr and 30 min to 2 hr; and at intensity of 40% or more for an 8-week period. As the com-bined exercise program showed an effect of a middle level or higher for all the middle-aged women in their age of 40 to 65, it appeared that this exercise program is very effective for middle-aged women. The results of this study suggest that the combined exercise program for mid-dle-aged women is a very effective intervention method. This study can reduce inefficiencies of overly redundant studies regarding an effect of an exercise program, and can be grounds for the basic work for the in-tegrated classification of the physiological variables.



Postexercise hypotension and autonomic modulation response after full versus split body resistance exercise in trained men

Marcelo Conrado de Freitas, Ana Laura Ricci-Vitor, Giovanni Henrique Quizzini, João Vitor N. S. de Oliveira, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei, Fabio Santos Lira, Fabrício Eduardo Rossi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.399-406

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To investigate the effects of full versus split body resistance exercise on postexercise hypotension and autonomic modulation in trained men. Sixteen resistance recreationally trained males (age, 24.9±5.3 years) performed three randomized trials: upper body (UB), lower body (LB), and full body (FB) conditions. Blood pressure and heart rate variability were collected at rest, immediately postexercise, post-10, and post-30 min during recovery. For systolic blood pressure, delta (30 min minus rest) was lower for the FB condition compared to the UB (-10.1±7.4 mmHg [FB] vs. -3.3±12.6 mmHg [LB] vs. -1.9±8.1 mmHg [UB], P=0.004). For diastolic blood pressure (-8.2±10.9 mmHg [FB] vs. -1.5±9.8 mmHg [LB] vs. -8.7±11.4 mmHg [UB], P=0.038) and mean blood pressure delta during recovery (-11.7±14 mmHg [FB] vs. -2.2±10.6 mmHg [LB] vs. -5.2±6.8 mmHg [UB], P=0.045), there were statistically significant lower values in the FB condition in relation to the LB condition. Regarding heart rate variability, there were no significant differences between conditions, however, the square root of the mean squared difference between adjacent RR intervals presented an increase until post-30 during recovery (P<0.001), and there was a higher values of low fre-quency and lower values of high frequency across time (P<0.001). Postexercise hypotension was influenced by the amount of muscle mass involved in a bout of resistance exercise, with the FB condition in-ducing lower systolic blood pressure in relation to the UB after exer-cise, as well as a great decrease in postexercise diastolic and mean blood pressure compared with the LB. The autonomic modulation re-sponse was similar between conditions during recovery.



An analysis of the characteristics of sports activities and injury experiences of leisure sports participants

Jong-Soon Kim, Hye-Sang Park, Sae-Sook Oh

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.407-412

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The purpose of this study is to analyze exercise injury experiences of sports participants and the characteristics of sporting activities de-pending on whether they have injured or not. The subjects of this study included the 107 people who have experienced exercise injuries and the 103 people who have not have experienced exercise injuries with aged between the 20s and 40s. The questionnaire with household inter-views was used for this research. The results of this study that the fe-male participants who have experienced an injury while exercise was outnumbered by their male counterparts and it is found that sports par-ticipants in their 40s represented the highest ratio and that the two most popular sports the participants who have experienced injury did were body-building and golf. It has been surveyed that the number of hospital care due to exercise injury per year is 2.01 times on average and the amount of money spent on the medical care is 34,252 Korean won on average. It is identified that the level of sports activities that keeping health and perception by the impact of sports activities depending on the participants’ exercise injured. It is worthy of notice that those who have experienced exercise injuries tended to show a high level of con-fidence in which they could benefit from sports activity. In addition, it is interesting to note that bodybuilding and golf were the two sports with a great number of exercise injuries.



Determination of the relationship between core endurance and isokinetic muscle strength of elite athletes

Tuğba Kocahan, Bihter Akınoğlu

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.413-418

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Muscle strength and core endurance are both factors contributing to athletes’ performance and prevalence of injuries. There are no studies indicating the relationship between muscle strength around the shoul-der and knee joints and core endurance.The aim of our study is to de-termine the relationship between core endurance and isokinetic mus-cle strength of knees and shoulders of elite athletes. Seventy-one elite athletes (weight lifting, boxing, taekwondo, biathlon, and ice skating) (age, 18.13±2.9 years) were included in the study. Isokinetic muscle strength of shoulder internal-external rotation and knee flexion-exten-sion were determined by using an Isomed 2000 device. Core endurance of athletes was assessed using the Mcgill Core Endurance Tests. There was a relationship between the shoulder internal rotation and external rotation peak torque/body weight (PT/W) and all endurance tests ex-cept extension endurance tests. There was also a relationship between knee flexion PT/W and all core endurance tests. While there was a re-lationship between knee extension PT/W and extension endurance and the lateral bridge test, this relationship was not found with the flexor en-durance test. These results indicate that the upper and lower extremity muscle strength and core endurance of athletes are related with each other and must be evaluated and trained as a whole with each other.



The difference effect of estrogen on muscle tone of medial and lateral thigh muscle during ovulation

Eun-Sook Sung, Jung-Hyun Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.419-423

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference effect of es-trogen on muscle tone of medial and lateral thigh muscle during ovula-tion (OV). Twenty-eight untrained eumenorrheic healthy women tested muscle stiffness and frequency of vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, semitendinosus, and biceps femoris during menstrual cycle (MC). MC were divided into menses (MS), OV, and luteal phase (LP). The muscle frequency of vastus medialis and semitendinosus were significant high-er in OV (13.83±1.58 Hz, 15.62±2.39 Hz) than LP (13.18±0.85 Hz, 14.67± 1.62 Hz). Also the muscle stiffness of vastus medialis and semitendino-sus were significant higher in OV (211.74±46.03 N/m, 241.95±48.35 N/m) than LP (184.26±26.09 N/m, 215.42±35.29 N/m). The present study showed the highest muscle stiffness and frequency at OV and this might be due to the rapid increase of sole hormone in estrogen. Especially, medial part of quadriceps and hamstrings might be influenced during the MC with high concentration of estrogen at OV.



Comparative kinematic analysis of the baseball pitching motions of high school athletes in relation to pitching conditions

Sang-Jin Yoon, Kazunori Irie, Dae-Young Kim, Tae-Jin Park

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.424-429

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To analyze changes in pitching motions in relation to pitching conditions during practice versus game comparatively, seven high school over-throwing pitchers served as subjects in this study, who then performed pitches in various conditions. Data were processed using the statistical analysis program SPSS 21.0, and the moving distances and angles of the joints at the point of ball release were analyzed using repeated measurements one-way analysis of variance, followed by Bonferroni post hoc tests. Statistical significance was determined at P<0.05, and the following conclusion was obtained. According to the pitching con-ditions, the elbow joint was lengthened, and the torso leaned towards the nonpitching arm during pitching. Further, the pitching stride in-creased, causing the forward transfer of the landing foot and the pitch-ing hand. Based on these observations, it is important to establish a pitching training method that minimizes inconsistency in pitching mo-tions by simulating game-like conditions during pitching practices and developing various training programs. Further investigation is required for a comprehensive mechanical analysis of muscle usage and damage in pitching motions in relation to various pitching conditions.



Changes in lower extremity function and pitching performance with increasing numbers of pitches in baseball pitchers

Osamu Yanagisawa, Hidenori Taniguchi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.430-436

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Compared to upper extremity function, the changes in lower extremity function with increasing numbers of pitches have not fully been investi-gated in baseball pitchers. In addition, little is known about the correla-tion between lower extremity function and pitching performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of fatigue on lower ex-tremity function and pitching performance in a simulated baseball game. Eighteen collegiate baseball pitchers threw 117 pitches in 9 in-nings (13 pitches per inning) with 5-min rest between innings at an offi-cial pitching distance in a simulated game. Isometric hip muscle strength (abduction and adduction) and squat jump performance (height, mean/peak power, and mean/peak velocity) were measured before and after the game. The mean ball velocity and pitching accura-cy were assessed per inning. Ball velocity significantly decreased in the 7th (P=0.026) and 9th (P=0.001) innings compared to the 1st inning, but pitching accuracy did not change significantly. Hip abduction (P=0.009) and adduction (P=0.001) strength significantly decreased af-ter the game, but squat jump performance did not significantly change before and after the game. A significant correlation between decreased ball velocity in the 9th inning and decreased hip adduction strength was found (P=0.011, r=0.583). Our findings suggest that hip abduction and adduction strength are susceptible to fatigue owing to repetitive throw-ing motions and that hip adduction strength, especially, is an important physical fitness factor for maintaining ball velocity during a game in baseball pitchers.



Effects of weighted baseball throwing during warm-up on ball velocity and upper extremity muscle activation in baseball pitchers

Yun-A Shin, Won-Ho Choi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.436-444

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The objective of this study was to investigate the changes in the muscle activation of high school and college baseball pitchers during throwing of the ball with maximum effort (TBME) using a regular baseball (RB) subsequent to using a light baseball (LB), RB, and overweight baseball (OB) during warm-up (WU) and the resulting changes in the pitch ve-locity. The study aimed to use the findings in providing basic data for a training program designed to increase the pitch velocity of baseball pitchers. The study population consisted of 12 high school and college baseball players. The study measured and analyzed the upper extremity muscle activation and ball velocity in the stride, arm cocking, and ac-celeration phases during TBME using an RB subsequent to using an LB, RB, and OB during WU. During WU, the ball velocity was higher when pitching with an LB than with an RB or OB and when pitching with an RB than with an OB. However, there were no significant differ-ences in the ball velocity when pitching with an RB during TBME. In conclusion, WU using weighted baseballs resulted in varying muscle activations, and although the velocity decreased when pitching with an OB, no difference was found during TBME using an RB. Therefore, it is believed that using weighted baseballs during WU does not have an ef-fect on the ball velocity during TBME; future studies are needed on the effects through long-term training.



Effect of hip position and breathing pattern on abdominal muscle activation during curl-up variations

Soo-Han Kim, Se-Yeon Park

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.445-450

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Recent studies have indicated that applying different breathing pattern and changes of extremity positions could be a useful way of performing challenging exercises that include coactivation of the abdominal mus-cles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of changes of breathing pattern and hip position on abdominal muscle activity during curl-up exercises. Surface electromyography responses of the rectus abdominis (RA), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) muscles and rectus femoris (RF), and Borg rating of perceived exertion (Borg RPE) score were investigated during the curl up exercises. A total of 20 healthy, physically active male volunteers completed two hip positions (45° and 90° hip flexion) and three breath types (slow expiration, maxi-mal inspiration, and maximal expiration) for curl-up variations. The curl-up with 90° of hip flexion significantly increased the muscular activities of IO, EO, RF, and Borg RPE score (P<0.05). The curl-up with maximal expiration significantly elevated the IO and EO activity, compared to other breathing conditions. There were no significant difference in RA activities (P>0.05). The present study showed both the hip position and breathing pattern affect abdominal muscle activities during the curl-up exercise, especially of the oblique muscles. Among the breathing pat-terns investigated herein, the curl-up with maximum expiration pro-duced greater activation of the oblique muscles compared to slow ex-piration and maximum inspiration.



Skin temperature changes during muscular static stretching exercise

Ulysses Franco de Oliveira, Laís Caldas de Araújo, Palloma Rodrigues de Andrade, Heleodório Honorato dos Santos, Danilo Gomes Moreira, Manuel Sillero-Quintana, José Jamacy de Almeida Ferreira

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.451-459

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This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of stretching exercise on skin temperature, flexibility, passive muscle stiffness, and pain during hamstring stretching in healthy young subjects. Thirty-one participants (n=31) were randomly divided into 2 groups: an experimental group (EG, n=15), which was submitted to hamstring stretching exercise for 180 sec, and the control group (n=16), which was not exercised. Skin tem-perature (TsK) was collected in subjects’ posterior thigh using a ther-mographic camera at 7 time points with intervals of 30 sec each: T0 (rest), T30, T60, T90, T120, T150, and T180. In addition, the knee range of motion, passive stiffness and muscle soreness (visual analogue scale) were recorded during the stretching procedure at the same times. The EG presented a small but progressive increase in TsK (30.8˚C±0.6˚C to 31.1˚C±0.6˚C, P<0.01), with an increased range of motion (P<0.01) and muscle soreness levels (P<0.01) during the gradual hamstring stretch-ing protocol. Additionally, there was an increment of passive stiffness (P<0.01) that was partially reversed toward the end of the stretching period. This research presents evidence that constant, passive and progressive stretching of the hamstrings progressively increased the local TsK by about 0.3˚C after 180 sec of stretching. These findings may help to understand the effects of repeated stress on the muscle-tendon unit and the role of muscle stretching in warm-up protocols and reha-bilitation.



Effect of circuit training on body composition, physical fitness, and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese female college students

Ji-Woon Kim, Yeong-Chan Ko, Tae-Beom Seo, Young-Pyo Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.460-465

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a 12-week cir-cuit training program on health-related physical fitness and metabolic syndrome risk factors in obese female college students. Twenty sub-jects with over 30% of accumulated body fat voluntarily participated and were randomly allocated to the control group (n=10) or circuit training group (n=10). The circuit training program consisted of 10 types of resistance and aerobic exercise and was performed 3 times per week for 12 weeks. Health-related physical fitness and metabolic syn-drome risk factors were analyzed to elucidate the effect of the circuit training. Significant differences between groups were determined with two-way repeated analysis of variance and paired t-test. As a result of this study, body weight, % body fat, and body mass index in the circuit training group was significantly decreased compared to the control group. All health-related physical fitness indicators such as back strength, sit-up, sit-and-reach, and 1,600 m running time showed rela-tive effects between groups or over time. Among the metabolic syn-drome risk factors, waist measurement, triglyceride, and total choles-terol were significantly decreased but blood glucose, high-density lipo-protein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol did not show any significant difference. Therefore, the present data suggested that circuit training for 12 weeks may be effective in improving physical fit-ness and preventing metabolic diseases.



Wushu Nanquan training is effective in preventing obesity and improving heart function in youth

Jun-Youl Cha, Yong-Seok Jee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.466-472

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This study examined the differences of heart rate (HR) and body com-position in elementary students who practiced two different styles of Wushu: Nanquan (NQ) and Changquan (CQ). A total of 40 subjects be-tween the ages of 8 and 12 participated in this study who were grouped into NQ (n=20) and CQ (n=17). The results showed that the decreased body weight, increased basal metabolic rate, and higher physical effi-ciency index were due to the higher real-time HRs of NQ training com-pared with those of CQ training from 25 to 40 sec. Therefore, this study confirmed that Wushu NQ training can help to prevent obesity and im-prove heart function in elementary students.



Effectiveness of combined and conventional exercise trainings on the biochemical responses of stroke patients

Isaac Kwaku Acheampong, Monday Omoniyi Moses, Biggie Baffour-Awuah, Ebenezer Essaw, Winifred Mensah, Daniel Afrifa, Lemuel Owusu

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.473-480

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Stroke is the topmost cause of mortality and disability in Ghana. Conventional exercise is mostly used aside pharmacological management technique but the complimentary effects of combined exercise training (CET) have not been reported. This study investigated the effectiveness of combined and conventional exercise trainings on lipid-cardiovascular profiles and body composition among stroke patients in Kumasi. Thirteen stroke survivors between ages 35–68 years (mean± standard deviation: age, 59.88± 10.88 years; duration of illness, 18.11± 7.72 years) participated in the study. Participants were randomly assigned to CET and conventional exercise group. The CET had 10 weeks of 3 types of exercise trainings, 3 days/wk; conventional exercise group monitored for daily conventional activities during the same period. Post weight (P= 0.003), body mass index (P= 0.004), systolic blood pressure (P= 0.022), diastolic blood pressure (P= 0.004), heart rate (P= 0.003), and total cholesterol (P= 0.044) of the CET were significantly improved. CET significantly improved total cholesterol (P= 0.005) and low-density lipoprotein (P= 0.006) better than the conventional exercises. Effectiveness of CET to positively enhance biochemical responses in the management of strove patients was established.



A study on the characteristics of standing posture of elderly women with sarcopenia in Korea

Min-Jeong Kim, Tae-Young Kim, Yeon-A Choi, Ji-Hyoung Chin, Shin-Young Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.481-488

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This study intended to analyze the characteristics of standing posture and factors related to sarcopenia of elderly women in Korea to provide basic data for the development of rehabilitation programs designed to prevent and control of the sarcopenia of elderly women. A total of 194 elderly women, aged over 65 years old, living in Gyeonggi-do, were se-lected to diagnose the presence of sarcopenia through bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and muscle function test (gait speed and grip strength). The subjects were then distinguished into normal group (NG=92), presarcopenia group (PG=86), and sarcopenia group (SG=16); the standing posture of elderly women was captured with the three-dimensional (3D) imaging technique (PA200), and an analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out for the collected data through IBM SPSS Statistics ver. 23.0. The frontal measurements of standing posture, the pelvic level, R-patella center, and L-patella center, appeared with significant differences from each other whereas, the side measure-ments of standing posture, the R-earhole position, L-earhole position, R-shoulder position, L-shoulder position, R-pelvic angle, L-pelvic angle, R-knee position, and L-knee position, were also found with significant differences from each other. As a consequence, an intervention to be focusing on obese control was found necessary to prevent or to delay the presence of sarcopenia of elderly women. The positional displace-ment found from head, knee, and pelvis also necessitates the introduc-tion of rehabilitation program customized for elderly women suffering the sarcopenia.



Synaptophysin and caspase-3 expression on lumbar segments of spinal cord after sensorimotor restriction during early postnatal period and treadmill training

Felipe Stigger, Silvia Barbosa, Marília Rossato Marques, Ethiane Segabinazi, Otávio Américo Augustin, Matilde Achaval, Simone Marcuzzo

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.489-496

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The purpose of the current study was to investigate whether locomotor stimulation training could have beneficial effects on spinal cord plastici-ty consequent to sensorimotor restriction (SR). Male Wistar rats were exposed to SR from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P28. Control and experimen-tal rats underwent locomotor stimulation training in a treadmill from P31 to P52. The intensity of the synaptophysin and caspase-3 immunoreac-tion was determined on ventral horn of spinal cord. The synaptophysin immunoreactivity was lower in the ventral horn of sensorimotor restrict-ed rats compared to controls animals and was accompanied by an in-creased caspase-3 immunoreactivity. Those alterations were reversed at the end of the training period. Our results suggest that immobility af-fects the normal developmental process that spinal cord undergoes in early postnatal life influencing both pro-apoptotic and synapse markers. Also, we demonstrated that this phenomenon was reversed by 3 weeks of treadmill training.



Potential for foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis according to the shape of the foot arch in young adults

Se-Yeon Park, Hyun-Seok Bang, Du-Jin Park

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.497-502

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This study investigated potential for foot dysfunction and plantar fasci-itis according to the shape of the foot arch in young adults. Fifty-two participants were required for the present study design to achieve 80% power, 0.8 effect size (η2), and an alpha level of 0.05. This study recruited 52 young adults (30 men and 22 women). All participants voluntarily agreed to participate in the study after hearing explanations about the purpose and process of the study. They were divided into two groups of 26 according to the shape of foot with and without flat foot using the navicular drop test. The participants were measured the foot function index (FFI), range of motion (ROM) of ankle, and four-way ankle strength. Additionally, the thickness of the plantar fascia was measured using ul-trasonography. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was used to veri-fy the inter- and intrarater reliability of ultrasonography. The inter- and intrarater reliability was excellent (ICC2,1=0.88, ICC3,1=0.93). There were significant differences in dorsi-flexion of ankle ROM, FFI, dorsi- flexion and eversion of ankle strength, and the thickness of the plantar fascia between the two groups (P<0.05). Based on the results, the group with flat foot may gradually generate potential of the foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis. Therefore, the interventions are necessary to improve the foot dysfunction and plantar fasciitis in people with flat foot.



Ipsilateral proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation patterns improve overflow and reduce foot drop in patients with demyelinating polyneuropathy

Carolina S. Nakada, Paula C. Meningroni, Ana Claudia Silva Ferreira, Luciana Hata, Amanda C. Fuzaro, Wilson Marques Júnior, João Eduardo de Araujo

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.503-508

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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the response of the tibialis anterior muscle (TAm) using surface electromyography in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT-IA), after ipsilateral proprioceptive neuromuscular patterns (PNF). Thirteen CMT-IA patients (both sexes) were treated twice a week, for 5 weeks, with bilateral PNF pattern, four times per treatment. During the execution of the patterns, we recorded the bilateral activation of the TAm in root mean square (RMS). We used the Student paired t-test for the first and last treatments, P-value set at < 0.05. Clinical significance (CS) was obtained by subtracting the values of the first treatment from the last. Chopping pattern to the right side increased RMS for the right (t= -3.52, CS= 52%), but not the left TAm (t= -3.35). Flexion-abduction with external rotation pattern to the right (t= -2.46, CS= 55%) and left (t= -2.07, CS= 53%) significantly increased RMS for TAm on both sides. Extension-adduction with internal rotation pattern to the right (t= -0.25) and left (t= -1.84) did not produce any changes in TAm. Ipsilateral PNF patterns selectively produce TAm overflow in peripheral polyneuropathy patients and can be successfully used as supportive therapy for foot drop.



Neck pain and low back pain in relation to functional disability in different sport activities

Farzin Farahbakhsh, Maryam Akbari-Fakhrabadi, Ardalan Shariat, Joshua A. Cleland, Farbod Farahbakhsh, Tohid Seif-Barghi, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Mohsen Rostami, Ramin Kordi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.14 No.3 2018.06 pp.509-515

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This population-based, cross-sectional study aimed to determine the frequency of neck pain, low back pain (LBP) and also the LBP related functional disability in five sport categories including football, volleyball, basketball, wrestling, and other sports in one of the Iranian sport Olym-piads. The prevalence of neck pain and LBP in different time points was evaluated with the use of an interview questionnaire. A visual analogue scale was used to evaluate the athlete’s current pain. Furthermore, the functional disability related to LBP was assessed by the Athletes Dis-ability Index Questionnaire (ADI). A total of 452 male athletes aging be-tween 12 and 20 were screened. Three hundred seventy-seven partici-pants responded to the questionnaires in which their mean age (stan-dard deviation) was 15.95 (1.25). Collectively, the life-time prevalence of neck pain and LBP in all the athletes was 38.8% and 42.0%, respectively. The highest risk of neck pain at all-time points was observed among basketball players compared to other sport groups (P<0.05). The risk of LBP in most time points was the least among wrestlers (P<0.05). The ADI score was significantly higher among basketball players (13.89%) compared to volleyball players and wrestlers (P<0.05). Our study re-vealed a high prevalence of neck pain and LBP among Iranian young male athletes. A higher risk of neck pain and LBP among basketball players predisposes this sport at high risk of developing spine injuries which needs further consideration.


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