JER [Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국운동재활학회 [Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
  • 주제분류
    의약학 > 재활의학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 514.03 DDC 617.03
Vol.13 No.5 (16건)



Research and publication ethics of the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation

Chang-Ju Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 p.501

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Review Article


Skeletal muscle contraction-induced vasodilation in the microcirculation

Kwang-Seok Hong, Kijeong Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.502-507

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Maximal whole body exercise leads skeletal muscle blood flow to markedly increase to match metabolic demands, a phenomenon termed exercise hyperaemia that is accomplished by increasing vaso-dilation. However, local vasodilatory mechanisms in response to skele-tal muscle contraction remain uncertain. This review highlights meta-bolic vasodilators released from contracting skeletal muscle, endotheli-um, or blood cells. As a considerable skeletal muscle vasodilation po-tentially results in hypotension, sympathetic nerve activity needs to be augmented to elevate cardiac output and blood pressure during dy-namic exercise. However, since the enhanced sympathetic vasocon-striction restrains skeletal muscle blood flow, intramuscular arteries have an indispensable ability to blunt sympathetic activity for exercise hyperaemia. In addition, we discuss that mechanical compression of the intramuscular vasculature contributes to causing the initial phase of increasing vasodilation following a single muscle contraction. We have also chosen to focus on conducted (or ascending) electrical signals that evoke vasodilation of proximal feed arteries to elevate blood flow in the microcirculation of skeletal muscle. Endothelial hyperpolarization originating within distal arterioles ascends into the proximal feed arter-ies, thereby increasing total blood flow in contracting skeletal muscle. This brief review summarizes molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow to a single or sustained muscle contraction.


Original Article


Effect of acute and chronic exercise on plasma matrix metalloproteinase and total antioxidant levels

Melek Tunc-Ata, Mukaddes Mergen-Dalyanoglu, Sebahat Turgut, Günfer Turgut

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.508-513

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The relationship between acute and chronic exercise and expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in muscles is unknown. There happen some alterations in the oxidant-antioxidant balance due to ex-ercise. This study aimed to investigate the levels of MMP-1, tissue in-hibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1), hyaluronic acid (HA), total anti-oxidant status (TAS), and total oxidant status (TOS) following acute and chronic exercising in rats. Twenty-six Wistar Albino male rats were di-vided in to three groups: control, acute, and chronic groups. In acute group, treadmill exercise was performed 3 days/wk, 10 min/day for 1 week. In chronic group, exercise performed 7 days/wk, 60 min/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the experiment, plasma MMP-1, TIMP-1, HA, TAS, and TOS levels were measured. In current study, the MMP-1, TIMP-1, HA, and TOS levels not observed statistically significant difference among all groups, but in chronic group, there was a significantly differ-ence (P<0.05) between the control and experimental groups in terms of TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI) levels. TAS, TOS, and OSI levels were significantly different between control and chronic exercise group (P<0.01, P<0.05, and P<0.01, respectively). According to these results, we can say acute and chronic exercise does not effect on plasma MMP-1, TIMP-1, and HA levels.



The effect of maternal forced exercise on offspring pain perception, motor activity and anxiety disorder: the role of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors and CREB gene expression

Ozra Motaghinejad, Majid Motaghinejad, Manijeh Motevalian, Fatemeh Rahimi-Sharbaf, Tabassom Beiranvand

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.514-525

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The effect of maternal forced exercise on central disorders in offsprings has been shown but the mechanism is still unclear. In this study, the role of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors in neuroprotective effects of maternal forced exercise on offspring neurodevelopment and neurobehavioral symptoms is evaluated. Sixty pregnant rats were trained by forced ex-ercise and some behavioral and molecular aspects in their offspring were evaluated in presence of 5-HT2 and D2 receptors agonists and an-tagonists. The results showed that maternal forced exercise causes in-crease of pain tolerability and increase latency of pain perception in offspring in hot plate test, writhing test and tail flick test. Also maternal forced exercise causes decrease of depression and anxiety like behav-ior in offsprings. On the other hand, treatment of mothers by forced ex-ercise in combination with 5-HT2 and D2 receptor antagonists inhibited the protective effects of forced exercise and cause disturbance in pain perception and tolerability and increase depression and anxiety in off-springs. Also expression of cyclic AMP response element binding pro-tein (CREB) was changed in all experimental groups. In conclusion, our data suggested that maternal forced exercise causes neurobehavioral protective effect on offsprings and this effect might probably be mediat-ed by 5-HT2 and D2 receptors and activation of CREB gene expression.



Skin temperature response to unilateral training measured with infrared thermography

Víctor L. Escamilla-Galindo, Alejandro Estal-Martínez, Jakub G. Adamczyk, Ciro José Brito, Javier Arnaiz-Lastras, Manuel Sillero-Quintana

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.526-534

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This study aimed to identify the skin temperature (Tsk) behavior to un-derstand the acute cross-effect after unilateral training of lower-limbs. Seventeen healthy young men (weight, 75.2±5.5 kg; height, 1.8±0.1 m; age, 22.5±1.6 years) were divided into two groups: high-trained (n=8) and low-trained (n=9). All participants performed: (a) one-repetition maximum (1RM) testing protocol on the leg press, (b) a unilateral train-ing protocol (4×10 repetitions at 70% of 1RM for leg press and 4×10 repetitions at 50% of 1RM for knee extension). Pre- and posttraining thermal images were recorded. The main results showed that indepen-dent of the limb (exercised vs. nonexercised), differences between low- and high-trained were observed for all regions of interest (ROI) except for the anterior knee: posttraining, 30-min and 60- min posttraining in nonexercised limb. The increase of contralateral Tsk was more than 50% on the ROIs corresponding to the exercises muscles 30-min post-training in low-trained but was not so high in high-trained (P<0.05). Low-trained subjects incremented more the Tsk than high-trained in both legs after exercise. In conclusion, we observed an acute contra-lateral Tsk effect to unilateral training on the Tsk of the nonexercised limb, reliant on the training level of the subject.



Effects of special exercise programs on functional movement screen scores and injury prevention in preprofessional young football players

Engin Dinc, Bekir Eray Kilinc, Muge Bulat, Yunus Turgay Erten, Bülent Bayraktar

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.535-540

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To increase movement capacity and to reduce injury risk in young soc-cer players by implementing a special functional exercise program based on functional movement screen (FMS) and correctives. 67 young male athletes 14.19 years of age from a Super League Football Club Academy participated in the study. Functional movement patterns were evaluated with FMS assessment protocol. Deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge, shoulder mobility, active straight leg raise, trunk stability push-up, and rotatory stability were examined in FMS. Considering the FMS scores the number of intervention and control groups were de-fined as 24 and 43, respectively. Intervention program was composed of 1 hr twice a week sessions in total of 12 weeks with 4 weeks of mobility, 4 weeks of stability, and 4 weeks of integration exercises. At the end of 12-week intervention and control groups were re-evaluated with FMS protocol. Contact and noncontact sports injuries recorded during one season. In intervention group there was statistically significant differ-ence in increase in total FMS scores (P<0.01), deep squat (P≤0.001), hurdle step (P<0.05), inline lunge (P<0.01), and trunk stability push-up (P<0.01). In control group total FMS, deep squat, and trunk stability push-up scores increased with a statistical difference (P<0.01, P<0.05, P≤0.01, respectively). The incidence of noncontact injury in control group was higher than intervention group (P<0.05). Periodic movement screening and proper corrections with functional training is valuable in order to create better movement capacity to build better physical per-formance and more effective injury prevention.



Effect of compression garments on delayed-onset muscle soreness and blood inflammatory markers after eccentric exercise: a randomized controlled trial

Jieun Kim, Jooyoung Kim, Joohyung Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.541-545

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The purpose of this study was to investigate how compression gar-ments, applied after eccentric exercise, can affect delayed onset mus-cle soreness (DOMS) and inflammatory markers. Sixteen healthy male university students enrolled in this study and were randomly assigned to either the compression garment group (CG, n=8) or control group (CON, n=8). All participants performed two sets of eccentric exercise using elbow flexor with 25 repetitions per set on a modified preacher curl machine. Maximal isometric strength was measured before exer-cise and immediately, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Muscle soreness was measured before exercise and 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr after eccentric exercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity and tumor ne-crosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels were also measured before exercise and 3, 6, 24, and 48 hr after exercise. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used for statistical analysis. The CG group reported faster recovery of maximal isometric strength following exercise (P<0.001) and lower muscle soreness during the recovery period than the control group (P<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in either CK activity or TNF-α levels between the two groups (P>0.05). In conclu-sion, wearing compression garments during the postexercise period can be an effective way to reduce DOMS and accelerate the recovery of muscle function.



Rehabilitation training in artificially heated environment

Ping-Chung Leung

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.546-549

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Sauna has become a popular club house facility where the dweller en-joys relaxation. Some exercise groups like yoga and Qigong practi-tioners, are making use of the heated environment to achieve quicker and better results of trainings. Sauna therapy is producing a thermal stress through hyperthermia. The cardiovascular system readily re-sponds by increasing the heart rate which can become double the rest-ing stage within minutes and cardiac output may have a 70% increase. The body’s surface response to heat leads to a 40% of decrease in pe-ripheral vascular resistance, thus allowing rapid peripheral blood flow which is responsible for greater heat dispersal directly from the skin. The chained physiological reactions of increased cardiac and pulmo-nary outputs, while blood pressure drops suggest that Sauna could be good for chronic diseases. When active stretching are executed simul-taneously with controlled breathing in a smooth synchronized chain of activities under the individual’s free will, a harmonized state of mind reaching the level of meditation follows. Sauna room environment initi-ates a physiological stat equivalent to moderate exercises. Qigong practice is typical anaerobic training. Both Sauna and Qigong lead to a tranquility of the mind. The unique nature of practicing Qigong in a heat-ed environment is therefore clear. A small pilot study on Qigong prac-tice within the Sauna room showed a higher increase in heart rate which amounted to 30%–40% above the pre-exercise level. The blood pressure checked after Qigong, on the contrary, remained stable or even slightly decreased.



Test-retest reliability of repeated knee laxity measurements in the acute phase following a knee trauma using a Rolimeter

Daniel Ericsson, Anna Hafsteinsson Östenberg, Erik Andersson, Marie Alricsson

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.550-558

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The purpose was to examine the test-retest reliability of the Rolimeter measurement procedure in the acute time phase, following a substan-tial knee trauma. In total, 15 participants with acute knee trauma were examined by one single observer at three different time-points with the Rolimeter using a maximum force. The selected time-points were: baseline (0–7 days after the trauma), midpoint (3–4 weeks after the trau-ma), and endpoint (3–4 weeks after the trauma). The anterior-posterior displacement was recorded where the endpoint evaluation was used as the reference value. The mean anterior laxity scores remained con-stant over the measurement time-points for both knees, with an anterior laxity that was 2.7 mm higher (on average) in the injured than the nonin-jured knee (9.5 mm vs. 6.8 mm). The mean difference (i.e., bias) between laxity scores, for the injured knee, measured at endpoint versus base-line was 0.2±1.0 mm and -0.2±1.1 mm when measured at endpoint ver-sus midpoint, with average typical errors of 0.7 and 0.8 mm and intra-class correlations that were very strong (both r=~0.93). For the same comparisons on the noninjured knee, systematic bias was close to zero (0.1±0.3 and -0.1±0.3 mm, respectively), and both the intra-class cor-relations were almost perfect (r=~0.99). The current study implicates that repeated Rolimeter measurements are relatively reliable for quanti-fying anterior knee laxity during the acute time-phases following knee trauma. Hence, the Rolimeter, in combination with manual tests, seems to be a valuable tool for identifying anterior cruciate ligament injuries.



Effects of a short-term detraining period on muscle functionality and cognition of strength-trained older women : a preliminary report

Helio Jose Coelho Junior, Bruno Rodrigues, Ivan de Oliveira Gonçalves, Marco Carlos Uchida

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.559-567

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The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a 1-month detraining composed by Christmas and New Year’s Day in the functional and cognitive parameters of 12 older women who had previously participated in 22-week moderate intensity strength training program (ST; n= 6) or remained performing their regular habits of life during all study period, without engaging in physical exercise programs (CG; n= 6). Transfer capacity (i.e., Timed Up and Go [TUG]) and executive function (i.e., TUG with a cognitive task) were increased in the ST group after the intervention. However, the 1-month detraining period was enough to totally reverse the gains in both parameters. In conclusion, data of the present study indicate that 1 month of detraining was enough to totally reverse the beneficial effects of a 6-month ST program on physical mobility and executive function of older women.



Changes in physical fitness and body composition according to the physical activities of Korean adolescents

Minsoo Cho, Ji-Youn Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.568-572

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This study comparatively analyzed obesity, lean balance, and physical fitness related to growth and development in female middle school stu-dents to investigate the importance of regular physical activity on body composition and physical fitness in adolescence. The subjects were 31 elementary school students in grades 5–6 in Seoul, consisting of 16 stu-dents in the regularly active group and 15 students in the inactive group. Body composition and physical fitness factors were measured. Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and fat-free mass were mea-sured using Inbody 3.0. Physical fitness factors such as muscle strength (grip strength), muscle endurance (situps), flexibility (body flexion), agili-ty (side stepping), and lean balance (balancing with eyes closed), were measured as described herein. The results of comparing the two groups’ obesity-related body composition, the weight (P<0.001), body fat mass (P<0.001), BMI (P<0.002), and % body fat (P<0.033) were sig-nificantly higher in the inactive group compared to the physically active group. Comparison of lean balance was there was a significant differ-ence in muscle mass between the left and right Arm (P<0.001), left and right leg (P<0.002) in the inactive group. comparing physical fitness be-tween groups was trunk flexion (P<0.001) and side stepping (P<0.001) were higher in the physically active than the inactive group. This study found significant differences in weight, body fat, BMI, flexibility, and side stepping between the physically active and inactive groups, which may negatively affect health indicators related to adolescents’ growth, development, and obesity. Therefore, attempts to promote physical ac-tivity in growing adolescents are crucial.



Effects of whole body vibration training and mental training on mobility, neuromuscular performance, and muscle strength in older men

Maryam Goudarzian, Samira Ghavi, Ardalan Shariat, Hossein Shirvani, Mostafa Rahimi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.573-580

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This study was designed to evaluate the effects of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise, mental training (MT), and the concurrent effect of WBV and MT on lower body balance, neuromuscular performance, and leg muscle strength in elderly men. In a randomized control trial study with parallel group design, 42 older men (mean±standard devia-tion age, 68±5.78 years) were randomly divided into four groups: WBV (n=11), MT (n=12), WBV+MT (n=10), and control (n=9) groups. The protocol of training consisted of three sessions per week for 8 weeks and about 30 min for each session. The WBV exercise was performed on a vibration machine. In MT group, participants were asked to men-tally visualize to do the Timed Up and Go and relaxation technics. pos-tural stability, the Timed Up and Go test, 5-repetition chair-rising test, 6-m tandem gait test, 10-m walking, and leg isometric strength were measured in baseline and after 8-week intervention. Repeated mea-sures-analysis of variance followed by post hoc was used to analyses the data. The results of this study s howed that there were significant improvements (P<0.05) in postural stability, Timed Up and Go, 5-repeti-tion chair-rising, 6-m tandem gait test, 10-m walking, and leg isometric strength in WBV, MT, and WBV+MT in comparison with baseline and in comparison with control group. It seems that older adults can take ben-efit from WBV and MT and WBV+MT exercise as a cost-effective and practical way without side effects to improve postural control, mobility, and functional performance.



Immediate effect of passive static stretching versus resistance exercises on postprandial blood sugar levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus : a randomized clinical trial

Peeyoosha Gurudut, Abey P. Rajan

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.581-587

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The prevalence of diabetes is rapidly rising all over the globe at an alarming rate. In India, more than 61.3 million people have been pres-ently diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus. It is possible to control the circulating blood glucose levels by reducing life style risk factors through physical activities comprising of muscle stretches, aerobic training, resistance exercises (REs), yoga, etc. The aim of this study is to identify and compare the immediate effect of passive static stretching (PSS) versus RE on blood glucose level in individuals with type 2 diabe-tes mellitus. The present study included 51 participants between the age of 40–65 years with type 2 diabetes mellitus, to study the immediate effect of 60-min PSS (n=25) and 60-min RE (n=26). The outcome mea-sure was blood glucose level which was checked by glucometer (free-style neo). Blood sugar was assessed at 3 points of time that included fasting blood sugar level, 2 hr after the meal and immediately after the exercise regimen. Results of this study showed significant reduction in blood glucose level in subjects according to glucometer with PSS (P=0.000) and RE (P=0.00). However, both groups demonstrated equal effect in terms of lowering blood sugar level immediately after the exer-cise. The conclusion is both PSS and RE are effective in reducing post-prandial blood glucose level in type 2 diabetes mellitus and must be prescribed for the patients who demonstrate difficulty in controlling post prandial spike.



Joint predictability of physical activity and body weight status on health-related quality of life of patients with hypertension

Taofeek O. Awotidebe, Victor O. Adeyeye, Suraj A. Ogunyemi, Luqman A. Bisiriyu, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Michael O. Balogun, Rasaaq A. Adebayo, Omolara D. Amosun

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.588-598

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This study investigated the predictability of physical activity (PA) and body weight status (BWS) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients with hypertension. A cross-sectional study involved 250 pa-tients with hypertension (≥140/90≤179/109 mmHg) selected from gov-ernment hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria. Purposive sampling technique was used to select participants. Socio-demographic characteristics and cardiovascular parameters were recorded. PA and HRQoL were assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire and Short Form health survey questionnaire respectively. Sufficient PA equals ≥150 min/wk while BWS was defined using body mass index classification. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential sta-tistics. Alpha level was set at P<0.05. Of all participants, 63.6% reported sufficient PA and 78.4% was either overweight or obese. The HRQoL of participants become poorer in all domains with higher body weight. The HRQoL including role limitation due to physical health (RLdPhp) and emotional problems (RLdEmp) had worst scores. Participants in the categories of normal and overweight/obese with sufficient PA demon-strated higher (better) HRQoL in all domains than those with insufficient PA (P<0.05). When adjusted for body weight, significant differences were found in all domains of HRQoL except in RLdPhp, RldEmp, and bodily pain (P>0.05). There were significant correlations between PA and all domains of HRQoL except in RldEmp, emotional well-being and bodily pain (P>0.05). Regression models established PA as a significant predictor of HRQoL. Sufficient PA is a better predictor of HRQoL among patients with hypertension irrespective of BWS. Regular PA is recom-mended for improving HRQoL among patients with hypertension.



Short-term combined exercise training improves cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation in cancer patients receiving adjuvant therapy

Cristiano Mostarda, Jurema Castro-Filha, Andréa Dias Reis, Mário Sevílio Jr, Carlos José Dias, Antonio Carlos Silva-Filho, João Batista Silva Garcia, Maria do Desterro Nascimento, Hélio José Coelho-Junior, Bruno Rodrigues

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.599-607

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The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a short-term exercise training (ET) on the cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation of women with breast cancer who were receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormonotherapy. Eighteen women previously diagnosed with breast cancer receiving adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy or hormone therapy were randomly allocated into breast cancer nonexercise (BC) and exercise groups (BC+Ex). Moreover, nine healthy physically inactive volunteers were recruited to compose the noncancer control group (CG). The BC+Ex group was underwent to a combined ET program, which was based on resistance, aerobic and flexibility exercises. ET was performed 3 times a week, on nonconsecutive days, for 4 weeks at the hospital room under the professional supervision. In turn, BC and CG remained without be engaged in physical exercise programs. Volunteers were evaluated regarding their cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation (i.e., time, frequency domains, and nonlinear [symbolic analysis]) before and after the end of the ET program. A priori, data indicate that women patients with breast cancer showed impaired exercise tolerance, as well as autonomic dysfunction in comparison with age-matched healthy control subjects. However, a 1-month combined ET program could reverse such impairments, so that after the intervention, BC+Ex and CG showing similar results in the cardiorespiratory test and heart rate variability analysis. In conclusion, data of the current study indicate that 1 month of ET is able to reverse impaired cardiorespiratory fitness and autonomic modulation in women with breast cancer receiving adjuvant therapy.



Lack of association between glutathione s-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) gene polymorphisms and obesity

Seung-Ae Yang

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.5 2017.10 pp.608-612

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Recent researches suggested that personal individual’s genetic back-ground is contributed to the susceptibility to obesity. The present of this study is to investigate whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of glutathione s-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) gene are susceptibility to obesity in Korean population. In present study, two SNPs (rs1056806 [Asp142Asp], rs3815029 [promoter]) of GSTM1 gene were genotyped in 117 overweight/obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI)≥23 kg/m2 and 125 nonoverweight/obese with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2. Genotyp-ing of two SNPs (rs1056806 and rs3815029) was determined by se-quencing after polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression models (codominant, dominant, recessive, and log-additive models) and allele analysis were used to calculate odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P-values. Significant association was considered at P<0.05. Tested two SNPs in GSTM1 genes did not show any significant association with obesity (rs1056806, P=0.24 in codominant 1 model; rs3815029, P=0.59 in codominant 1, P=0.09 in codominant 2, P=0.16 in dominant, P=0.09 in recessive, and P=0.07 in log-additive models). In summary, these results indicate that SNPs of GSTM1 gene did not associated with susceptibility of obesity in the Korean population.


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