Earticle

Home

JER [Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
    학술지
  • 발행기관
    한국운동재활학회 [Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation]
  • ISSN
    2288-176X
  • EISSN
    2288-1778
  • 간기
    격월간
  • 수록기간
    2013~2018
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재,SCOPUS
  • 주제분류
    의약학 > 재활의학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 514.03 DDC 617.03
Vol.13 No.6 (19건)
No

Editorial

1

Season’s greetings

Khae-Hawn Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 p.613

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 개인회원에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Editorials

2

Office/home-based exercise rehabilitation is useful for computer-based workers in today’s world

Ardalan Shariat

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 p.614

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 개인회원에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Editorial

3

How can we reduce injuries and illnesses among athletes during the PyeongChang 2018 Olympic Winter Games?

Sun Huh

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.615-616

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 개인회원에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

Review Article

4

Role of exercise on molecular mechanisms in the regulation of antidepressant effects

Hyo-Jun Lee, Seung-Soo Baek

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.617-620

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Regular exercise reduces depressive-like behavior activation. In this study, we look for exact roles of exercise on molecular and neuronal mechanisms for antidepressant action by studying the hippocampal neuroplasticity and proliferation. Increased hippocampal neurogenesis with exercise has potential significance for depression. Exercise promotes brain health in the molecular levels in the hippocampus and also affects behavior in a similar way to chronic antidepressant treatment. Wingless (Wnt) and frizzled signaling system plays an important role in cell proliferation, growth, and differentiation during development. Our results demonstrate complicated, differential effects of antidepressants on Wnt signaling system, and assume a role for selected signaling molecules in the neurogenic activity of antidepressant care. Our review suggests that exercise may preserve brain function by increasing neurogenesis through activating Wnt signaling pathway in the psychiatric disorders, such as depression.

4,000원

Review Articles

5

Role of transforming growth factor-β in muscle damage and regeneration: focused on eccentric muscle contraction

Jooyoung Kim, Joohyung Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.621-626

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

High-intensity eccentric muscle contraction induces muscle damage. Damaged muscles recover through different processes, including degeneration, inflammation, regeneration, and fibrosis; some of these processes are mediated through the actions of cytokines. The transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) is one such cytokine involved in muscle recovery and repair. In this regard, TGF-β regulates the skeletal muscle inflammatory response, inhibits muscle regeneration, regulates extracellular matrix remodeling, and promotes fibrosis. Although some studies have suggested that inhibition of TGF-β after muscle damage promotes muscle regeneration and recovery, other studies have noted that TGF-β inhibition actually reduces muscle strength because it leads to incomplete muscle regeneration. Despite the importance of TGF-β in the repair of damaged muscles, most studies have focused on examining its role in muscle diseases such as chronic inflammatory diseases or Duchenne’s muscular dystrophy. Here, we have reviewed the existing literature for examining the role of TGF-β in muscle damage and regeneration after eccentric muscle contraction.

4,000원

Original Article

6

Treadmill exercise ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through neuronal generation in rat pups

Jung-Wan Cho, Sun-Young Jung, Sang-Won Lee, Sam-Jun Lee, Tae-Beom Seo, Young-Pyo Kim, Dae-Young Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.627-633

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Social isolation is known to induce emotional and behavioral changes in animals and humans. The effect of treadmill exercise on depression was investigated using social isolated rat pups. The rat pups in the social isolation groups were housed individually. The rat pups in the exercise groups were forced to run on treadmill for 30 min once a day from postnatal day 21 to postnatal day 34. In order to evaluate depression state of rat pups, forced swimming test was performed. Newly generated cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were determined by 5-bromo- 2’-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry. We examined the expression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) in the dorsal raphe using immunofluorescence. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase B (TrkB) was detected by Western blot analysis. The present results demonstrated that social isolation increased resting time and decreased mobility time. Expression of 5-HT and TPH in the dorsal raphe and expression of BDNF and TrkB in the hippocampus were decreased by social isolation. The number of BrdU-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus was suppressed by social isolation. Treadmill exercise decreased resting time and increased mobility in the social isolated rat pups. Expression of 5-HT, TPH, BDNF, and TrkB was increased by treadmill exercise. The present results suggested that treadmill exercise may ameliorates social isolation-induced depression through increasing neuronal generation.

4,000원

7

Comparison study for body image education of domestic and overseas female college students

Tae-Young Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.634-640

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The 2016 health education index showed such tendency as well including their raised obesity index, and reported that they are much interested in body images appearing externally. Accordingly, in this study, we conducted the self-reported questionnaire aimed at a total of 389 subjects composed of domestic (n= 226) and overseas (n= 163) female college students from Asia, Europe, and Latin America so as to investigate their body images for face, figure and health through questionnaires. In this context, a survey was conducted with the method of this study, consequently indicating that overseas subjects are more greatly positive and active to body images (face, figure, and health) by health level, exercise preferences, extent of body activities and body weight than domestic ones. These results reflect a different viewpoint between those subjects and reveal that overseas subjects are more committed to maintaining their health through body activities compared to domestic ones. Moreover, it is considered that domestic subjects tend to place a higher value on external beauty rather than beauty in terms of physical health, thereby it is most important to change the beauty values. Therefore, in the future, health education should play a critical role in promoting discussions for plans and practical strategies of improving health between students and in participating actively in health behaviours.

4,000원

8

Effects of walking with hand-held weights on energy expenditure and excess postexercise oxygen consumption

Catherine T. Campaña, Pablo B. Costa

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.641-646

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Walking is not only important to assist in performing daily tasks, but also to gain cardiovascular benefits. Further research on walking is needed to examine the physiological responses to improve health and reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the energy expenditure (EE) during and after walking exercise with versus without hand-held weights (HHW). Nineteen sedentary women (mean±standard deviation; age, 21±2.7 years, height, 163.1±6.3 cm; body mass, 66.6± 15.1 kg; body fat %, 30.6%± 7.43%; body mass index, 25.5± 5.7 kg/m2) volunteered walking with versus without 1.36 kg of HHW in two randomized sessions. The study consisted of 30 min of exercise followed b silent sitting for 30 min. The range of motion was set at elbow flexion at 90° while arms were alternated 30.48 cm forward and backward. 1% incline was set for the treadmill grade and speed was controlled to a moderate level of 40%–59% of heart rate reserve. During the 30-min exercise no significant differences were found between the conditions (P> 0.05). The physiological responses were significantly greater directly after exercise compared with baseline as determined from pairwise comparisons collapsed across conditions (P≤ 0.05). Walking with HHW was not substantial enough to raise EE beyond normal walking and led to an increased effort level. Additionally, the moderate intensity of walking was not enough to sustain EE at a surpassing level directly after the exercise.

4,000원

9

Relationship between sitting volleyball performance and field fitness of sitting volleyball players in Korea

Bogja Jeoung

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.647-652

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sitting volleyball performance and the field fitness of sitting volleyball players. Forty-five elite sitting volleyball players participated in 10 field fitness tests. Additionally, the players’ head coach and coach assessed their volleyball performance (receive and defense, block, attack, and serve). Data were analyzed with SPSS software version 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at P< 0.05. The results showed that chest pass, overhand throw, onehand throw, one-hand side throw, splint, speed endurance, reaction time, and graded exercise test results had a statistically significant influence on the players’ abilities to attack, serve, and block. Grip strength, t-test, speed, and agility showed a statistically significant relationship with the players’ skill at defense and receive. Our results showed that chest pass, overhand throw, one-hand throw, one-hand side throw, speed endurance, reaction time, and graded exercise test results had a statistically significant influence on volleyball performance.

4,000원

10

Effect of vigorous physical activity on blood lipid and glucose

Hyoung-Jeong Kwon, Han-Joon Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.653-658

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The aim of the study is to investigate how the participation of vigorous physical activities in the health examination contributes to blood lipid and blood glucose. A total of 56,810 workers from the Ulsan University Hospital in Ulsan, Subjects were tested for health checkups from February to November in 2016. The subject is those who does not have medical history, current ailments, and medication histories, and selected those who conducted the study of subjects tested to research. And this study did not consider their drinking and smoking. The final selected population was 11,557 and categorized as a vigorous physical activity of the health survey items. In this study, the group participated by the vigorous physical activity activities, group 1 (n= 70) had more than 6 days of vigorous physical activity, group 2 (n= 2,960) is 3 to 5 days of vigorous physical activity, the group 3 (n= 7,389) is 1 to 2 days of vigorous physical activity. The group 4 (n= 1,138) were classified as those who did not perform vigorous physical activity. To achieve the purpose of the study, the questionnaire examined blood lipid and blood glucose, using questions related to physical activity related to health examination in the Ulsan University Hospital. We obtained the mean and standard deviation for each group and conducted the one-way analysis of variance as an independent variable. Post hoc is least significant difference test and significant level is 0.05. Vigorous physical activity more than 3 days of participation had a positive affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. But participation in vigorous physical activity did not affect blood glucose.

4,000원

11

Effect of 10% weight loss on simulated taekwondo match performance : a randomized trial

Leonardo de Sousa Fortes, Gustavo César de Vasconcelos, Bruna Daniella de Vasconcelos Costa, Pedro Pinheiro Paes, Emerson Franchini

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.659-665

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The objective of the present study was to analyze the effect of 10% body mass reduction on simulated taekwondo match performance. Thirty-one male taekwondo athletes were randomly distributed in two groups: weight loss group (n= 15) – athletes in this group reduced 5% body mass per week during two successive weeks, totaling 10% body mass reduction; control group (n= 16) – athletes in this group kept their body mass constant during the 2-week period. Twenty-four hours before and after this period, athletes performed a simulated 3-round taekwondo match (6 min). Athletes wore body protectors to validate the scores during the match according to the official taekwondo rules. Match was filmed and actions were categorized using the Game Performance Assessment Instrument. There was a group and time interaction (P< 0.001) for body mass, with decrease only for the weight loss group (P= 0.001). A group and time interaction was also observed for the taekwondo match performance (P< 0.001), with performance increase being found only for the control group (P= 0.01). Thus, the 10% weight loss was not a good strategy to improve taekwondo skills’ performance.

4,000원

12

Effectiveness of a multimodal exercise rehabilitation program on walking capacity and functionality after a stroke

Montserrat Grau Pellicer, Andrés Chamarro Lusar, Josep Medina Casanovas, Bernat-Carles Serdà Ferrer

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.666-675

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a 12-week multimodal exercise rehabilitation program on walking speed, walking ability and activities of daily living (ADLs) among people who had suffered a stroke. Thirty-one stroke survivors who had completed a conventional rehabilitation program voluntarily participated in the study. Twenty-six participants completed the multimodal exercise rehabilitation program (2 days/wk, 1 hr/session). Physical outcome measures were: walking speed (10-m walking test), walking ability (6-min walking test and functional ambulation classification) and ADLs (Barthel Index). The program consisted on: aerobic exercise; task oriented exercises; balance and postural tonic activities; and stretching. Participants also followed a program of progressive ambulation at home. They were evaluated at baseline, postintervention and at the end of a 6-month follow- up period. After the intervention there were significant improvements in all outcomes measures that were maintained 6 months later. Comfortable and fast walking speed increased an average of 0.16 and 0.40 m/sec, respectively. The walking distance in the 6-min walking test increased an average of 59.8 m. At the end of the intervention, participants had achieved independent ambulation both indoors and outdoors. In ADLs, 40% were independent at baseline vs. 64% at the end of the intervention. Our study demonstrates that a multimodal exercise rehabilitation program adapted to stroke survivors has benefits on walking speed, walking ability and independence in ADLs.

4,000원

13

Development of strategies for changing in physical activity behaviors on older adults with disabilities

Kyo-Man Koo, Chae-Hee Park, Chun-Jong Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.676-683

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The purpose of this study was to develop strategies for promoting physical activity for the disabled older adults who were in the transtheoretical model of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages about participating physical activities for promoting healthy life-styles. In order to achieve this goal, we developed a preliminary strategy for promoting physical activity for the elderly with disabilities based on the data gathered through the ground-work studies and the results of the research on the changes of the exercise behavior directly investigated from the elderly with disabilities. Then the strategies were verified to completion of the final promoting strategies. The elderly with disabilities in the three stages of precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation should develop strategies to think positively about themselves and their surroundings as well as strengthen their appropriate healthy behaviors. Additionally, families, physicians, and healthy seniors who spent time with disabled older adults could help to promote physical activities. However, overall administrative support, in-stitutional system construction, and public policy support were needed and it suggested that multifaceted supports and a variety of cooperation were necessary to improve a quality of life among older adults with disabilities.

4,000원

14

Short-term effects of Theracurmin dose and exercise type on pain, walking ability, and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis

Yun-A Shin, Min-Hwa Suk, Hee-Seung Jang, Hye-Jung Choi

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.684-692

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The purpose of this study was to investigate the short-term of Theracurmin dose and exercise type on pain, walking ability, and muscle function in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Twenty-five patients with knee osteoarthritis randomly selected to Theracurmin intake (T) group and Theracurmin in combined with exercise (T+E) group. T group (n= 13) was taken orally a capsule of 700 mg, 3 times per day, (total 2,100 mg, 35 mg/kg-body weight). T+E group (n= 12) performed aerobic training of 30-min walking and weight training for increasing leg muscular strength. After treatment, the number of steps, muscle mass, range of motion of knee, and the muscle strength in flexion and extension significantly increased. The percent body fat, visual analogue scale, The Western Ontario and McMaster score, centers of pressure with closed eye, 10-m walking ability, stair ascending speed were significantly decreased after treatment. Although no difference observed between the T and T+E groups, the 4-week intake of Theracurmin with and without exercise appeared to be effective in reducing the pain and enhancing muscular and balancing function. Therefore, Theracurmin intake for early symptoms and additional exercise as symptoms alleviate might be an effective way of delaying and managing osteoarthritis, and additional studies investigating the effects of Theracurmin and exercise on osteoarthritis could be beneficial.

4,000원

15

Low-intensity training provokes adaptive extracellular matrix turnover of a muscular dystrophy model

Thaís P. Gaiad, Murilo X. Oliveira, Adalfredo R. Lobo-Jr., Lívia R. Libório, Priscilla A.F. Pinto, Danielle C. Fernandes, Ana Paula Santos, Carlos Eduardo Ambrósio, Alex Sander D. Machado

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.693-703

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Recommendations of therapeutic exercise in Duchenne muscular dystrophy are still controversial. The hypothesis that a low-intensity training (LIT) protocol leads to muscle adaptations on mdx mice model was tested. Dystrophic male mice with 8 weeks old were separated in exercised (mdxE, n= 8) and sedentary (mdxC, n= 8) groups. Wild-type mice were used as control (WT, n= 8) group. Exercised group underwent a LIT protocol (9 m/min, 30 min, 3 days/wk, 60 days) on a horizontal treadmill. At day 60 all animals were analyzed regarding parameters of markers of muscle lesion and extracellular matrix turnover of muscle tissue by collagens fibers on tibial anterior muscle. Histomorphometry attested that centrally located nuclei fibers and the coefficient of variance of minimal Feret’s diameter was similar in mdxE and mdxC groups (P= 1.000) and both groups presented higher mean values than WT group (P< 0.001). Fraction area of collagen fibers of mdxE group was lower than mdxC group (P= 0,027) and similar to WT group (P= 0,751). Intramuscular area of Col3 of the mdxE group was higher than mdxC and WT groups (P<0.001). Intramuscular area of Col1 on the mdxE group was similar to the mdxC group (P= 1.000) and both groups were higher than WT group (P< 0.001). LIT protocol had not influenced muscle injuries resulting from the dystrophin- deficiency membrane fragility. Although, LIT had provoked adaptations on extracellular matrix bringing higher elastic feature to dystrophic muscle tissue.

4,200원

16

Inter- and intrarater reliability of goniometry and hand held dynamometry for patients with subacromial impingement syndrome

Georg Fieseler, Kevin G. Laudner, Lars Irlenbusch, Henrike Meyer, Stephan Schulze, Karl-Stefan Delank, Souhail Hermassi, Thomas Bartels, René Schwesig

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.704-710

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The purpose of this study was to examine the intra- and interrater reliability of measuring shoulder range of motion (ROM) and strength among patients diagnosed with subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS). Twenty-five patients (14 female patients; mean age, 60.4± 7.84 years) diagnosed with SAIS were assessed to determine the intrarater reliability for glenohumeral ROM. Twenty-five patients (16 female patients; mean age, 60.4± 7.80 years) and 76 asymptomatic volunteers (52 female volunteers; mean age, 29.4± 14.1 years) were assessed for interrater reliability. Dependent variables were active shoulder ROM and isometric strength. Intrarater reliability was fair-to-excellent for the SAIS patients (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC], 0.52–0.97; standard error of measurement [SEM], 4.4°–9.9° N; coefficient of variation [CV], 7.1%–44.9%). Based on the ICC, 11 of 12 parameters (92%) displayed an excellent reliability (ICC> 0.75). The interrater reliability showed fair-to-excellent results (SAIS patients: ICC, 0.13–0.98; SEM, 2.3°–8.8°; CV, 3.6%–37.0%; controls: ICC, 0.11–0.96; SEM, 3.0°–35.4°; CV, 5.6%– 26.4%). In accordance with the intrarater reliability, glenohumeral adduction ROM was the only parameter with an ICC below 0.75 for both samples. Painful shoulder ROM in the SAIS patients showed no influence on the quality of reliability for measurement. Therefore, these protocols should be considered reliable assessment techniques in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of painful shoulder conditions such as SAIS.

4,000원

17

Effects of habitual smoking on cardiopulmonary function in taekwondo athletes

Dong-Jin Jang, Hee-Cheol Kim, Jae-Kyung Kim, Sun-Young Jung, Dae-Young Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.711-715

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

This study aimed to verify habitual smoking effects on cardiopulmonary function in taekwondo athletes. Subjects were university taekwondo athletes aged 20–24 years in nonsmoker (n= 9) and smoker (n= 6) groups. Subjects underwent an exercise examination for their ventilation threshold, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake, maximum volume of minute oxygen consumption, heart rate, and oxygen pulse during exercise and 1, 3, and 5 min after maximum exercise. The time of reaching the ventilation threshold was significantly higher in nonsmokers than in smokers. Heart rate during recovery after maximum exercise was significantly lower in nonsmokers for 1 and 3 min. Nonsmokers had significantly higher time for reaching the ventilation threshold and heart rate recovery at 1 and 3 min after exercise. The higher timing of accumulation fatigue in ventilation amount and faster recovery after exercise are useful in continuous exercise and improving athletic performance. Thus, athletes should stop smoking as soon as possible to improve their aerobic physical fitness and athletic performance.

4,000원

18

Neuromuscular features in sprinters with cerebral palsy : case studies based on paralympic classification

Diego Antunes, Mateus Rossato, Rafael Lima Kons, Raphael Luiz Sakugawa, Gabriela Fischer

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.716-721

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

Despite the evolution of runner performance in athletes with cerebral palsy (CP), little is known about neuromuscular parameters of sprinters from different classes, especially related to power output, muscular imbalances and asymmetry indexes in lower limbs. The aim of this study was to assess muscle power, muscular imbalance and asymmetry in sprinters with CP. Four male sprinters with CP (age, 18 to 27 years; body mass, 58.5 to 72.8 kg; height, 161.5 to 174 cm) classified as T38, T37, T36, T35 according to International Paralympic Committee functional classification, performed vertical counter movement jump and squat jump on force plate and isokinetic torque evaluations in both limbs. The concentric peak torque (PT) was measured at 60°/sec, 120°/sec and 180°/sec and PT eccentric at 60°/sec and 120°/sec. The asymmetry indexes, conventional and functional ratios were assessed. the results showed that athletes with more severe impairments (T35 and T36) showed worse performance to muscle power, more muscular imbalance and higher asymmetry in PT between limbs (> 10%). The exception was T37 athlete, who presented the better performance for all variables. it is concluded that CP athletes with more severe impairments showed lower jumping performance and torque production of knee extensors and flexors, they showed greater asymmetries between limbs. Finally, considering the results of T37 athlete, it seems that the athletic training for a longer period can reverse part of the neuromuscular impairments caused by CP.

4,000원

19

A comparison of ground reaction force components according to the foothold heights in 16-t truck during downward step

Seung-Hyun Hyun, Che-Cheong Ryew

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.13 No.6 2017.12 pp.722-727

※ 기관로그인 시 무료 이용이 가능합니다.

The aim of this study is to compare and analyze the components of ground reaction force (GRF) relative to the foothold heights during downward step of 16-t truck. Adult males (n= 10) jumped downward from each 1st, 2nd, 3rd foothold step and driver’s seat orderly using hand rail. Sampling rate of force components of 3 axis (medial-lateral [ML] GRF, anterior-posterior [AP] GRF, peak vertical force [PVF]), variables (COPx, COPy, COP area) of center of pressure (COP), loading rate, and stability index (ML, AP, vertical, and dynamic postural stability index [DPSI]) processed from GRF system was cut off at 1,000 Hz. and variables was processed with repeated one-way analysis of variance. AP GRF, PVF and loading rate showed higher value in case of not used hand rail than that used hand rail in all 1st, 2nd, and 3rd of foothold step. DPSI showed more lowered stability in order of 2nd, 3rd step than 1st foothold step used with hand rail, of which showed lowest stability from driver’s seat. COPx, COPy, and COP area showed higher value in case of 2nd and 3rd than that of 1st of foothold step, and showed lowest stability from driver’s seat. It is more desirable for cargo truck driver to utilize an available hand rail in order of 3rd, 2nd, and 1st of foothold step than downward stepping directly, thus by which may results in decrease of falling injuries and minimization of impulsive force transferring to muscular-skeletal system.

4,000원

 
페이지 저장