JER [Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국운동재활학회 [Korean Society of Exercise Rehabilitation]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
  • 주제분류
    의약학 > 재활의학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 514.03 DDC 617.03
Vol.12 No.6 (21건)



Leading finale in the field of exercise science

Haemi Jee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 p.509

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Special Article


Promotion of the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation to the international level based on journal metrics

Sun Huh

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.510-514

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The aim of this study was to use journal metrics to confirm that the Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation has been promoted to the interna-tional level after changing its language to English-only in April 2013. Journal metrics, including the number of articles per year, countries of authors, countries of the editorial board members, impact factor, total citations, and the Hirsch index, were counted or calculated based on the journal homepage and the Web of Science Core Collection in De-cember 2016. The number of citable articles was 52, 62, 59, and 74 in 2013, 2014, 2015, and 2016, respectively. All authors were from Korea in 2013 and 2014, but the authors were from 11 countries in 2015 and from 16 countries in 2016. The editorial board members are currently from 11 countries. The impact factor without self-citations for 2015 was 0.912, corresponding to a Journal Citation Reports ranking of 32.9% out of 82 journals in the category of sport sciences. The total citations increased from 1 in 2013 to 130 in 2016. This journal was cited in 208 other source journals in the Web of Science. The citing authors were from 47 coun-tries. The Hirsch index was 7, and review articles were the most fre-quently cited articles. The above results show a rapid development to the international level over 4 years. The introduction of digital technolo-gy to journals to improve their accessibility across multiple platforms is recommended.


Review Article


Why is digit ratio correlated to sports performance?

Tae Beom Kim, Khae Hawn Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.515-519

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Second to fourth digit ratio is the ratio of second to fourth digit length. It has been known that digit ratio is sexually dimorphic in humans, such that males tend to have lower digit ratio (longer fourth digits relative to second digits) than females. Digit ratio is thought to be a biomarker of the balance between fetal testosterone (FT) and fetal estrogen (FE) in a relatively narrow developmental window at the end of the first trimester of pregnancy. On the contrary, the relationships between digit ratio and levels of sex steroids in adults are not clear. Most correlational studies between digit ratio and adult sex steroids have revealed that this asso-ciation is statistically not significant. However, for many years, a lot of researches showed negative relationships between digit ratio and sports performance such as rugby, surfing, rowing, sprinting, endur-ance, and hand grip strength. Here, we discuss possible mechanisms about the relationships between digit ratio and sports performance.


Original Article


Comparison of the behavioral effects of exercise and high fat diet on cognitive function in adolescent rats

Jae-Min Lee, Jong-Min Park, Min Kyung Song, Yoon Ju Kim, Youn-Jung Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.520-525

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Adolescence is a critical period for neurodevelopment, neuronal plas-ticity, and cognitive function. Experiences of adolescence can be exert-ed positive and negative effects on brain development. Physical exer-cise has a positive effect on brain function, which is characterized by improving memory function and increased neural plasticity. High fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity has a negative effect on brain function, which is characterized by insulin resistance and neuroinflammation and re-duced microvessel constructure. Although the positive effect of exer-cise and negative effect of obesity on cognitive function have been documented, it has not been well whether comparison of the effects of exercise and obesity on cognitive function in adolescent rats. In the present study, we evaluated the behavioral changes related to cogni-tive function induced by exercise and obesity in adolescent rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: the control group (CON), the exercise group (Ex), the high fat diet group (HFD). The HFD containing fat 60% was freely provided. The present results showed that spatial learning ability and short-term memory did not show signifi-cant effect exercise as compared to the control group. The present re-sults showed that spatial learning ability and short-term memory was significantly decreased HFD-induced obesity group as compared to the control group. These results suggest that positive effect of physical ex-ercise in adolescence rats may be exerted no significant effect on cog-nitive function. But, negative effect of HFD-induced obesity might in-duce cognitive impairment. HFD-induced obesity in adolescent rats may be used as an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders.



Treadmill exercise ameliorates symptoms of Alzheimer disease through suppressing microglial activation-induced apoptosis in rats

Seung-Soo Baek, Sang-Hoon Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.526-534

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Alzheimer disease (AD) is a most common form of dementia and even-tually causes impairments of learning ability and memory function. In the present study, we investigated the effects of treadmill exercise on the symptoms of AD focusing on the microglial activation-induced apoptosis. AD was made by bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin. The rats in the exercise groups were made to run on a treadmill once a day for 30 min during 4 weeks. The distance and la-tency in the Morris water maze task and the latency in the step-down avoidance task were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill ex-ercise shortened these parameters. The numbers of terminal deoxynu-cleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling-positive and caspase-3-positive cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus were de-creased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise suppressed these numbers. Expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and cluster of differentiation molecule 11B (CD11b) in the hippocampal dentate gy-rus were increased in the AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise sup-pressed GFAP and CD11b expressions. Bax expression was increased and Bcl-2 expression was decreased in the hippocampus of AD rats, in contrast, treadmill exercise decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression. The present results demonstrated that treadmill exer-cise ameliorated AD-induced impairments of spatial learning ability and short-term memory through suppressing apoptosis. The antiapoptotic effect of treadmill exercise might be ascribed to the inhibitory effect of treadmill exercise on microglial activation.



Performance and energy systems contributions during upper-body sprint interval exercise

Emerson Franchini, Monica Yuri Takito, Maria Augusta Peduti Dal’Molin Kiss

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.535-541

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The main purpose of this study was to investigate the performance and energy systems contribution during four upper-body Wingate tests in-terspersed by 3-min intervals. Fourteen well-trained male adult Judo athletes voluntarily took part in the present study. These athletes were from state to national level, were in their competitive period, but not en-gaged in any weight loss procedure. Energy systems contributions were estimated using oxygen uptake and blood lactate measurements. The main results indicated that there was higher glycolytic contribution compared to oxidative (P<0.001) during bout 1, but lower glycolytic contribution was observed compared to the phosphagen system (ade-nosine triphosphate-creatine phosphate, ATP-PCr) contribution during bout 3 (P<0.001), lower glycolytic contribution compared to oxidative and ATP-PCr (P<0.001 for both comparisons) contributions during bout 4 and lower oxidative compared to ATP-PCr during bout 4 (P=0.040). For the energy system contribution across Wingate bouts, the ATP-PCr contribution during bout 1 was lower than that observed during bout 4 (P=0.005), and the glycolytic system presented higher percentage con-tribution in the first bout compared to the third and fourth bouts (P<0.001 for both comparisons), and higher percentage participation in the second compared to the fourth bout (P<0.001). These results sug-gest that absolute oxidative and ATP-PCr participations were kept con-stant across Wingate tests, but there was an increase in relative partic-ipation of ATP-PCr in bout 4 compared to bout 1, probably due to the partial phosphocreatine resynthesis during intervals and to the de-creased glycolytic activity.



Effects of Vojta method on trunk stability in healthy individuals

Sun-Young Ha, Yun-Hee Sung

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.542-547

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Vojta reflex locomotion is important to main upright posture through stimulation of breast zone to patient with cerebral palsy. However, ap-plication in other diseases is no investigated. So, we determined the ef-fects of stimulation of the breast zone on trunk stability in healthy indi-viduals. Fourteen young healthy adults (7 males and 7 females) volun-tarily participated in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into an experimental group (breast zone) and control group (arbitrary point). All groups were stimulated for 5 min on the left and right sides, respec-tively, for a total 10 times. We used the thickness of the external oblique abdominal muscle (EO), the internal oblique abdominal muscle, the transversus abdominis muscle (TrA), and the rectus abdominis muscles, as well as the area of the diaphragm by using ultrasonography. In the experimental group, the thickness of the TrA significantly increased during stimulation (P<0.05) while the thickness of the EO significantly decreased (P<0.05). Also, the area of diaphragm in inspiration was sig-nificantly different (P<0.05). Therefore, stimulation of the breast zone may be effective to improve trunk stability through activation of the TrA muscle and the diaphragm.



Analysis of physical fitness and technical skills of youth soccer players according to playing position

Chang Hwa Joo, Dong-Il Seo

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.548-552

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The purpose of this study was to compare performance factors of youth soccer players according to position. A total of 101 high school soccer players were selected and were classified into goalkeeper (n=7), de-fense (n=37), midfield (n=39), and forward (n=18) positions. All sub-jects were subjected to the Wingate test for anaerobic capacity, shuttle run test for aerobic capacity, and pass, kick, dribble, and shooting tests for soccer skills. There was no significant difference in aerobic capaci-ty according to position. However, anaerobic capacity was significantly higher in defenders than midfielders (P<0.05), and soccer skills were significant lower in goalies than in other positions (P<0.01). The results show significant differences in anaerobic capacity and soccer skills according to position in youth soccer players. Therefore, we suggest that middle and high school soccer players should improve aerobic, an-aerobic capacity, and soccer skills irrespective position to achieve high-level soccer performance.



Effects of Pilates core stability exercises on the balance abilities of archers

Jeong-Min Park, Gwang-Suk Hyun, Yong-Seok Jee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.553-558

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This study aimed to provide fundamental data contributing to archery performance improvement and stabilization of shooting posture in ar-chers by examining the influence of Pilates core stability (PCS) exercis-es on dynamic and static balance. The study was conducted from De-cember 2015 to March 2016 on high school archers who were registered as archers in the Korea Archery Association with 5 or more years of ar-chery experience. Twenty voluntary subjects (exercise group n=10; control group n=10) with an understanding toward the aims of this study were selected and their body composition, static and dynamic balance abilities, before and after the PCS program, were measured. As for the static balance ability, there were no significant differences be-tween pre- and postvalues in the exercise group after completing the PCS program. Similarly, these results were also represented in the con-trol group. In the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in only the exercise group. As for the dynamic balance ability, there were significant differences between pre- and postvalues in the exercise group, except for up-right and left postures, whereas, there were no changes or decreases be-tween pre- and postvalues in the control group after completing the PCS program. Meanwhile, in the aspect of comparisons between postvalues in both groups, there were significant improvements in up, and up right, and down right part and overall dynamic scores of the exercise groups.



Moderate rest intervals are superior to short intervals for improving PAI-1 following exhaustive exercise in recreational weightlifters

Fabrício Eduardo Rossi, Jose Gerosa-Neto, Tiego Aparecido Diniz, Ismael F. Freitas Junior, Fabio Santos Lira, Jason Michael Cholewa

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.559-566

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This study investigated the influence of short and moderate recovery in-tervals on lipid profiles and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) fol-lowing exhaustive strength exercise in recreational weightlifters. Seven subjects performed two conditions in a randomized order: short, 90% of one maximum repetition (1RM) and 30-sec rest allowed between sets; moderate, 90% of 1RM and 90-sec rest allowed between sets. Total cholesterol (Chol), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-den-sity lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), triacylglycerol (TAG), Chol/HDL-c ra-tio and PAI-1 concentrations were assessed at baseline, immediately postexercise, and 15- and 30-min postexercise (post-15 and post-30). The LDL-c concentrations decreased and HDL-c concentrations in-creased in both conditions but without significant differences (LDL-c: 30 sec: pre, 82.0±19.5 mg/dL, immediately, 73.9±16.4 mg/dL, 90 sec: pre, 75.9±30.8 mg/dL, immediately, 66.2±35.5 mg/dL, P=0.423; HDL-c: 30 sec: pre, 53.5±9.2 mg/dL, immediately, 61.4±11.4 mg/dL; 90 sec: pre, 55.8±11.1 mg/dL, immediately, 84.9±27.8, mg/dL; P=0.146). On the other hand, PAI-1 had a tendency to decrease only in the 90-sec condition (pre, 7,754.9±2,927.7 pg/mL; immediately, 5,313.1±4,637.4 pg/mL; P=0.085). There was a positive correlation between PAI-1 and Chol (30 sec: r=0.83, 90 sec: r=0.91; P<0.05), PAI-1 and fat-free mass in both conditions (30 sec post-15: r=0.79, post-30: r=081, P<0.05; 90 sec imme-diately: r=0.77, post-15: r=0.81; P<0.05), and PAI-1 and TAG only in 30 sec (r=0.87, P<0.05). Short and moderate intervals of recovery improve lipid profiles after heavy strength exercise but only 90 sec induced greater improved in PAI-1 concentration in recreational weightlifters.



Influence of the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercise programs on idiopathic scoliosis patient in the early 20s in terms of curves and balancing abilities : single case study

Byung-Ki Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.567-574

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The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of the proprio-ceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) exercise programs for idio-pathic scoliosis with a female patient in the early 20s in terms of her spi-nal curve and balancing abilities. The study subject was selected among 21-year-old female college students. There were no particular activities that the subject could not perform, but patient complained of difficulty in maintaining the standing position for a prolonged time. Pa-tient chest X-ray results showed S-shaped curves tilted towards the left or right in the lumbar spine, thoracic spine, and cervical spine areas. The PNF exercise programs consists of seven therapeutic exercise programs, including home exercises considering the patients’ balanc-ing abilities, the lateral symmetry of the spinal sway, the distortion, and the height of the pelvis and scapula bones. The programs last for 6 weeks and includes three sessions per week, with each session lasting for 30 min. Before and after the execution of the PNF exercise pro-grams, the subject was monitored for the changes in her spinal sways through chest X-ray tests. Also, using a balance measurement instru-ment, the subject’s static and dynamic balancing abilities were tested. After executing the PNF exercise programs for 6 weeks, the spinal sways of the subject were corrected, and her static and dynamic



Impact of long-term high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training on subclinical inflammation in overweight/obese adults

José Gerosa-Neto, Barbara M.M. Antunes, Eduardo Z. Campos, Jhennyfer Rodrigues, Gustavo D. Ferrari, José C. Rosa Neto, Carlos R. Bueno Junior, Fábio S. Lira

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.575-580

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Obesity is a risk factor able to trigger several inflammatory alterations and the imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine pro-ductions. Physical exercise is an important strategy for reduction of in-flammatory established process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 16 weeks of three exercise training programs in the inflam-matory profile and insulin resistance in overweight/obesity. Thirty two men and women (46.4±10.1 years; 162.0±9.1 cm; 82.0±13.6 kg) were divided into three groups for training on a treadmill: continuous at 70% maximum heart rate (HRmax) 5 times a week (CONT); 1×4 min (1-bout) and 4×4 min (high intensity interval training, HIIT) at 90% HRmax 3 times a week. Interleukin (IL) 6 and IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), insulin and adiponectin levels were analyzed by enzyme-linked immu-nosorbent assay, and homeostasis model assessment insulin resis-tance was calculated. After 16 weeks of training blood concentrations of IL-6 decreased in the HIIT group (P=0.035), TNF-α decreased in the CONT (P=0.037) and increased in HIIT (P=0.001) and adiponectin de-creased in the three training models. There was a trend towards de-creased body weight and body mass index (BMI) after HIIT only (P=0.059 and P=0.060, respectively). Despite the decrease of adi-ponectin and the increase of TNF-α in HIIT group, insulin sensitivity showed a trend for improvement (P=0.08). HIIT program decreased IL-6 at rest and although not significant was the only who tended to de-crease total body weight and BMI. Taken together, our data suggest that both HIIT as well as CONT exercises training program promotes changes in inflammatory profile in overweight/obesity, but dissimilar re-sponse is seen in TNF-α levels.



Relationships among exercise capacity, dynamic balance and gait characteristics of Nigerian patients with type-2 diabetes : an indication for fall prevention

Taofeek O. Awotidebe, Rita N. Ativie, Kayode I. Oke, Mukadas O. Akindele, Rufus A. Adedoyin, Mathew O.B. Olaogun, Temitope E. Olubayode, Babatope A. Kolawole

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.581-588

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This study investigated the relationships among exercise capacity (EC), dynamic balance (DB), and gait characteristics (GCs) of patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D) and healthy controls (HCs). This observational controlled study involved 125 patients with T2D receiving treatment at a Nigerian university teaching hospital and 125 apparently healthy pa-tients’ relatives and hospital staff recruited as controls. EC maximum oxygen consumption (VO2max) was estimated following a 6-min walk test. DB and GC were assessed using the Time Up to Go Test and an accel-erometer (BTS G-Walk) assessing gait speed, step length, stride length, and cadence respectively during a self-selected walk. Data were ana-lyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at P<0.05. The mean ages of patients with T2D and HCs were 57.6±6.6 and 60.0±7.0 years, respectively. All physical characteristics were comparable (P>0.05). There were significant differences in the VO2max and DB between patients with T2D and HCs; 7.6±0.6 mL/kg/min vs. 9.6±0.6 mL/kg/min (t=-16.6, P=0.001) and 14.2±2.1 sec vs. 10.4±1.5 sec (t=-6.37, P=0.001), respectively. Furthermore, significant differences were found in GC between patients with T2D and HCs; gait speed: 0.7±0.1 m/sec vs. 1.2±0.1 m/sec (t=-16.60, P=0.001), step length: 0.6±0.2 m vs. 0.9±0.3 m (t=-7.56, P=0.001) and stride length: 0.9±0.1 m vs. 1.1±0.5 m (t=-6.09, P=0.001). There were significant correlations between EC and gait speed in both groups (T2D: r=-0.26, P=0.032 and HCs: r=0.51, P=0.003). In conclusion, patients with T2D demonstrated lower EC, unstable DB, and altered GCs compared with HCs. Exercise interventions to improve EC and gait balance are recommended.



Responsibility for child and adolescent’s psychosocial support associated with severe sports injuries

Charlotte Hallquist, Ulrika Tranaeus Fitzgerald, Marie Alricsson

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.589-597

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The manner in which health professionals and coaches act and decide on treatment and prognosis can influence athletes in a way that not only strengthens them, but it can also reduce their confidence in their own ability. The purpose was to determine who has the responsibility for child and adolescent psychosocial support needed in connection with a severe sports injury as well as investigate whether coaches, physiotherapists and parents are aware of the support that is needed. Qualitative interviews with coaches, parents and physiotherapists with experience of serious sports injuries in young people aged 12 to 16 years old from different sports were analysed using content analysis. The study showed that all actors independently imparted communica-tion as being the major problem and indicated that the role of a coordi-nator was missing. They imparted cognitive, emotional and behavioural reactions in children, which were considered to be more common in younger children as indicated in previous studies. Coaches felt they had lack of education and time; parents described their disappointment in caregivers and personality changes in their children in connection with the injury. Physiotherapists felt that rehabilitation was often served as a substitute for the sport and that they therefore had greater responsibili-ty for the child than they had been educated for. Results should be com-municated to participants who are involved in children’s and adoles-cent’s sports to increase their knowledge and thus allow them to be able to give our children the best possibility, regardless of whether they return to the sport or not.



The relationship between the behavior problems and motor skills of students with intellectual disability

Yangchool Lee, Bogja Jeoung

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.598-603

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The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the motor skills and the behavior problems of students with intellectual disabilities. The study participants were 117 students with intellectual disabilities who were between 7 and 25 years old (male, n=79; female, n=38) and attending special education schools in South Korea. Motor skill abilities were assessed by using the second version of the Bru-ininks-Oseretsky test of motor proficiency, which includes subtests in fine motor control, manual coordination, body coordination, strength, and agility. Data were analyzed with SPSS IBM 21 by using correlation and regression analyses, and the significance level was set at P<0.05. The results showed that fine motor precision and integration had a sta-tistically significant influence on aggressive behavior. Manual dexterity showed a statistically significant influence on somatic complaint and anxiety/depression, and bilateral coordination had a statistically signifi-cant influence on social problems, attention problem, and aggressive behavior. Our results showed that balance had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior, and speed and agility had a statistically significant influence on social problems and aggressive behavior. Upper limb coordination and strength had a statis-tically significant influence on social problems.



Effect of sports vision exercise on visual perception and reading performance in 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic children

Rokhsareh Badami, Sahar Mahmoudi, Bahman Baluch

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.604-609

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The presented study was aimed at identifying for the first time the influ-ence of sports vision exercises on fundamental motor skills and cogni-tive skills of 7- to 10-year-old developmental dyslexic Persian children. A pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study was conducted. The statis-tical population of this study was 7- to 10-year-old dyslexic children re-ferring to two centres of learning disorder in the city of Isfahan. Twenty two of these children were selected using available and purposive sampling from the statistical population and were randomly assigned into two groups of experimental and control. The former (experimental group) participated in sports vision exercise courses for 12 weeks (3 one hr sessions per week) and the latter (control group) continued their routine daily activities during the exercise. Before the beginning and at the end of the exercise, Gardner’s test of visual perception test - revised and Dehkhoda’s reading skills test was administered to both groups. The results showed that the sports vision exercises increases motor skills, visual perceptual skills and reading skills in developmental dys-lexic children. Based on the results of the presented study it was con-cluded that sports vision exercises can be used for fundamental and cognitive skills of developmental dyslexic children.



Vitamin D status and its associations with rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women : the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008–2014

Taeck-Hyun Lee, Woo Sung Jin, Juwon Park, Hyun-Hee Choi, Eun Jin Bae

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.610-617

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In the present study, vitamin D status and its associations with rheuma-toid arthritis in Korean women were investigated. Total 2,162 women’s data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey during 2008–2014 ware analyzed by complex sampling design logistic regression analysis and complex sampling design general linear model. Women who over 19 years old were included, and who has osteoporo-sis or abnormal parathyroid hormone or renal failure or liver cirrhosis or abnormal creatinine were excluded. Age and body mass index were used as covariate. In the present study, we have shown that vitamin D status were not associated with development of rheumatoid arthritis in Korean women as well were not associated with pain and quality of life in Korean women with rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the present study and considering the effects of vitamin D on fracture and osteoporosis, it can be suggested that additional cohort study and cost-effectiveness analysis are needed.



Influence to high-intensity intermittent and moderate-intensity continuous exercise on indices of cardio-inflammatory health in men

Carolina C. Santos, Tiego A. Diniz, Daniela S. Inoue, José Gerosa-Neto, Valéria L.G. Panissa, Gustavo Duarte Pimentel, Eduardo Z. Campos, Peter Hofmann, Fábio S. Lira

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.618-623

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The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence to acute exercises performed in different intensities with volume equalized (5 km) on indices of cardio-inflammatory health. Twelve physically active male subjects (age, 23.22± 5.47 years; height, 174.75± 5.80 m; weight, 75.13± 6.61 kg; maximal oxygen uptake, 52.92 mL/kg/min), after determination of peak oxygen uptake (VO2Peak) and the speed associated with VO2Peak (sVO2Peak), completed two randomly experimental trials: high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE: 1:1 at 100% sVO2Peak) and moderate-intensity continuous exercise (MICE: 70% sVO2Peak). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), adiponectin and plasminogen inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) data were analyzed pre, immediately, and 60 min after the exercise session. Statistical analysis comparisons between moments and between HIIE and MICE were performed using a mixed model and statistical and significance was set at < 5%. PAI-1 presented an effect for time from pre to immediately after exercise moment (P< 0.018) and from immediately to 60 min after exercise moment (P< 0.001) only in MICE. BDNF presented an effect for time from pre to immediately after exercise to HIIE (P< 0.022) and from immediately to 60 min after exercise to MICE (P< 0.034). HIIE promotes BDNF increase and that there is negative correlation between PAI-1 concentrations and BDNF in both protocols in healthy sportsmen, favoring an anti- atherogenic profile.



Botulinum toxin in spinal cord injury patients with neurogenic detrusor overactivity

Young Sam Cho, Khae Hawn Kim

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.624-631

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Evidence for the efficacy and safety of intravesical onabotulinum toxin A (onabotA) injections has led to them being licensed in many coun-tries, including Korea, for the treatment of patients with urinary inconti-nence due to neurogenic detrusor overactivity (NDO) resulting from spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis who are refractory or intolerant to anticholinergic medications. OnabotA injections have an inhibitory effect on acetylcholine release for up to 10 months, with a recommend-ed dose of 200 U. OnabotA treatment has a beneficial effect not only on urinary symptoms, but also on quality of life. Several clinical studies have shown onabotA to have better effects than placebo in achieving continence, reducing incontinence episodes, improving urodynamic parameters, and improving health-related quality of life. Urinary tract in-fections and postvoid residual volume are the most prevalent side ef-fects. In patients with residual volume, clean intermittent catheteriza-tion may be necessary. In patients with spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, it is recommended to evaluate physical and cognitive function before intravesical onabotA injection to ensure that the patient and caregiver are able to perform catheterization if necessary. Further con-trolled trials should assess the optimal dose, injection technique, long-term safety of repeated injections, and optimal timing of onabotA treat-ment in the treatment of NDO.



Association study between growth hormone receptor (GHR ) gene polymorphisms and obesity in Korean population

Seung-Ae Yang

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.632-636

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A main target of growth hormone (GH) is adipose tissue in human body. The GH secretion in obesity patients is impaired. It is needless to say that growth hormone receptor (GHR) is necessary in GH hormone sig-naling. The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and the development of obesity. A total of 211 overweight/obese subjects with a body mass index (BMI) ≥23 kg/m2 and 157 nonoverweight/obese controls with a BMI of 18.5–23.0 kg/m2 were involved in this study. Seven SNPs includ-ing the rs6451620 (intron), rs4130114 (intron), rs4410646 (intron), rs6898743 (intron), rs4394131 (intron), rs6182 (Cys440Phe), and rs6184 (Pro579Thr) and rs2229765 SNPs of GHR gene were genotyped. Geno-typing was performed using custom DNA chip. SNPStats was used to calculate the odds ratio, 95% confidence interval, and P-value. The link-age disequilibrium block and haplotypes among seven SNPs were de-termined using Haploview version 4.2. Dominant, recessive, and log-ad-ditive genetic models were conducted for genetic analyzing. Among tested SNPs in GHR gene, rs4410646 and rs6898743 showed significant association with obesity (rs4410646, P=0.02 in dominant model and P=0.036 in log-additive model; rs6898743, P=0.039 in dominant model and P=0.044 in log-additive model). In summary, these results suggest that GHR gene polymorphisms might play a role in the development of obesity in the Korean population.



Simple X-ray versus ultrasonography examination in blunt chest trauma : effective tools of accurate diagnosis and considerations for rib fractures

Eun Gu Hwang, Yunjung Lee

한국운동재활학회 JER Vol.12 No.6 2016.12 pp.637-641

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Simple radiography is the best diagnostic tool for rib fractures caused by chest trauma, but it has some limitations. Thus, other tools are also being used. The aims of this study were to investigate the effectiveness of ultrasonography (US) for identifying rib fractures and to identify influ-encing factors of its effectiveness. Between October 2003 and August 2007, 201 patients with blunt chest trauma were available to undergo chest radiographic and US examinations for diagnosis of rib fractures. The two modalities were compared in terms of effectiveness based on simple radiographic readings and US examination results. We also in-vestigated the factors that influenced the effectiveness of US examina-tion. Rib fractures were detected on radiography in 69 patients (34.3%) but not in 132 patients. Rib fractures were diagnosed by using US exam-ination in 160 patients (84.6%). Of the 132 patients who showed no rib fractures on radiography, 92 showed rib fractures on US. Among the 69 patients of rib fracture detected on radiography, 33 had additional rib fractures detected on US. Of the patients, 76 (37.8%) had identical ra-diographic and US results, and 125 (62.2%) had fractures detected on US that were previously undetected on radiography or additional frac-tures detected on US. Age, duration until US examination, and fracture location were not significant influencing factors. However, in the group without detected fractures on radiography, US showed a more signifi-cant effectiveness than in the group with detected fractures on radiog-raphy (P=0.003). US examination could detect unnoticed rib fractures on simple radiography. US examination is especially more effective in the group without detected fractures on radiography. More attention should be paid to patients with chest trauma who have no detected fractures on radiography.


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