한국기계기술학회지 [Journal of the Korean Society of Mechanical Technology]

간행물 정보
  • 자료유형
  • 발행기관
    한국기계기술학회 [Korean Society of Mechanical Technology]
  • ISSN
  • 간기
  • 수록기간
  • 등재여부
    KCI 등재
  • 주제분류
    공학 > 기계공학
  • 십진분류
    KDC 550 DDC 621
제20권 제5호 (31건)



레이놀즈응력 수송방정식 모형에 의한 폴리머 항력감소 난류 채널유동의 예측

신종근, 변선준

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.549-555

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An elliptic blending Reynolds stress transport equation model for Newtonian fluids has been extended to predict polymer-induced drag reduction FENE-P fluids. The conformation tensor equation which is related to the polymer stress is adopted from the model form of Resende et al., and the models of redistribution and dissipation rate terms for the Reynolds stress transport equation are considered by the elliptic blending equation. Also, the new model terms for viscoelastic turbulent transport and viscoelastic dissipation in the Reynolds stress transport equation are introduced to consider the polymer additives effect. The prediction results are directly compared to the DNS data to assess the performance of the present model predictions.



설계자 선호도함수를 이용한 박판성형공정의 최적화

김경모, 박종천, 인정제

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.556-561

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In a sheet metal forming process, fracture and wrinkle are the most difficult task in new parts launching. The variation in process condition generates the fracture and wrinkle fluctuation. The fracture and wrinkle are very sensitive to the process conditions, then the main effects of the design variables cannot be obtained from the standard mean analysis. Therefore, in order to minimize the fracture and wrinkle in parts of automobile, a special method to counterpart is required. In this study, a new design method to achieve the optimal in the sheet metal forming process is proposed. The effectiveness of the proposed methods is shown with an example of the parts of fracture and wrinkle.



촉각센서의 행위 기반 제어


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.562-567

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In the case of the visually impaired, in order to pick up an object, the entire shape is grasped while straddling the object first. When we grasp the characteristics of the object sufficiently by using the tactile sense of the hand, we touch the point which is the center of gravity and listen to the object once. When you want to perform object-graping with only the tactile sense under the conditions of other senses, such as vision, a series of actions is repeated. This paper deals with the behavior based control study of the robot hand using the tactile sense and applied to the 4 DOF hand developed by our laboratory by evolving the subsumption architecture (SA) proposed by R.Brooks.



인가하중에 따른 테이블의 피로 및 진동해석

왕쩐후안, 변선준, 권영철

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.568-573

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In this study, the fatigue and vibration analysis were performed by using Solidworks program to investigate the damage percentage, life cycle and vibration mode depending on the types and positions of load applied to the table (Cases 1, 2, 3, 4). The farther the point of action of the load was, the more the fatigue damage and stability of the table were greatly reduced. The life cycles of Case 1 and 4 were over 100,000 cycles and the fatigue damage was less than 70%. From the vibration analysis, five modes and natural frequencies of Case 1 were confirmed. As the natural frequency increases, the shape of the corresponding mode is predicted not to be deformed.



초저온 이원 냉동 시스템의 Cascade에서 과열도, 과냉각도 변화에 따른 온도 역전 현 상과 시스템 운전의 안정화에 대한 연구


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.574-579

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This Study is carried out to stabilize the system according to the change of superheat and subcooling in binary refrigeration system by applying cascade system. When the system on 1 st stage was started and the system on the other side was operated, a temperature reversal phenomenon occurred in which the temperature of the 1 st cascade outlet was temporarily lowered. This means that the condensate heat exchange on the 2 nd is not good, which can cause the compressor to overheated. In order to maintain stable system operation, the opening degree of the expansion valve is controlled to increase the refrigerant circulation amount, thereby facilitating the condensation heat exchange on the 2 nd stage system. We have found that the most suitable refrigerant circulation amount is found by stabilizing the operation of the system while lowerning the super low temperature from -65℃ to -70℃ and increasing again to -60℃.



팜유 바이오디젤 연료가 커먼레일 디젤 기관의 공회전 속도 조건에서 배기 및 매연 입자 특성에 미치는 효과

김호영, 갈준총, 최낙정

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.580-585

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This study describes the effects of palm oil biodiesel (PD) blended with diesel on the combustion performance, emission characteristics and soot morphology in a 4-cylinder CRDI diesel engine. 5 kinds of fuels are used with blending as diesel/biodiesel volume ratio 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 100%. The engine is operated under idle speed, 750rpm and load conditions of the engine are 0 Nm and 40Nm. The Coefficient of Variation(COV) of Indicated Mean Effective Pressure(IMEP) shows that the engine operates very steadily in the idle state. But fuel consumption is increased. And Emission results show that the oxygen in biodiesel has a great influence on the production of exhaust emissions. The nitrogen oxides(NOx) is decreased because of high viscosity and low heating values of biodiesel at low blend ratio. But NOx and Carbon monoxide(CO) are increased above a certain blend ratio. Particulate matter(PM) and Hydrocarbons(HC) is decreased according to increase of blend ratio. The size of soot is decreased and the morphology of soot is developed to cluster with increasing blend ratio.



CFD를 이용한 특수 목적 차량용 Wavy 핀 열교환기 성능에 관한 연구


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.586-592

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The wavy fins have been widely used on the compact heat exchangers in aero system, automotive, air-conditioner and cooler system. The Special Purpose Vehicle has many oil used system and it need cooling system by air in form of fin-flat tube heat exchanger. The objective of this work is to evaluate the performance of wavy fin by Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) analysis. 3 modified models were suggested to change protrude direction or to remove blocked surface bot and top of corrugated fin. The base model shows the lowest performance in pressure drop, and modified model 3 shows the highest performance in heat transfer rate. But, modified model 2 has the highest value in the Area goodness factor results, and modified model 3 has the highest value in the Volume goodness factor results.



Al6061-T6의 SP시험에 의한 FSW 용접부 파괴특성 연구

송준혁, 문민석, 오제하, 양성모, 유효선, 강희용, 김은성

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.593-599

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In this study, Equivalent fracture strain and Fracture energy were evaluated with the small punch test(SP test) for friction stir welded(FSW) Al6061-T6 sheets. With the three rotation speeds and the three feeding rate, The nine different conditions of FSW were prepared for the SP test. The SP test specimens were manufactured and tested on the advancing side, center, and retreating side to the tool rotation direction. From the SP test data, the equivalent fracture strain and the fracture energy were analyzed. The high value of equivalent fracture strain was attained form tool rotational speed 900RPM and feeding rate 330mm/min. It is found that its characteristic is about 14% higher than the value of condition 1100RPM-330mm/min that have the lowest value. The high value of fracture energy was obtained from the tool rotation speed 900RPM and feeding rate 330mm/min. The lowest fracture energy, which from 1000RPM-300mm/min, was approximately 16% difference to the highest value.



Iso-Octane/공기 혼합기에서 수증기 첨가가 점화지연시간에 미치는 영향

백동훈, 이수룡

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.600-605

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The effect of water vapor addition on the ignition delay of iso-octane/air mixture was numerically investigated with detailed chemical reaction mechanism. The Chemkin-III was utilized to evaluate the delay time of autoignition for isobaric conditions. By dilution effect and thermal effect, water vapor addition increases the ignition delay time. However, the chemical effect by adding water vapor makes the ignition delay shortened. The ignition delay by the chemical effect is reduced by two ways. Dissociation of water vapor increases the quantities of OH and H. One way is that OH directly makes the rate of iso-octane oxidation reaction 2 increase. The other is that HO2 is produced more by three-body reaction, H+O2+M →HO 2+M, which makes the rate of iso-octane oxidation reaction 3 increase. All trends of three effects are similar according to water vapor addition.



피치각에 따른 Blimp형 Rotor Craft Blade의 설계에 관한 연구


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.606-611

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In this paper, Fly robot with electric power, a kind of Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), is considered as an autonomous hovering platform, capable of vertical lift-off, landing and stationary hovering. This aircraft has four rotor and DC motors of electrical Power, which is capable of Omni-direction for indoor application. In the earlier days of vertical flight experimentation developers looked at the intuitively easy control functionality of 4 rotor designs. But we need to obtain design method of suitable structures and adequate components because the existing prototypes of 4 rotor-craft don't analyze the propeller, motor characteristic and propose a methodology to optimize this system. In design of propeller, experimental results show that thrust and power are relatively efficient at a pitch angel of 20 degree. To the conclusion, the design method and optimization method of the propeller, motor, frame, Blimp, which are the main design elements of the blimp type 4 rotor craft, were studied to optimize the existing Blimp 4 rotor craft body design method.



멀티 에어컨의 2실 동시운전 시 냉방성능 특성에 대한 실험적 연구

양동학, 권영철

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.612-617

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Cooling operation characteristics of multi-A/C(air conditioner)s were experimentally investigated for combination of indoor units (A+B, A+C, B+C) and operating conditions (standard, overload, low temperature and low temperature freezing). The operating data and performance of the air conditioner were measured using a multi-calorimeter. We also observed compressor frequency and pressure variations. From the experimental results, it was found that the cooling performance and the operating characteristics depend on operation combination of indoor units, in the case of 2 room simultaneous operation. In the four types of cooling tests, the cooling capacity and COP of the 3 room simultaneous operation and 2 room simultaneous operation were similar. Through this experimental study, data on the simultaneous operation characteristics of 2 room simultaneous operation according to the changes of indoor and outdoor temperature of four kinds were obtained.



파티클 필터방법을 이용한 사판식 유압펌프 장기신뢰성 평가에 관한 연구

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.618-622

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In this paper, the long-term reliability of swash plate type hydraulic pump is studied by prognostics method. For the purpose, the pumping power of hydraulic pump is measured for 00 cycles and the performance after 00 cycles is estimated using the particle filter method. To verify the predicted 00 cycle's performance, the actual test results are compared with the estimated result and the trend of estimation is well matched with actual test results. The long-term reliability evaluation using the prognostics method performed in this study shows the feasibility that can be utilized in development phase of tracked vehicle to improve the quality of initial products.



고속전철 내ㆍ외장재용 알루미늄 6xxx 계열 압출재의 특성 평가

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.623-629

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In this study, the whole process of 6xxx series aluminum extruded alloy for high speed train interior and exterior parts are characterized. The mechanical properties, and chemical composition of the case materials were evaluated for the 6063, 6061 and 6N01 alloy profiles and compared to the commercial materials and the evaluation results satisfied the standard. The cast product was extruded using the air slip(AS) casting method and the direct casting(DC) method and these were again heat-treated conditions with T5 or T6. The remarkable point is that the extrusion temperature and pressure of 6061 alloy were somewhat higher than those of other alloys. The reason is that 6061 alloy exhibited brittle fracture due to grain boundary segregation even at the tensile fracture surface and the fact that the product used a billet by the direct casting method instead of air slip one. The mechanical properties were evaluated for the 6063, 6061, 6N01 extruded alloys and the evaluation results were analyzed and satisfied the standard properties.



수치해석을 이용한 해저 망간단괴 집광기의 이동방향에 따른 유동장 특성 분석


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.630-637

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Numerical analysis has been carried out to investigate seawater flow field characteristics with various current directions near the manganese nodule mining device. Seawater flow near the collecting device is largely influenced by the sea current direction, especially along the downstream of the rear system. Predicted flow velocity distributions are analyzed with turbulent kinetic energy and drag force. There is big flow field variation when the direction angle between the mining device and seawater current flow approaches to 30°~ 120°, and flow velocity along the rear region of 60° becomes faster than 180°. Averaged turbulent kinetic energy at 180° also becomes low, about 57% higher at 60°. These results from the study can be applicable to the optimum design of manganese nodule collecting system in the deep seawater flow.



팬코일 유니트를 활용한 응축수 재활용 방안에 관한 연구

김동규, 박주현, 박영호

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.638-643

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During indoor air conditioning, cold condensate is generated. But until recently, this condensate has not been recycled. This experiment and research is on the technology of the condensed water recycling in air conditioning. This study demonstrates the effect of condensate recycling, contributes to energy saving and water use reduction. For this purpose, the test equipment was installed to measure the temperature of the condensate generated in the fan-coil unit, and the performance of the high-pressure pump to be applied to the cooling pipe was examined. As a result, the water quality and energy saving effect.



이륜자동차 제동장치 검사기준 제정을 위한 제동성능에 관한 연구

임재문, 하태웅

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.644-651

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The objective of this study is to construct the inspection standards of motorcycle brake system performance. Based on the Korean Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (KMVSS), the Korean Motor Vehicle Inspection Standards (KMVI), the inspection standards of the International Motor Vehicle Inspection Committee (CITA), United Kingdom and Japan, three alternative brake performance criteria were suggested. The brake performance tests for 129 various models of used motorcycles were conducted for verifying the developed test equipment and suggested three alternative criteria. The total brake performance criterion is appropriately suggested to set at 50 %. Considering the KMVI or the CITA, the brake performance criterion of rear axle may suggested to set at 20 % or 25 %, either.



건물에서 스마트스킨을 적용하여 냉방, 난방 및 조명 부하를 최적화하는 방법론 연구

조성환, 홍성기

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.652-657

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In this study, we have investigated the optimal control method and the energy saving possibility when the dimming control for lighting and the suspended particles display(SPD) glass for window were applied to reduce the lighting load and the cooling load in office buildings. Simulations were carried out during from 8:00 am to 7:00 pm of typical one day on summer, winter and intermediate season. Simulation results showed that the cooling and lighting energy usage was reduced to 21.2% compared to the baseline model. Therefore, it was possible to predict the optimum control method of the suspended particles display(SPD) window to control the transmittance for energy saving and the dimming control for lighting during summer season.



레이싱 서킷의 연속코너 최적 주행에 관한 이론적 고찰

엄정식, 최복록

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.658-663

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In this paper, we analyze various types of racing lines and search for the optimum time to pass through the chicane, which are corners smaller than 90 degree. “Best” means the minimum time at maximum speed. This indicates that the inside and outside of the running line is not able to never win the internal between the connected lines. Even in the case of Chicane driving, the vehicle can accelerate at a high speed by increasing the turning radius near the straight line. In the study, the turning angle is inevitable if the angle is large because the turning angle is 44.3 because there is no straight running width. Therefore, by keeping the speed close to the straight line along the path of the incinerator, the speed of escape from the line can be shortened.



볼텍스 튜브의 노즐 형상에 따른 토출유량 및 온도분리 특성 연구

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.664-669

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Vortex tubes are simple tubes that can separate hot and cold air from compressed air without any internal device configuration and are used in many industries. If the vortex tube with these advantages is applied to an air conditioning system, it will be free from the use of refrigerant. In this study, basic study on discharge flow rate and temperature separation characteristics was carried out by varying the number of generator nozzle hole in various shapes of the vortex tube according to the inlet pressure of the vortex tube. Experimental results show that as the number of nozzles increases, the discharge flow rate tends to decrease and the temperature separation characteristics were excellent in the number of nozzles 6~7.



LS-DYNA 해석을 통한 SUV의 충돌인자에 따른 Roof Crush 평가 예측

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.670-677

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Recently the incidence of rollover accidents has increased due to the increase of SUV, and the probability of occupant injury in rollover accidents is very high, so research is needed accordingly. In this study, PC-CRASH, which is a program used for traffic accident analysis, is used for checking rollover speed and rollover angle of each situation in case of rollover accident, and applied to design variables of LS-DYNA which is finite element analysis program, so deformation displacements of roof according to collision velocity and angle were derived. Also, it is possible to predict rollover vehicle speed by using the derived value and the measured deformation displacement of roof in actual rollover accident, and it is possible to reconstruct accident more accurately by applying to PC-Crash which is traffic accident reconstruction program, so it is thought that it can be utilized analyzing traffic accident usefully.



환자이송을 위한 휠체어 이동시트 메커니즘의 구조해석

이종선, 제양규, 이환희

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.678-684

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Structural analyses were performed for a movable seat mechanism applied in a new type shower commode wheel chair. The wheel chair has slide rails below the wheel chair seat to help patient move to bed side. The slide rails and seat were modeled for the structural simulation. Experiments were performed to validate simulation results by using strain gage Rosettes. Student t-test was performed to the experimental data, which showed that the stresses obtained from the simulation were not significantly different from those obtained from the experiments. The slide rail structure was found to give a safety factor of 2.4 under 80Kg user weight with ten rollers used for seat support. The safety factor much increased by placing more rollers under the wheel chair seat. Our simulation revealed that rollers installed only in the central and corner regions were used as supports due to the bending deformation of the seat.



혼합현실 기반 경운기 시뮬레이터 구현을 위한 동작추적 알고리즘 개발

이정민, 김병갑, 노재승, 홍순중, 김유용

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.685-690

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More than 6,000 power tiller accidents occurred in 2015, accounting for 50% of all agricultural machinery accidents. Despite this, educational institutions for farmers are only conducting theoretical education due to lack of training systems with guaranteed safety. This study developed an object motion tracking algorithm enabling trainees to control a power tiller driving simulator while wearing a HMD(head mounted display) in order to provide safe hands-on training equipment. A power tiller driving simulator was built using encoders, proximity sensors and displacement sensors to detect the locations of various operating devices such as steering clutch, and a computer model for this simulator was designed. Center coordinate synchronization of the driving simulator and the computer model was achieved with a tracker, and the motion of the power tiller driving simulator was tracked by computing position coordinates and rotation angles of the simulator. The maximum distance error was 23mm, and there was no difficulty maneuvering the driving simulator while wearing an HMD, even at maximum distance error. This motion tracking algorithm is expected to be applicable to the development of mixed reality based power tiller driving simulators for training, contributing to the reduction of power tiller accidents.



비행장에서의 터보 팬 항공기(C525) 소음 평가

김우진, 류종현

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.691-696

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Noise is unwanted sound and nerve jarring sound or mentally and physically harmful sound to the human body. In the 20th century, the aviation industry have been comprehensive industry of all areas and humanity have been globalized, the number of aircraft operated have been increased continuously. We confirmed that the actual measured noise data was consistent with the aircraft average noise data to calculate noise maps of INM version 7.0. and based on this, the actual flight scenarios and the noise map were created. For making the noise map, we assumed that the maximum number of flight is operated.



전력수요관리투자사업의 M&V를 위한 성과산정 옵션에 대한 연구


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.697-701

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In this study, we have defined measurement and verification methods and procedures to assess the energy use on the utility system of building. Time series data conversion methods and algorithms have been proposed in performance evaluation options. To verify the feasibility of the method, the energy consumption of the refrigerator, which was an energy utility, was measured and analyzed. we present an algorithm based on the annual base conversion and analyze it based on actual data. As a result, a k-means clustering moving average method was defined for the performance calculation option A, and the use time correction coefficient method was proposed. The validity of this method was verified through the verification.



유한요소해석기법을 이용한 외부 피난기구의 안전성 분석에 관한 평가


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.702-708

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In this paper, we analyzed the safety on static and dynamic characteristics of a top-down evacuation instrument fixed on the exterior walls of a building using finite element analysis. For this purpose, the stress distribution characteristics of the H-beam structure were analyzed and the equivalent stress distribution, deflection displacement and natural frequency characteristics of the overall structure of the evacuation instrument were analyzed. The structures were applied with the materials of SS440 and SUS304. The static analysis results showed the elastic behavior with safety coefficients from 2.4 to 2.9, by confirming the structural safety. In addition, the analysis of the natural frequency characteristics confirmed that the vibration characteristics were higher than the external conditions of 20Hz.



SI기관 흡기포트 제어가 부분부하 성능에 미치는 영향

김선규, 신현초

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.709-713

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The purpose of this study is to verify the effects of a port throttling and 1/4 diagonal port masking of an intake port of an SI engine. The fuel consumption rate increased with port throttling and masking under all operating conditions. However, the rapid combustion effect was increased in all operating conditions. It is consider that this is more influential on the suction resistance than the combustion efficiency increase through intake control. In addition, the increase in the burning velocity indicates that the flame propagation speed is increased by increasing the swirl moment during combustion.




다양한 운동 모드 기능성 휠체어의 설계 및 운동안정성에 대한 연구


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.714-719

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Currently various kinds of wheelchair were developed and being sold in medical device market. This research is concerned with designing and making various types of moving and functional power wheelchairs. There are two kinds of general moving type wheelchairs and translational moving type wheelchair using mecanum wheel. Dynamic theory is used to check the motion analysis and safety of wheelchairs. The specific function of wheelchairs is to reach the higher position than the sitting position. And the new way of motion of wheelchair is developed by new type of wheel. This paper proposes the very economical and useful wheelchair model.



하이브리드 데크 어셈블리의 구조설계 연구


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.720-727

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Recently, researches on light weight of vehicles have been actively carried out to reduce fuel consumption. Researchers have generally attempted to replace metal materials with composites, but these materials do not meet the required strength and rigidity of the vehicle and require a variety of design approaches. In this paper, deck assembly of truck was compared and compared with assembly using existing floor as Apitong, and it was verified by structural analysis and modal analysis. To do this, we measured the mechanical properties of the material through tests and evaluated the safety of the Deck Assembly through maximum equivalent stress, total deformation, and safety factor values. In addition, the fit of the hybrid deck assembly structure was evaluated by measuring the approximation of the analysis by single component assembly test.



압연중 측정 두께를 이용한 후판 두께 정도 향상


한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.728-732

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In this work, measured data from thickness gauge behind of the finishing mill stand was used for increasing accuracy of thickness control in plate rolling process. The Automatic Gauge Control (AGC) system of the mill could control roll gap for the remaining rolling passes based on the difference between measured and calculated thickness. This work was possible with some modification in software product system to use measured data without additional installation of equipment. As a result, the accuracy of thickness has been increased up to 31%. The accuracy of thickness control was defined as a standard deviation of the differences between target and measured final thickness of average.



마그네슘 판재 연마장치 개발

원대희, 이문수, 손수지

한국기계기술학회 한국기계기술학회지 제20권 제5호 2018.10 pp.733-737

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In this study, attention has been focused on magnesium materials, which are widely used for lightening of electronic products and mobile phones. Therefore, a polishing apparatus was fabricated by replacing the SiC abrasive used for polished surface of magnesium plate with a ceramic abrasive. The following conclusions were obtained. It is believed that the increase in productivity of 50% compared to the conventional cross-sectional polishing due to the double-side polishing of magnesium sheet can contribute to increase the company's sales. The surface roughness was measured by polishing the plate using a magnesium plate mirror polisher. The Ra, Rmax and Rz values were 0.43, 0.54 and 0.54, respectively. In this study, the optimum polishing speed was 800 m/s when the surface was polished with a magnesium surface polishing device designed and manufactured as a prototype.


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