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1

국제물품매매계약에 관한 UN협약상 물품계약적합성 - 계약적합성의 판단기준과 의무위반으로 인한 매수인의 구제권을 중심으로-

오석웅

원광대학교 법학연구소 원광법학 제24집 제2호 2008.06 pp.157-180

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Art. 35 UN-Kaufrecht legt den Maßstab fest, nach dem sich im Einzelfallfest, ob die Wahre von vertragsmäßer Beschaffenheit ist. Von Zentrale Bedeutung für das Mekmal der vertragsmäßen Beschaffenheit aus dem UN-Kaufrecht ist ein einheitlicher Begriff 'Vertragswidrigkeit'. Darunter fallen nicht nur Qualitätsabweichungen, sondern auch Quantitätsabweichungen, die Lieferung eines aliud und Verpackungsfehler. Nach Art. 35 Abs. 1 sind zunäst die vertraglichen Vereinbarungen zu berücksichtigen. Wurden ausdrückliche oder implizierte vertragliche Vereinbarungen hisichtlich der Beschaffenheit der Ware nicht getroffen, ist auf die ergänzenden Vorschriften des Art. 35 Abs. 2 zurückzugreifen. Weicht die gelieferte Ware zum maßgeblichen Zeitpunkt von der vertragsgemäßen Beschaffenheit ab, so kann der Käufer einen Rechtsbehelf wegen vertragsverletzung ausüben. Hier befindet sich die Begriff des ‘wesentliche Vertragsverletzung’in einem Spannungsverhältnis zwischen der Vertragswidrigkeit der Ware und den Rechtsbehelfen des Käufers. Die Arbrit soll einen Beitrag dazu leisten, internationalisierungsfähige Lösungsansätze zu entwickeln und damit einer möglichst einheitliche internationalen Anwendung des Art. 35 UN-kaufrecht zu dienen. Einem Verständnis des Art. 35 UN-Kaufrecht kommt aber auch Bedeutung hinsichtlich des Rechtsbehelf des Käufers im Zusammenhang mit dem Bgriff ‘wesentliche Vertragsverletzung’.

6,100원

2

국제물품매매계약에 관한 UN협약(CISG)상의 물품계약적합성과 입증책임

강정혜

한국경제법학회 경제법연구 제10권 1호 2011.06 pp.237-255

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국제물품매매계약에 관한 UN협약(CISG)은 물품계약적합성의 입증책임에 대하여 특별한 규정을 두고 있지 않다. 그 결과 CISG 제35의 해석과 관련하여, 물품계약에 적합 또는 부적합하다는 점의 입증책임에 대하여 각국에서 다양한 판결과 중재결정들이 나오고 있다. 즉 매도인이 입증책임을 진다는 견해, 매수인이 입증책임을 진다는 견해 등이 그것이다. 이러한 다양한 견해는 입증책임과 관련하여 대륙법계와 영미법계가 다른 법적 접근방법을 취하기 때문이기도 하다. 그러나 CISG의 세계법적 지위에 비추어 볼 때, CISG상의 물품계약적합성의 입증책임과 관련한 각국의 다양한 판결과 중재결정례들을 종합하여 법적 통일성을 확보할 필요가 있다고 할 것이다.
The CISG does not prescribe specific rules regarding the allocation of the burden of proof with regard to lack of conformity in goods. As a result many decisions have discussed in regard that who bears the burden of proving that goods fail to conform to the contract under article 35 at CISG. Some courts or tribunals ruled that the seller bear that burden. On the other hand, several courts or tribunals have concluded that the buyer bears the burden. Also continental law system and common law system have different legal understanding at the allocation of burden of proof. This is why there are so many diverse rulings and principles in the interpretation of burden of proof with regard to the lack of conformity at the CISG. According thereto, to ensure an internationally uniform interpretation and application is needed and this goal is achieved by the effort to rule out the main principle and uniform legal interpretation among the various national court decision on the CISG.

5,400원

4

CISG상 물품의 공법적 규제 적합성에 관한 연구 - 중국법원의 관련 판례를 중심으로 -

이병문, 박미봉

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제19권 제4호 2018.12 pp.27-53

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국제물품매매계약에 있어서 매매물품은 서로 다른 국가의 국경을 넘어야 하기 때문에 매매목적물이 어느 국가의 기준에 준하여야 하는가 하는 문제가 발생할 수 있다. 하지만 각국의 정치, 문화, 경제 등 발전수준이 서로 상이하고 동일한 제품의 품질에 관련된 소비자 보호, 노동 및 환경, 제조물 안전, 물품의 구성성분기준 등에 관한 법규에 일치하지 않을 경우 물품이 매수인국 또는 최종목적지국 또는 최종사용지국에 인도되었을지라도 통관이 거부되거나 사용이 불가하여 페기처분 해야 하거나 또는 시장가치가 전혀 없어서 전매가 금지되고 시장에서 유통이 불가하여 계약의 목적을 달성할 수 없는 문제가 발생할 수 있다. CISG는 이에 관한 명료한 규정을 두고 있지 않고 있어 문제로 지적되고 있다. 따라서 본고에서는 CISG상 매도인의 공법적 규제에 부합하는 물품의 인도의무에 관하여 학자들의 학설과 판례의 검토를 통해 공법적 규제기준의 적용원칙 및 예외원칙을 살펴봄과 더불어 중국법원의 관련 판례 분석을 통해 중국법원의 물품적합성에 관한 공법적 규제기준의 적용과 해석 원칙이 국제적 흐름에 부합하는지 여부를 고찰하도록 한다.
This study addresses various issues related to which national sets of public law standards (e.g., product safety regulations, product liability, sanitation, labors, circumstances, sanitary and health standards) should apply to the goods exported under a cross-border sales contract from one country to another. This question arises particularly where those sets of public law standards are different among countries. As to this question it deals with the rules for the seller's duty to deliver the goods conforming to the public law standards under the CISG by examining scholars writings and case holdings. In addition, it attempts to investigate one of Chinese cases which deals with such question and evaluate its holdings in a comparative way to the position under the CISG.

6,600원

5

국제물품매매에서 물품계약적합성에 관한 연구

오현석

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.66 2015 pp.25-46

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The purpose of this paper is to provide a legal implication about conformity of goods in the international commercial transactions. There are so many legal relationship after the formation of contract. The most of important thing among the obligations of seller is to provide conformal goods which are of quantity, quality and description required by the contract and which are contained or packaged in the manner required by the contract. If seller violate above duties, seller take the warranty liability. However, CISG describe the conformity of the goods instead of the warranty as follows. First, CISG Art.35(1) states standards for determining whether goods delivered by the seller conform to the contract and Art.35(2) describes standards relating to the goods' quality, function and packaging that, while not mandatory, are presumed to be a part of sales contracts. Article 35(2) is comprised of four subparts. Two of the subparts (article 35(2) (a) and article 35(2)(d)) apply to all contracts unless the parties have agreed otherwise. Second, CISG Art.36 and 38 deals with the time at which a lack of conformity in the goods must have arisen in order for the seller to be liable for it. If seller lack of conformity becomes apparent only after that time, seller is liable for a lack of conformity existing when risk passed to the buyer. Third, CISG Art.49 describe that a buyer who claims that delivered goods do not conform to the contract has an obligation to give the seller notice of the lack of conformity. The most of important things about CISG articles and precedents is that buyer is aware of the lack of conformity and notice it to seller. Failure to satisfy the notice requirements of article 39 eliminates a buyer's defence, based on a lack of conformity in delivered goods, to a seller's claim for payment of the price. Consequently, parties of contract had better agree to the notifying times about lack of conformity. Also, If seller fined the non-conformity, seller has to notify this circumstance to the buyer within short period or agreed time.

원문보기
6

국제물품매매계약에서 포장의 계약적합성에 관한 연구

김재성, 박세훈

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.54 2012 pp.123-144

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Seller shall deliver the goods with a perfect condition of packing or container in international trade. Unless otherwise seller shall warranty that the goods arrive at destination with a safe and economic value. Buyer may ask packing is to be made in specific condition or refuse to accept when the packing is not made in accordance with trade customs between among merchants. Especially packing is to be considered under the local law and process. Sometimes tax will be added to specific condition of packing for example glasses, metal sheet or others. Warning signs shall be included as form of both words and diagrams, and be in form of ensuring understanding in the local market. Wide range of warning signs can be used for communications and understanding of packing. Packing of a product can usefully symbolize a range of product information, or any relevant warnings, and give an opportunity for displaying messages of promoting the company and the goods. The seller may choose the best method to maintain its value but find a way to reduce packing cost, size for convenience during delivery, design, and local customs. There are many things to be considered for packing to seller. The purpose of packing is to protect the goods itself and to maintain its economic value during storage, delivery, transshipment, and distribution to end users.

원문보기
7

국제물품매매거래에서 매도인의 계약적합성물품 인도의무에 관한 비교연구

오원석, 이병문

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.37 2008 pp.3-33

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study primarily concerns the seller's duty to deliver the goods in conformity with the contract under the United Nations Convention on International Sale of Goods(1980) in comparison with the Draft Principles of European Sales Law. It describes and analyzes the provisions of the CISG as to the seller's duty, focusing on main controversial issues among scholars in their application. It also attempts to compare the rules of the CISG with those of the Draft PESL and to evaluate them in light of the discipline of comparative law. This is for the purpose of facilitating the systematic development and reform of one jurisdiction by any solution from the other jurisdiction found by the comparative study. In addition, this study provides legal and practical advice to the contracting parties when they intends to insert the CISG or the Draft PESL in their contract as a governing law. The comparative study particularly focuses on the following aspects; first, requirements for conformity with the contract which deals with the concept of conformity with the contract, contractual requirements agreed between contractual parties, and implied requirements otherwise not agreed between contractual parties, second, the time when the goods must be in conformity with the contract, third, exclusions of the seller's duty to deliver the goods in conformity with the contract.

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8

FOB 계약(契約)에서 물품적합성조항(物品適合性條項)의 유효성(有效性) 문제(問題) -The Mercini Lady 사건(事件)을 중심으로-

최명국

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.58 2013 pp.35-58

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

In Mash & Murrell, Diplock J said that "there is an implied warranty not merely that they shall be merchantable at the time they are put on the vessel, but that they shall be in such a state that they can endure the normal journey and be in a merchantable condition upon arrival." But in The Mercini Lady, Field J said that "the goods would be of satisfactory quality not only when the goods were delivered on to the vessel but also for a reasonable time thereafter." and "The proposed conditions were not excluded by clause 18. ${\cdots}$ clause 18 was not to be construed as extending to conditions ${\cdots}$". In relation to the problems on validity of the goods conformity clauses in FOB contracts, when considering Lord Wright's comments ("${\cdots}$ hence apt and precise words must be used to exclude it: the words guarantee or warranty are not sufficiently clear.") in Cammell Laird & Co Ltd v Manganese Bronze and Brass, FOB contracts are fundamentally one that seller's duty to deliver the goods is completing at the port of shipment and "principle of party autonomy" in Contract Law, I do not think that the terms implied by section 14 of the SGA and Common Law cannot absolutely excluded by the goods conformity clauses in sale contracts. Therefore, in order to exclude the implied terms, the parties must very clearly spell out this in the relevant clauses.

원문보기
9

국제물품매매계약에서 물품적합성에 관한 비교연구

오원석, 민주희

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.51 2011 pp.79-99

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study describes the seller's duty to deliver the goods in conformity with the contract. The purpose of this study is twofold: to analyze the seller's principal duty, comparing the United Nations Convention on the International Sale of Goods(CISG) with Sale of Goods Act(SGA) and to provide legal and practical advice to contracting parties who consider CISG or SGA as a governing law. This paper first considers the requirements for the conformity with the contract, which means contractual requirements agreed between parties and implied requirements not agreed between parties. Following this, the exclusion of the seller's duty to deliver the goods required by the contract is described. Finally, this paper ends up giving contracting parties legal and practical advice.

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