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1

개설은행의 불일치통지 위반에 따른 신용장대금 지급거절관련 사례 연구 - 중국의 판례를 중심으로 -

하현수

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제18권 제4호 2017.12 pp.321-342

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UCP 600 제16조는 신용장조건 불일치 사항과 관련한 종합적인 가이드라인을 규정하였다. 이러한 UCP의 불일치 사항에 따른 신용장 대금 지급거절에 대한 명확한 규정은 신용장의 신뢰를 제고시키고, 관련 규정의 불명확에서 발생하는 분쟁을 감소시키는데 일정한 기여를 하고 있다. 이러한 ICC의 노력에도 불구하고 본 논문에서 살펴본 사례에서 중국 법원은 UCP의 불일치통지 관련 규정을 자의적으로 해석하여 자국 기업에 유리한 판결을 내림으로써, 그간 ICC 등이 신용장관련 규정을 통일시키고 이를 통해 신용장 거래의 안정을 확보하고자 하는 노력에 적지 않은 문제를 발생시켰다. 이에 본 연구에서는 UCP 600의 불일치통지와 관련된 규정을 분석하고, 이를 기초로 중국 법원이 신용장 불일치통지와 관련하여 자국 기업에 편파적으로 내린 판결을 분석하였다. 이러한 분석을 통해 도출되는 문제점을 기반으로, 중국 기업과 신용장 거래를 하는 국내의 개설의뢰인 또는 수익자는 물론 개설은행을 포함한 신용장거래에 참여하는 기타 모든 은행들이 유의하여야 할 사항을 제시하였다.
UCP 600 Article 16 provides comprehensive guidelines for discrepancy in L/C transaction. The clear provisions for refusing the payment of L/C based on discrepancies on UCP have made a certain contribution to enhancing the credibility of L/C and reducing the disputes arising from the uncertainty of the relevant provisions. In spite of these ICC efforts, the Chinese court arbitrarily interpreted the provisions of discrepancy notification on UCP and made favorable judgement to the Chinese company, so that it causes some problems to ICC’s efforts to unify the provisions of L/C and to ensure the stability of L/C transaction. Therefore, this study analyzed the provisions related to the discrepancy notification on UCP 600, and also analyzed the judgement of the Chinese court. Based on the problems arising from the case analysis, this study proposes some special attentions to the parties dealing with Chinese companies in L/C transaction including Korean applicant or beneficiary as well as issuing bank.

5,800원

2

중국의 신용장 사기규칙 적용 예외에 관한 연구

하현수

한국무역통상학회 무역통상학회지 제17권 제4호 2017.08 pp.113-133

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Even though there exists a fraud in the Letter of Credit(L/C) transaction, the fraud rule cannot be applied into every case. The parties in the L/C transaction that meet certain requirements can be excluded from the application of the fraud rules even if there is a fraud in the L/C transaction. Moreover, UCP(Uniform Customs and Practice for Documentary Credits) does not have any regulations on fraud rules, so it is subject to the national laws of each country. In practice, there is no internationally uniform rule regarding the exception of fraud rules. Therefore, the countries like United States and China have enacted and enforced a law related to the L/C fraud rule because the banks in those countries open lots of L/C. This paper verifies what kind of qualifications of Chinese parties in L/C transaction can be an exception of application to the L/C fraud rules. Moreover, this paper analyzed the features and problems related to the exception from the application of Chinese L/C fraud rules and also suggested some precautions to our companies who deal with Chinese companies under L/C transaction.

5,700원

3

중국과 대만의 투자자와 상대방 정부 간 투자분쟁의 해결제도에 관한 연구

하현수

한국무역통상학회 무역통상학회지 제18권 제5호 2018.10 pp.23-42

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On August 9, 2012, China and Taiwan concluded a “Strait Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement” as a follow-up agreement following the conclusion of the Economic Cooperation Framework Agreement (ECFA). Through this agreement, they tried to steadily expand the economic exchanges between two regions by providing a more stable investment environment and systematic protection to investors in China and Taiwan. In addition, China and Taiwan stipulated various dispute settlement systems reflecting the specificity of these regions in relation to investment disputes between investors and investment host countries in the “Straits Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement”. This paper mainly examined the mediation system of investment dispute settlement institutions among the dispute settlement systems between the investors and the host countries’ government stipulated in the 'Strait Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement'. In addition, through these analyses, this paper figures out the problems of the dispute settlement method between the investor and the counterpart government as stipulated in the “Strait Bilateral Investment Protection and Promotion Agreement” and suggests domestic investment companies that have entered China or Taiwan to taking care of when they want to resolve the dispute using the above dispute settlement system.

5,500원

4

중국의 국내계약에 외국중재를 약정한 중재합의의 효력에 관한 판례 연구

하현수

한국무역통상학회 무역통상학회지 제18권 제2호 2018.04 pp.53-72

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There are cases in which domestic companies in China arrange foreign arbitration because of the problems in credibility and cost of domestic arbitration, the convenience of foreign arbitration, and problems in the application of arbitration procedures and practical laws. Even domestic companies have committed domestic disputes to foreign arbitration during the arbitration agreement. In other words, even though it is a contract between a Chinese company and a Chinese company without any international contract elements, they arrange foreign institutional arbitration or foreign ad hoc arbitration. Chinese current legal and judicial interpretation does not stipulate the effect of any foreign arbitration agreements on contracts without international contract elements. We only can verify the attitude of Chinese court on the foreign arbitration agreement through answering of Supreme People’s Court of China about the request of lower court. This paper examines the attitude of Chinese courts to foreign arbitration agreements for contracts without international contract elements through the actual case. In addition, through case analysis, the study also examined the precautions for Korean investment companies in China in case of that Korean companies arrange foreign arbitration institutions for the arbitration agreement with Chinese companies.

5,500원

5

중국의 집단적 노동분쟁 해결제도에 관한 연구

하현수

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제19권 제4호 2018.12 pp.237-257

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본 연구는 2000년 이후 중국에서 집단적 노동분쟁이 급속히 증가하고 있음을 인식하고, 중국이 집단적 노동분쟁에 대해 어떻게 정의를 내리고 있는지, 집단적 노동분쟁을 어떻게 분류하고 있는지, 그리고 분류 유형별로 어떠한 해결절차를 따르고 있는지에 대하여 살펴보았다. 즉, 본 논문은 현실적 통계 수치와 법률 규정을 이용하여 중국의 집단적 노동분쟁을 구분하고 그 해결제도를 정리하였다. 이를 통해 중국의 집단적 노동분쟁이 어떠한 특징을 가지고 있는지 그리고 어떠한 문제점이 있는지를 확인하였다. 이러한 일련의 분석을 통해 중국에 진출한 우리 기업들이 집단적 노동분쟁의 해결제도와 관련하여 유의하여야 할 사항에 대해서도 확인하였다.
Under the recognition of the rapid increase of collective labor disputes in China since 2000, this study attempts to examine how China is defining collective labor disputes, how to classify collective labor disputes, and what kind of resolution procedures are followed based on types classified. In other words, this paper classifies collective labor disputes in China using realistic statistical data and legal regulations, and then summarizes the resolution system for them. Through this examination, this paper verifies the features of collective labor disputes in China and some problems caused. Through the analysis, this study also confirmed the matters that Korean companies that have entered China have to pay attention to regarding the collective labor disputes resolution system.

5,700원

6

중국을 중재지로 합의한 외국중재기관의 중재에 관한 연구

하현수

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제19권 제2호 2018.06 pp.1-23

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중국은 외국중재기관이 중국을 중재지로 하여 중재를 진행하는 것과 관련하여, 이를 허용할지 여부 그리고 허용한다면 어느 정도까지 허용할 것인지에 대해 명확한 규정이 없다. 본 논문에서는 외국중재기관이 중국을 중재지로 하는 중재합의가 중국에서 유효하게 인정되고 있는지, 이러한 중재합의가 유효하게 인정되고 있다면 이를 근거로 내려진 중재판정이 중국 국내판정으로 인정되는지 아니면 외국판정으로 인정되는지, 그리고 이러한 중재판정이 중국에서 승인 및 집행되는 것이 가능한지, 가능하다면 어떤 법률 규정이 적용되는지 등에 중점을 두어 연구를 진행하였다. 이를 위하여 최근 20여 년간의 중국 법원의 관련 판례를 분석하고, 이러한 분석결과를 중국의 관련 법률 및 사법해석과 비교 분석하였다. 이러한 분석을 통해 도출된 내용을 근거로 외국중재기관을 이용하여 중국에서 중재를 진행하는 경우에 발생하는 문제점을 확인하고, 이러한 문제점에 우리나라 기업들이 대처할 수 있는 방안을 제시하였다.
Regarding the arbitration of foreign arbitration institute based on China as the place of arbitration, China has no clear rules as to whether or not to permit and to what extent if it is permitted. Therefore, this paper verified whether the arbitration agreement of foreign arbitration institute that agreed China as the place of arbitration is accepted as valid in China or not, and if the arbitration agreement is recognized as valid, the arbitration award based on this agreement is accepted as either the domestic judgment or the foreign judgment. Moreover, this paper verified whether the arbitration award can be approved and enforced in China, and if so, what legal provisions can be applied. To verify this, this study analyzes the cases of Chinese courts over the past 20 years and compares the results of analysis with related Chinese legal regulations and judicial interpretations. Based on the results of this analysis, this study verifies the problems that arise when arbitration is conducted in China using foreign arbitration institutions, and suggests ways for Korean companies to cope with these problems.

6,000원

7

중국 법원의 상사중재판정 집행거부사유로서 공서양속 적용에 관한 실증적 연구

하현수

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제18권 제2호 2017.06 pp.291-316

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중국은 과거 법관의 자질부족, 자국민 보호주의, 그리고 중재관련 법규의 미비 등이 이유가 되서 외국중재판정의 승인 및 집행을 거부하는 사례가 많았으며, 이때 거부사유로 공서양속 위반이 적용되는 경우가 많았다. 그러나 중국의 법원의 외국중재판정에 대한 빈번한 승인 및 집행 거부는 외국 당사자들로부터 중국의 중재제도 및 중재기관이 외면 받게 하였다. 이같이 중국의 상사중재제도 및 중재기관의 발전에 부정적인 영향을 미치게 됨에 따라서, 중국 최고인민법원은 1995년에 ‘사전보고제도’를 시행하여, 하급심 법원이 외국중재판정을 승인 및 집행 거부하고자 하는 경우에는 필히 최고인민법원의 사전 승인을 얻은 이후에 거부판결을 내리도록 하였다. 필자는 중국 최고인민법원의 사전보고제도 시행 이후 중국 법원이 외국중재판정의 승인 및 집행 심사에 있어서 공서양속을 어떻게 적용하고 있는지를 분석하였다. 이를 위하여 중국의 하급심 법원이 중국 최고인민법원에 중재판정의 승인 및 집행 거부판결의 동의를 요구한 모든 사례를 정리하고, 동일 사안에 대한 하급심과 최고인민법원의 판단의 차이를 분석하였다. 이를 통해 중국 법원의 중재판정 승인 및 집행 거부사유로서의 공서양속에 대한 태도를 파악하였다.
China has refused to approve and enforce foreign arbitral awards because of lack of qualifications of judges, protectionism for their citizens, and insufficient law related to arbitration and the violation of public order and good moral is the reason for refusal. However, the frequent refusals of approval and enforcement by Chinese court about foreign arbitral awards cause foreign parties to avoid Chinese arbitral system and institute. Because this negatively affects to the development of Chinese arbitral system and institute, Chinese supreme people’s court based on ‘preliminary reporting system’ in 1995 tried to obtain the prior approval from Chinese supreme people’s court when the lower courts want to deny the approval and enforcement of foreign arbitral award. The authors analyzed how the Chinese courts apply the public order and good moral in the approval and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards after the enforcement of the preliminary reporting system by Chinese Supreme People's Court. Moreover, the study attempts to analyze the differences of judgment in the same case between the lower courts and Chinese supreme people’s court through case analysis which is the cases that the lower courts request the agreement to supreme people’s court about refusal of approval and enforcement in arbitral awards. In this way, the study recognizes the attitude toward public order and good moral as refusal of approval and enforcement in arbitral awards of Chinese courts.

6,400원

8

중국의 신용장 사기규칙 적용을 위한 인정기준에 관한 연구 - 미국 통일상법전의 신용장사기 인정기준과의 비교를 중심으로 -

하현수

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제17권 제3호 2016.09 pp.257-281

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중국 최고인민법원은 어떠한 사기 또는 누구에 의해 사기가 있어야 신용장 사기규칙을 적용할 수 있을지 즉 신용장사기 인정기준을 사법해석의 형태로 제정하고 있다. 그러나 중국이 규정하고 있는 신용장사기 인정기준은 미국 등에서 규정하고 있는 인정기준에 비하여 보다 포괄적이고 모호한 부분이다. 이러한 결과는 중국 법원에 신용장 사기규칙 적용상의 명확한 가이드라인을 제공하지 못하는 경우도 발생하고 있다. 본 논문은 중국의 신용장사기 인정기준의 특징 또는 문제점 등을 확인하기 위하여 미국의 관련 법률 규정 및 판례 등을 상호 비교분석하였다. 미국의 관련 법률 및 판례와 비교분석한 이유는 미국 법원이 전 세계 최초로 신용장관련 사기사건에서 사기규칙을 인정하였으며, 또한 미국은 신용장 사기규칙과 관련한 사항을 비교적 완전하게 법률로 제정하고 있기 때문이다. 즉 미국은 통일상법전에 신용장 사기규칙과 관련한 내용을 규정하고 있다. 미국과의 비교를 통해 나타난 중국 신용장사기 인정기준의 문제점은 인정기준의 모호성, 신용장사기 주체의 모호성 등으로 요약할 수 있다.
The Chinese supreme people court legislates a form of the judicial interpretation for the approval standard of the L/C fraud whether what kinds of fraud or fraud happened by whom can be applied to the fraud rule in L/C. However, the approval standard of L/C fraud regulated by China is more comprehensive and ambiguous than the approval standard regulated by the U.S. As a result, Chinese court does not provide the clear guideline for applying the fraud rule in L/C. The study attempts the comparative analysis for the U.S. related provision of law and precedent to verify the features and problems on the approval standard of Chinese L/C fraud. The reason why the study compares with the U.S. related law and precedent is that the U.S. court accepted the fraud rule under L/C related fraud cases for the first time. Moreover, the U.S. legislates a relatively complete L/C fraud rules as a law, UCC(Uniform Commercial Code). The problems of approval standard in Chinese L/C fraud verified by the comparison with the U.S. are ambiguity of approval standard and fraud principal.

6,300원

11

7,300원

12

중국과 대만 간 투자분쟁해결제도에 관한 연구

하현수

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.22 No.2 2012 pp.31-52

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Although political uncertainty exists between China and Taiwan, the two countries have been expanding their economic exchange since the 1980s. That economic exchange is not limited to trade, and its investment segment is constantly expanding. The investment was one-sided by Taiwan in the past, but since a change in policy by the Taiwan government in 2009, Chinese capital is able to flow into Taiwan for direct investment. These kinds of policy changes related to investment between the two countries require follow-up actions such as profit protection for investors, elimination of investment limitations, simplification of investment procedures, and establishment of an investment dispute resolution system. The main topic of this study is the resolution mechanism for investment disputes between China and Taiwan. At present, an individual investment dispute between two countries is settled according to each country's own regulations for dispute resolution. However, these two countries have not prepared dispute resolution regulations related to cases of investment disputes between Chinese or Taiwanese investors and the Chinese or Taiwanese government, or between the Chinese government and the Taiwanese government. Moreover, they do not have any agreements related to investment disputes. Therefore, in this paper, I enumerate the regulations related to investment dispute resolution between China and Taiwan, and then I point out the problems and suggest solutions for improvement. Also, through this study, I would like to contribute to establishing and implementing an investment dispute resolution mechanism between South Korea and North Korea.

원문보기
13

중국의 국제상사중재합의 효력에 관한 연구

하현수

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.22 No.3 2012 pp.25-46

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

China instituted arbitration law on September 1, 1995, after having legislated the law under the UNCITRAL Model Law. However, Chinese arbitration law has some problems related to the effectiveness of its arbitration agreement, unlike the UNCITRAL Model Law. Thus, parties in dispute who want to settle a dispute based on Chinese arbitration law as governing law have more to take into consideration because there could be serious problems related to the effectiveness of the arbitration agreement. Therefore, this paper attempted to analyze the classification of jurisdiction related to the authorization of effectiveness in arbitration agreement of arbitral organization and Chinese, verify the problems, and suggest the solutions. Moreover, the author tried to verify the problems in applying the law related to the authorization of effectiveness in Chinese arbitration agreements and suggest some improvements. This paper also suggests improvements and problems related to the selection of arbitral organizations among several conditions for effective arbitration agreement in Chinese arbitration law. Finally, the author suggests some cautions and countermeasures related to arbitrations agreement for domestic investors and traders dealing with the Chinese.

원문보기
14

중국의 투자자-국가 간 분쟁 해결제도에 관한 연구

하현수

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.23 No.4 2013 pp.29-53

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Chinese ISD has been changed a lot since the reformation policy in 1978 and it is expected that China will present a changed attitude toward its advantage as its industrialization continues to advance. This study generally examines the ISD in BIT and also considers not only the attitude of China with regard to ISD but also the changes on the Chinese side. Moreover, this study determines the areas on which the Chinese government focuses. In order to conduct this study, the author attempts to classify the attitudes on ISD into chronical change and treaty powers based on the analysis of BIT. In addition, the paper examines the main contents of ISD in BIT which previously involved an agreement such as arbitral institution, arbitral range, counter-measures of local country, standard for admitting the nationality of corporate investors, and recognition and enforcement of arbitral award. Based on analysis, this paper mentions matters that require attention and caution in the Korea-China FTA as regards investment negotiation, and also suggests instructions for investors who may face dispute with the Chinese government.

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중국 법원의 중재판정 승인 및 집행에서 공공질서 적용에 관한 연구

하현수

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.21 No.3 2011 pp.115-136

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In the past, Chinese arbitral system and Chinese arbitral associations were avoided by international society due to the cases which Chinese court rejected the recognition and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards based on rural protection. Especially Chinese court adjudicated to reject the recognition and enforcement of arbitral awards by interpreting public policy broadly. The abuse of public policy by court threats the existence of commercial arbitration system. Under this awareness, the author figured out Chinese court shows what kind of attitude about public policy of Chinese court in the present through analyzing the cases about rejection of enforcement in Chinese arbitral awards in order to analyze whether Chinese court still maintain the negative attitude like past or there exist changes with public policy which is one of the rejection reasons of recognition and enforcement in foreign arbitral awards as the central figure. Chinese court behaved in an uncooperative attitude about arbitral awards like that it reached a verdict to reject the enforcement of arbitral awards by reason of violation in public policy about several foreign arbitral awards at the beginning stage of establishing arbitration law. However, the situation of abuse in public policy was improved a lot by Chinese prime court which enforces pre-inspection system about judgment of rejection of enforcement in arbitral awards. So, there is no case about rejecting the approval and enforcement of arbitral awards by reason of violation in public policy by Chinese court except Yongning Co. case. Moreover, Chinese court got the trust and support from other countries through reinforcement of applied standard. However, Chinese court had been expressed concern from international society because they highly applied public policy and rejected to enforce arbitral awards in the recent case of Yongning Co.. Therefore, this study examined whether it is appropriate to apply public policy of Chinese court in the case of Yongning Co., and then I concluded that. Although Yongning Co. case is the first case which Chinese prime court agrees with public policy by reason of rejection of approval and enforcement in foreign arbitral awards, in my opinion, it doesn't mean that Chinese court has fundamental change in basic attitude and position about the approval and enforcement of foreign arbitral awards. Chinese court keeps the cautious uses of public policy in legal judgment of foreign arbitral awards and it looks like implementing the obligation in regulation of New York Convention sincerely.

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중국의 노동쟁의 현황 및 처리제도에 관한 연구

하현수

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.20 No.3 2010 pp.93-120

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In 1978, Chinese reform and opening caused a big changes in Chinese labor relationship. Through reforming and opening, China gave up part of state ownership system and group ownership system, permitted private ownership system, and also opened the way for capitalists to ride again. Since China was established, the labor relationship ceased for 30 years has been appeared. However because the top priority aim of China's reform was economic growth, the protection of the rights and interests of labor was pushed back on the policy priority list. China takes foreign capitals based on cheap labor force quickly and China come up the worldwide plants. Since reformed, China keeps an economic growth rate of 9.7% annually for 30years. This economic growth is based on labor's sacrifice. However, Chinese fast economic growth causes side effects such as increasement of the gap between the wealthy and the poor, increasement of unbalanced development between regions, and the increasement of conflict between labor and management. Especially, according to changes in labors' level of consciousness, the labors recognized that their rights and interests are exploited by employers. Therefore, the labor dispute is continuously increasing. Chinese government changes their policy from the policy focusing on enterprise development to the policy protecting labor's rights and interests. In order to protect labor's rights and interests, China conducts labor contract law and labor dispute conciliation arbitration law in 2008. This kind of changes in Chinese labor environment affect a lot to Korean companies which already entered into China or are willing to enter. According to studying on present situation and resolution system in Chinese labor dispute, this paper suggests the proper countermeasure related to labor dispute of Korean companies which entered in China. First, the success rate of labor dispute conciliation by enterprise labor dispute conciliation committee is around 20% during recent several years and the success rate by year is in decline. Therefore, when labor dispute is occurred, our companies which entered into China better use other labor dispute methods such as negotiation and arbitration than conciliation in order to settle a conflict. Second, from the Korean enterprises entered in China point of view, there exists a problem not to sue except special cases which provided in the law even though they are dissatisfied with arbitrate judgment. Thus, when labor dispute occurred, Korean enterprises try to do best to settle the dispute through negotiation. However, in case of that the dispute cannot be settled by negotiation, they have to attend in the arbitration as if it is a last chance. Third, Korean enterprises keep in mind that dispute handling procedures between labor union and users or between labor group and users are different, and then deal with separately. Thus, dispute between labor and users have to follow arbitrate procedures as a necessary procedure, but in case of dispute related to group contract, namely dispute against labor union, labor dispute can be settled by arbitrate or suit, so after figuring out the situation exactly, it is necessary to select more advantageous way in order to settle the dispute. Moreover, in case of the dispute between labor union, they have to keep in mind that conciliation procedures cannot be used.

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SRGAN 기반의 CCTV 영상 화질 개선 기법

하현수, 황병연

[Kisti 연계] 한국멀티미디어학회 멀티미디어학회논문지 Vol.21 No.9 2018 pp.1027-1034

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CCTV has been known to possess high level of objectivity and utility. Hence, the government has recently focused on replacing low quality CCTV with higher quality ones or even by adding high resolution CCTV. However, converting all existing low-quality CCTV to high quality can be extremely costly. Furthermore, low quality videos prior to CCTV replacement are likely to be of poor quality and thus not utilized correctly. In order to solve these problems, this paper proposes a method to improve videos quality of images using SRGAN(Super Resolution Generative Advisory Networks). Through experiments, we have proven that it is possible to improve low quality CCTV videos clearly. For this experiment, a total of 4 types of CCTV videos were used and 10,000 images were sampled from each type. Those images could then be used for machine learning. The fact that the pre-process for machine learning has been done manually and the long time that required for machine learning seems to be complementary.

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드론 비행 조종을 위한 자이로센서 데이터 기계학습 모델

하현수, 황병연

[Kisti 연계] 한국멀티미디어학회 멀티미디어학회논문지 Vol.20 No.6 2017 pp.927-934

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As the technology of drone develops, the use of drone is increasing, In addition, the types of sensors that are inside of smart phones are becoming various and the accuracy is enhancing day by day. Various of researches are being progressed. Therefore, we need to control drone by using smart phone's sensors. In this paper, we propose the most suitable machine learning model that matches the gyro sensor data with drone's moving. First, we classified drone by it's moving of the gyro sensor value of 4 and 8 degree of freedom. After that, we made it to study machine learning. For the method of machine learning, we applied the One-Rule, Neural Network, Decision Tree, and Navie Bayesian. According to the result of experiment that we designated the value from gyro sensor as the attribute, we had the 97.3 percent of highest accuracy that came out from Naive Bayesian method using 2 attributes in 4 degree of freedom. On and the same, in 8 degree of freedom, Naive Bayesian method using 2 attributes showed the highest accuracy of 93.1 percent.

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19

트위터를 활용한 실시간 이벤트 탐지에서의 재난 키워드 필터링과 지명 검출 기법

하현수, 황병연

[Kisti 연계] 한국정보처리학회 정보처리학회논문지/소프트웨어 및 데이터 공학 Vol.5 No.7 2016 pp.345-350

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본 논문에서는 트위터를 활용하여 이벤트를 실시간으로 탐지하는 시스템에서의 재난 키워드 필터링과 지명 검출 기법을 제안한다. 스마트폰의 보급이 SNS의 빠른 확산을 이끌었고, 최근 SNS를 활용하여 다양한 연구들이 진행되고 있다. SNS 중에서 트위터는 140자의 단문으로 작성되어 빠르게 확산되는 특성을 가지고 있다. 따라서 트윗 사용자들이 작성하는 트윗은 하나의 센서 역할을 수행할 수 있다. 이러한 특성들을 이용하여 발생한 이벤트를 탐지하는 연구가 진행되었다. 그러나 최근 개인 정보 유출 사례가 증가해 자신의 위치 정보를 공개하기 꺼려함에 따라 재난이 발생한 지역을 파악하는데 어려움이 있다. 또한 맞춤법을 따르지 않은 게시글의 내용을 분석하는 과정에서 정확성과 관련된 문제가 발생한다. 따라서 이벤트 발생 탐지 과정에 재난 관련 키워드 필터링과 지명 검출 기법이 추가적으로 적용되어야 한다. 본 논문에서는 재난 관련 키워드 필터링의 적용과 두 가지 지명 검출 기법을 제안한다. 지명을 검출하는 두 가지 기법은 지명 단어에서 발생되는 노이즈를 제거하는 지명 노이즈 제거 기법과 랜드 마크를 이용하여 지명 단어를 확정하는 지명 확정 기법이다. 재난 관련 키워드와 두 지명 검출 기법을 적용한 결과 기존 시스템의 정확도 49%에서 지명노이즈 제거기법은 78%, 지명확정기법은 89%로 향상되었다.
This research suggests the keyword filtering about disaster and the method of detecting area in real-time event detecting system by analyzing contents of twitter. The diffusion of smart-mobile has lead to a fast spread of SNS and nowadays, various researches based on studying SNS are being processed. Among SNS, the twitter has a characteristic of fast diffusion since it is written in 140 words of short paragraph. Therefore, the tweets that are written by twitter users are able to perform a role of sensor. By using these features the research has been constructed which detects the events that have been occurred. However, people became reluctant to open their information of location because it is reported that private information leakage are increasing. Also, problems associated with accuracy are occurred in process of analyzing the tweet contents that do not follow the spelling rule. Therefore, additional designing keyword filtering and the method of area detection on detecting real-time event process were required in order to develop the accuracy. This research suggests the method of keyword filtering about disaster and two methods of detecting area. One is the method of removing area noise which removes the noise that occurred in the local name words. And the other one is the method of determinating the area which confirms local name words by using landmarks. By applying the method of keyword filtering about disaster and two methods of detecting area, the accuracy has improved. It has improved 49% to 78% by using the method of removing area noise and the other accuracy has improved 49% to 89% by using the method of determinating the area.

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20

중국 법원의 선택적 중재합의에 대한 태도

하현수

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.26 No.2 2016 pp.3-25

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Lately each country tends to provide neutrality and ease of enforcement in order to settle disputes related to international trade through commercial arbitration. In order to expand the use of arbitration systems, most countries accept arbitration agreements as an effective tool agreed between parties that express their intent to settle disputes by the arbitration. It is applied equally to selective arbitration agreements and parties can select either arbitration or lawsuit to settle disputes based on the contract intent for selective arbitration agreements. However, China does not admit the effectiveness of selective arbitration agreements. Chinese courts regard selective arbitration agreements as not valid because the contract of a selective arbitration agreement between parties is not a definite expression to only use the arbitration and there is no exclusion of court jurisdiction. Therefore, the study attempts to consider effective conditions for selective arbitration agreements in the Chinese arbitration act and other relevant regulations, and also verifies the judgment by Chinese courts on relevant disputes. As a result, the study explores some problems and implications of Chinese selective arbitration agreements and suggests some precautions in case Korean companies pursue selective arbitration agreements with Chinese enterprises and investors.

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