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3

중년 여성의 라이프스타일에 따른 가정내 지속가능한 식생활 실천

장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 한국식생활문화학회 한국식생활문화학회지 Vol.33 No.1 2018 pp.1-10

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Sustainable meal management at home will be affected by the lifestyle of the housewife. This study examined the lifestyle of middle aged women and identified their practice levels of sustainable meal management at home. A total of 438 women, aged 35 to 59, managing the family's dietary life at home and living in Seoul, Gyeonggi Province, Daejeon, and Chonnan area participated in the survey. The middle aged women showed a higher performance level of hygiene-oriented (4.15) and health-oriented dietary life (3.59), but a less convenience-oriented dietary life (2.57). Based on their lifestyle, 3 clusters were extracted: Low-interest dietary life meal manager, health and quality pursuit meal manager, and convenience and eating-out pursuit active meal manager. Among them, the cluster of health and quality pursuit meal manager showed the highest sustainable practices in 7 dimensions of sustainable practices in the home except for the saving practices (p<0.001). The criteria suggested from the study can be applicable to the guidelines of sustainable meal management at home. The study can also be helpful for educators to identify the education themes for improving housewife's sustainable meal practices, having different lifestyle and sustainable meal practices.

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4

노인복지시설의 급식서비스 품질 요소 규명 및 급식서비스 만족도 향상 전략

장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 대한지역사회영양학회 대한지역사회영양학회지 Vol.13 No.1 2008 pp.69-79

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This study was designed to develop the strategy plans for the customer satisfaction on foodservice in the senior care facilities. For this, we examined the level of the customer satisfaction and foodservice quality. Additionally, the association between service quality, customer satisfaction, and social, psychological, physical factors of the aged were tested. Data from convenience samples from 3 senior care facilities were collected by using a questionnaire. Exploratory factor analyses were completed on 20 attributes for the food and service quality and 7 items for the social and psychological states of the aged, respectively. Cronbach's a was estimated for reliability, and Pearson correlation and multiple regression analysis were used for statistical analyses. The level of the satisfaction on foodservice was 4.01 of 5.0. The satisfaction on foodservice did not show the significant differences by gender, education level, BMI, and socio-psychological satisfaction. But the foodservice quality and the satisfaction showed significant difference by income and physical problem, and the goal of life of the eldely, respectively. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the determinants of the customer satisfaction on foodservice were the core quality of product, confidence, professionalism of employees and secondary quality of products. Especially, the kindness of employee is the most important attribute of the foodservice. Based on these results, we can set the strategy plans as follow: (1) the introduction of the foodservice evaluation system (2) the deployment of the event activities for offering fun to the customer (3) the continuous training of employees for ensuring the professional and kind service system, and (4) the introduction of selective menu system and take-out service of menu.

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5

작업장내 삶의 만족도에 대한 대학급식소 직원의 인식도

장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 대한영양사협회 대한영양사회 학술지 Vol.4 No.1 1998 pp.88-98

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The purposes of this research were to assess the quality of worklife of university foodservice managers and workers by operation type, and to investigate the characteristics of demographic variables in university foodservice employees. A questionnaire was administered to 27 managers and 180 personnels who are working in 9 university foodservice facilities. And 21 managers and 160 workers were responded with a response rate of 78% and 89%, respectively. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SPSS programs for descriptive analysis, ANOVA, T-test and SNK test. The results of this study can be summarized as follows : 1. Almost all respondents were female(87%), 40.5 percent of the respondents were between 40 to 49 years of age, 42.9 percent of the respondents had been in their current job between 2 to 5 years, and 55.2 percent of the respondents earned ays between 500,000won to 800,000won per month, Only 42.6% percent of the respondents were full-time employee. 2. The mean scores for the quality of worklife was 3.07 on a 5-point scales of 1=disagree very much and 5 = agree very much. 3. Factors receiving the higher ratings included "optimum levels of work variety"(3.83), "positive attitude toward work"(4.14), and " cooperative relationship with coworkers"(4.22). But respondents were least satisfied with "promotion"(2.07),"temperature of workplace"(2.17) " rest time"(2.25), and "pay"(2.28) factors. 4. There was a significant difference in the perception of the quality of worklife according to the operation type(self-operated, contracted, and rented management), but no difference was noted by position(managers vs workers) Results can be user to develop intervention and training strategies for enhancing positive attitude and the quality of work of employees.

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6

학교급식 맞춤형 지속가능한 급식활동 평가도구 제안 및 수행률 분석: 경기도 지역 중심으로

김현희, 김정리, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 대한영양사협회 대한영양사회 학술지 Vol.24 No.1 2018 pp.1-18

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Sustainable practices of school foodservices are gaining more attentions. The study aimed to investigate dietitians' performance levels of sustainable practices in school foodservice settings in Gyeonggi Provinces. Using a survey method was used, and data were collected from 358 participants (response rate 59.7%) to be analyzed using the SPSS program. The evaluation tool for sustainable practices of school foodservices consisted of four sections and 34 criteria with 100 points. Employment status of the respondents was as follows: nutrition teachers 40.9%, dietitians (permanent) 45.1%, and temporary position dietitians 13.2%. Dietitians' performance for sustainable practices marked 65.67 points out of 100 (performance rate 66%) and were in the following order by section: sustainable foodservice management criteria (69%), support activities (69%), planning and evaluation (68%), and outcome management (52%). Regarding sub-sections, criteria that acquired higher performance rates were labelling of food origin (99%), use of seasonal vegetables and fruits (98%), food waste management by contract dealer (98%), and planning for reducing of food waste and solid waste (91%). Meanwhile, criteria that showed the lowest scores were installing water conservation devices on equipment (19%), operating food donation programs for communities (21%), use of sensor lights for electricity conservation (24%), planning for annual energy conservation (40%), and implementation of education programs for foodservice workers on sustainable activities (42%). Performance scores differed according to school levels and working experience of dietitians, indicating that dietitians at elementary school foodservices or with work experience of 15 to 20 years showed higher performance than those at high schools or with less than 5 years of work experience (P<0.001, P<0.05). Based on the results, action plans for improvement were suggested.

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7

경기도 소재 고등학교 급식소의 위생·안전관리와 작업구역별 공기 품질 간의 관련성

김정리, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 대한영양사협회 대한영양사회 학술지 Vol.23 No.4 2017 pp.350-362

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The study examined evaluated the sanitation management state of the high school foodservice operations, as measured by temperature, humidity and airborne bacteria concentration in functional areas and further identified their relationships. Data were collected from 26 high school foodservices in Gyeonggi Province. Statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS program using descriptive analysis and spearman's correlation. The sanitation management performances in high school foodservice scored 86.85 out of 100 points and showed higher scores in the dimensions of preparation and storing management (17.85/20 points), operation management (17.78/20 points), and cooking utensil management (17.62/20 points), while the dimensions of cross contamination management as well as personal hygiene management needed action plans for prompt improvement. The airborne bacteria concentration was highest in the dining area (179.2 CFU/plate), and requiring action plans for improvement. The relative humidity in functional areas ranged from 66.5% in the receiving area to 74.4% (dish-washing area) and the temperature of the preparation area showed an average of $25.1^{\circ}C$ with the highest of $35.4^{\circ}C$ in the dish-washing area. In terms of the relationships among airborne bacteria, temperature, and humidity, the concentration of airborne bacteria was negatively correlated with and temperature in the dish-washing area (r= -0.693, P<0.05), and no other significances were shown in the other areas.

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8

노인들의 식품안전 위험요인 규명을 위한 식품위생 지식, 태도, 행동 조사

최정화, 이윤진, 이은실, 이혜상, 장혜자, 이경은, 이나영, 곽동경

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품영양과학회 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.45 No.5 2016 pp.746-756

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본 연구의 목적은 노인을 대상으로 하여 식품안전에 대한 위생 지식, 태도, 식품취급 행동을 파악함으로써 식품안전 위험요인을 진단하여 노인을 위한 식생활 안전 교육을 위한 기초자료로 제시하고자 하였다. 도시와 농촌지역의 65세 이상 노인 400명을 대상으로 2011년 4월 13일부터 28일까지 진행되었으며, 불성실한 응답을 제외한 358부를 자료 분석에 이용하였다. 응답자의 83.6%가 65세~80세, 69.5%가 단독거주 또는 노인 부부였으며, 49.2%가 50만 원 미만의 수입이었다. 노인들의 식품위생 지식은 '장을 볼 때 라면보다 냉동 오징어를 먼저 구입해야 한다'(도시 60.5%, 농촌 42.0%, P<0.001), '귤을 씻어서 먹어야 한다'(도시 75.4%, 농촌 49.7%, P<0.001), '간 쇠고기로 만든 고기완자전은 내부까지 완전히 익혀 먹어야 한다'(도시 95.4%, 농촌 90.2%, P<0.001)의 항목에서 도시 노인이 농촌 노인보다 유의적으로 높은 지식을 보였다. 식품위생 태도는 '나물은 맨손으로 무쳐야 맛이 좋다'(도시 34.9%, 농촌 33.2%, P<0.05)의 문항에서 도시 노인이 올바른 태도를 가지고 있었다. '먼저 구입한 식품을 먼저 먹으려고 한다'(도시 88.2%, 농촌 92.1%, P<0.001), '냉장고에 있는 음식이 조금이라도 이상하다고 느끼면 버리려고 한다'(도시 84.1%. 농촌 91.4%, P<0.001), '불고기를 조리할 때 고기가 완전히 익었는지 확인을 하려고 한다'(도시 88.8%, 농촌 87.8%, P<0.05), '돼지고기를 굽던 젓가락과 식사에 사용하는 젓가락을 구분하려고 한다'(도시 78.5%, 농촌 70.6%, P<0.001)의 문항에서 도시 노인과 농촌 노인의 태도에 유의적인 차이를 보였다. '점심때 밖에서 사 온 김밥을 식탁 위에 두었다가 저녁에 먹을 경우 상했을지 걱정을 한다'(도시 82.6%, 농촌 86.5%, P<0.05), '날달걀은 영양이 풍부하고 건강에 좋아서 마시는 것을 선호한다'(도시 71.8%, 농촌 76.7%, P<0.05), '생굴을 먹을 때 배탈이 날까 걱정을 한다'(도시 53.9%, 농촌 64.2%, P<0.05)의 문항에서 '그렇다'와 '매우 그렇다'라고 응답하였으며 유의적인 차이를 보였다. 식품위생 행동 분석 결과 대부분의 노인이 화장실에 다녀온 후, 외출에서 돌아온 후, 식사하기 전에는 손을 씻는다고 응답하였으나, 조리하는 도중 다른 일을 하고 다시 조리하게 될 경우 손을 씻는다고 응답한 노인은 도시 거주 노인(67.9%), 농촌 거주 노인(58.7%)으로 조사되었다. 생쇠고기를 자른 후 채소를 잘라야 할 때 도마세척 방법은 '흐르는 물로 도마를 닦는다'의 응답이 가장 많았다. '얼린 냉동고기를 해동하는 방법'에 대해서는 도시에 거주하는 노인들은 '싱크대 위 또는 식탁 위에서 해동시킨다'고 45명(33.8%)이 응답하였고, 농촌에 거주하는 노인들의 40명(39.6%)이 응답하였다. 노인들이 얼린 냉동고기를 해동하는 방법으로 싱크대 위나 식탁 위에서 해동한다는 응답이 가장 높은 비율을 보이는 것으로 보아 해동과정에서 발생할 수 있는 식중독의 위험성에 대해 인지하고 있지 못한 것으로 보인다. 노인을 대상으로 한 교육프로그램 개발은 물론 건강교육의 효과를 높이기 위한 학습동기 강화프로그램을 접목하거나 일회성이 아닌 지속 교육이 필요할 것으로 생각한다. 본 연구는 남성 노인의 비율보다 여성 노인의 비율이 상대적으로 더 높았으며, 설문조사가 복지관을 중심으로 수행되어 노인들이 경제적으로 여유롭지 못한 경우가 많아 중산층 이상의 일반노인들에게 확대 적용하기에는 한계가 있을 것으로 생각한다. 본 연구는 우리나라 노인의 식품안전 문제
The purpose of this study was to investigate food safety knowledge, food safety attitudes, and handling behavior in the elderly. The survey was conducted on 358 individuals over 65 years old in urban and rural areas. Data were analyzed with descriptive analysis and ${\chi}^2$ test analysis of variance using SPSS. From the results on elderly's food safety knowledge, the item 'tangerines should be washed before eating' was correctly answered by urban subjects (75.4%) than rural subjects (49.7%). 'Is it okay to cook meat left on the sink since afternoon in the evening' showed the lowest correct answer rate in both urban (23.1%) and rural (31.9%) subjects. For the item related to food keeping, 'Bacterial cells do not multiply in Samgyetang when it is kept in a refrigerator right after boiling thoroughly', 58.5% of urban and 54.6% of rural elderly answered correctly. Most elderly people showed a tendency to think that boiled foods might be safe to eat. Secondly, for food safety attitudes, urban elderly had more proper attitude regarding the item, 'Namul is very tasty only when mixed with bare hands' (disagree rate 34.9%) than rural elderly (P<0.05)'. On the other hand, rural elderly had more positive attitudes regarding the store principle "first in, first out" compared to urban elderly (P<0.001). Thirdly, regarding food safety behaviors, only 67.9% of urban and 58.7% of rural elderly responded that they washed their hands right after answering the telephone while cooking. Exactly 33.8% of urban and 39.6% of rural older people replied 'defrost meat on top of sink or table' as the defrost method for frozen foods, showing that elderly did not recognize the risk of foodborne illness during improper defrosting at room temperature.

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9

건강신념모델에 근거한 노인 대상 식품안전·영양교육 프로그램 효과 평가

최정화, 이은실, 이윤진, 이혜상, 장혜자, 이경은, 이나영, 안윤, 곽동경

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품영양과학회 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.45 No.9 2016 pp.1366-1374

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노인은 면역취약집단으로 다른 인구 집단보다 만성질환과 식품매개 질병에 걸릴 위험이 크며 식행동은 오랜 세월 굳어져 왔기 때문에 변화하기가 쉽지 않다. 노인을 대상으로 건강신념모델을 적용하여 식품안전 영양교육 프로그램을 시범 적용하고 그 효과를 평가하였다. 식품안전 영양 시범 교육은 서울 마포, 충북 청주, 경북 의성, 충북 진천의 노인복지관을 이용하는 65세 이상 노인을 대상으로 2011년 7월 28일부터 9월 9일까지 총 5주간 매주 1회, 35~40분씩 교육을 시행하였다. 교육 전후 조사가 완료된 최종 연구대상은 교육군이 5회 교육 중 3회 이상 교육에 참여하고 교육 전후 평가를 마친 대상자로 137명, 대조군은 사후 설문조사를 하지 않거나 불성실한 응답자를 제외한 83명으로 총 220명이었다. 교육은 건강신념모델을 적용하여 노인들이 식습관을 변화하지 않을 경우 질병 가능성을 알려 심각성을 인지하도록 하였으며 노인들이 식행동 수정 시 얻게 되는 이들을 알려주고 행동을 실행할 수 있도록 자아효능감을 제공해주고자 하였다. 교육 후 식품안전 영양지식은 모든 항목에서 향상을 보였으며, 식품안전 영역 5문항 중 4문항, 영양 영역 3문항 중 2문항에서는 유의적인 향상을 보였다. 식행동은 교육군에서 '고기, 생선류는 조리 시 속까지 완전히 익힌다'를 제외한 모든 항목에서 유의적인 향상을 보였다. 건강신념은 식품안전의 영역에서는 인지된 심각성과 자아효능감, 영양 영역에서는 인지된 민감성, 인지된 장애, 자아효능감에서 유의적인 향상을 보였다. 지식, 식행동, 건강신념 변화량의 상관관계를 분석한 결과 건강신념의 변화량과 식행동의 변화 가능성 간의 유의적인 상관관계를 보였다(P<0.001). 본 연구의 참여 대상자들이 일반 재가 노인보다 복지관에서 봉사하거나 활동하는 노인이었기 때문에 표본의 대표성이 떨어져 결과를 일반화하기에 어려움이 있다. 또한, 교육기간이 5주로 비교적 짧았기 때문에 오랜 기간에 걸쳐 형성된 식행동이 쉽게 변화하거나 개선되기 어려우므로 장기간에 걸친 반복교육이 필요할 것으로 생각한다. 본 연구에서 개발된 교육프로그램을 향후 보건소나 복지관 등을 통해 지속해서 시행 된다면 노인의 식품안전 영양에 대한 인식을 높이고 바람직한 식행동 변화에 긍정적인 기여를 할 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.
Most elderly have difficulties in managing food safety and nutrition by themselves. Various nutrition educations for the elderly have been developed, but food safety and nutrition education program and educational tools for the elderly are very limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate a food safety and nutrition education program based on the Health Belief Model (HBM) for the elderly. Education program was implemented for 220 seniors (137 educated group and 83 control group) aged over 65 years at senior welfare community centers. The intervention study was carried out on a weekly basis during each of 5 weeks, and each session lasted about 35 or 40 minutes. The effectiveness of the program was assessed with a questionnaire before and after education. Education program consisted of a 5 week program, and topics were 'Dietary changes for the elderly's healthy life', 'Prevention of food poisoning in everyday life', 'Safe food handling for my health', 'Healthy dietary life to prevent chronic disease', and 'Safety! nutrition! healthy dietary life'. Education program materials such as slides, handouts, videos, leaflet, and booklets were developed. As a result, there were score improvements in knowledge, dietary behaviors, and health belief after intervention in the intervention group, which were higher than those of the control group. In particular, there was a meaningful interrelation between dietary behavior and health belief (r=0.520, P<0.001). This finding suggests that changing beliefs is very important to make desirable dietary behavioral changes. For this reason, we can conclude HBM theory is an effective model to educate nutrition and food safety for the elderly. Furthermore, food safety and nutrition education programs are implemented and delivered continuously at various settings such as a health center or community welfare center, and those will contribute significantly to enhance perception and change their desirable dietary behaviors for the elderly.

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내국인 외국인의 식생활라이프스타일에 따른 세분시장별 한식 편의식품 상품화 의견

이나영, 최보람, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품영양과학회 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.45 No.4 2016 pp.602-612

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본 연구는 한식 상품화를 위한 내 외국인들의 식생활라이프스타일을 기초로 시장을 세분화하고, 세분시장의 특성과 한식 즉석편의식품 개발 대상을 규명하였다. 2009년 6월부터 9월에 걸쳐 국내외 거주 또는 방문 내국인과 외국인을 대상으로 편의표본추출 방식으로 설문지를 이용하여 자료를 수집하였고, 총 478명(한국인 266명, 외국인 212명) 자료를 분석하였다. 식생활라이프스타일 17개 항목은 요인분석에 의해 맛추구, 건강추구, 편의추구, 경제추구의 4요인으로 분류한 후 조사대상자의 유형을 군집 분석하였다. 내국인의 세분시장은 건강추구형, 무관심형, 합리추구형, 가격민감형으로 분류되었고, 외국인은 맛추구형, 합리추구형, 무관심형, 편의추구형으로 세분화되었다. 각 세분시장별로 인구통계학적 변수는 서로 차이가 있었고 한식 인지도와 기호도에 차이가 있었다. 내국인과 외국인의 식생활라이프스타일 세분시장별로 상품화 시 구매하고자 하는 제품을 평가한 결과 내국인 중 건강추구형, 가격민감형은 비빔밥을, 외국인 중 맛추구형은 불고기를, 합리추구형과 무관심형은 비빔밥을 상품화가 필요한 제품이라고 응답하였다. 상품화 시 구매하고 싶은 음식은 내국인 중 건강추구형은 잡채, 무관심형은 비빔밥을 꼽았고, 외국인 중 맛추구형은 불고기, 합리추구형과 편의추구형은 잡채, 무관심형은 비빔밥을 선정하였다. 이상과 같이 국내외 한국인과 외국인의 식생활라이프스타일에 따라 시장을 세분화하여 특정 세분시장별로 차별화된 마케팅 전략으로 상품 출시 및 홍보하는 전략이 필요하다. 본 연구의 결과는 한식 즉석편의식품 상품화 시 소비자의 식생활라이프스타일별 시장성이 예상되는 상품들의 전략개발에 활용될 수 있을 것이다.
The purposes of this study were to explore food-related lifestyle segments for commercialization of ready-to-eat Korean foods, to identify their demographic characteristics, and to evaluate perceptions and preferences related to Korean foods. The subjects consisted of 266 Koreans and 212 non-Koreans in Seoul, Gyeonggi, and Daejeon, Korea including in Grapevine of the US. Koreans' scores for food-related lifestyle of taste seeking and convenience seeking were significantly higher than those of non-Koreans. Through cluster analysis, four segments for Koreans were identified: health-oriented group, diet-oriented group, rationality-oriented group, and price-sensitive group. The clusters for non-Koreans were classified into four segments: taste-oriented group, rationality-oriented group, diet-oriented group, and convenience-oriented group. Significant differences were detected among the four segments in terms of demographic characteristics. There were significant differences in perceptions and preferences related to Korean foods by food-related lifestyle segments of non-Koreans. Japchae, Bibimbap, and Naengmyeon were selected as the most likely to purchase ready-to-eat food items for Korean clusters, whereas Bulgoggi and Bibimbap were selected for non-Korean clusters. This study shows that food companies wanting to promote commercialization of Korean foods should consider characteristics of each segment of food-related lifestyle.

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현행 식품접객업소 조리식품 위생관리 기준 보완에 관한 전문가 의견

주세영, 곽효선, 홍완수, 곽동경, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 한국영양학회 Journal of nutrition and health Vol.49 No.3 2016 pp.201-212

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Purpose: Needs for reevaluation of food code standards and regulations for cooked foods produced in restaurants and institutional foodservice to minimize risk factors leading to foodborne outbreaks are on the rise. The purpose of the study was to propose updated standards for cooked foods of restaurants by testing whether or not experts agree to include them as a standard. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative research methods were applied via a survey by email and workshop hold for experts panel discussions. Results: Seven newly proposed standards were selected as follows: (1) sanitizing vegetables and fruits with no heating process after washing, (2) rapid cooling of cooked foods after heating process, (3) monitoring cooking temperatures, (4) minimum 2 hours holding after cooking for temperature control of safety (TCS) foods without temperature control, (5) banning practices for workers such as bare hands handling of ready-to-eat foods, (6) maintaining cleanliness of food contact surfaces for disposable products, and (7) cold holding standards for sushi. Conclusion: The proposed proposal can be utilized as control measures for preventing foodborne illness in restaurants. However, a feasibility study should be conducted to test whether they are applicable to the field of restaurant operation.

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중산층 노인대상 식품안전·영양관리 교육 사업 평가를 위한 도구 개발: 균형성과표와 구조·과정·성과 개념 적용

장혜자, 유효이, 정하림, 이혜상, 이민준, 이경은, 유창희, 최정화, 이나영, 곽동경

[Kisti 연계] 한국영양학회 Journal of nutrition and health Vol.48 No.6 2015 pp.542-557

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우리나라가 고령화 사회에 진입함에 따라 노인 의료비 부담이 증가하고 있으며, 질병을 예방하고 건강 수명을 연장하기 위해서는 공적 사업의 일환으로 식품안전 영양관리 프로그램을 개발하고 이를 효과적으로 실행하는 방안이 마련되어야 한다. 본 연구는 균형성과표 (BSC: balanced score card) 개념을 적용하여 내용적으로는 고객관점, 재무관점, 학습과 성장, 내부 프로세스 관점에서 평가지표를 추출하였고, 형식면에서는 성과측면, 과정측면, 구조측면으로 구분하여 노인대상 식품안전 영양관리 교육 프로그램을 평가하는 도구를 개발하였다. 노인 대상교육 프로그램 평가도구의 초안을 개발하고, 이를 설문지로 전환하여 전문가 집단에게 평가지표에 대한 타당성 평가를 의뢰하였다. 평가지표에 대한 적합성은 1, 2차 결과를 토대로 '그렇다 (4점)', '매우 그렇다' (5점)를 선정한 전문가의 빈도 (백분율)가 75% 이상, 평균점수 3.8점 이상인 지표로 선별하였다. 델파이 그룹은 학계 전문가 26명, 중앙정부기관 16명, 지역사회 운영기관 24명으로 총 66인으로 구성하였다. 1차, 2차 평가에 모두 참여한 전문가는 총 32명의 의견을 토대로 프로그램의 평가도구를 '성과측면' 28문항, '과정측면' 9문항, '구조측면' 17문항으로 최종적으로 완성하였다. 배점은 성과지표 50점, 과정지표 20점, 구조지표 30점으로 구성된다. 노인 대상 식품안전 영양관리 교육서비스 확산을 위해서는 효과적으로 평가할 수 있는 평가 도구의 구비가 선행되어야 한다. 본 연구에서 개발한 평가 도구를 활용한다면, 노인대상으로 식품안전 및 영양관리 교육프로그램 사업을 효과적으로 실행하는지를 평가할 수 있으며, 프로그램을 가장 효율적, 효과적으로 전달할 수 있는 경로를 탐색하는데 도움이 될 것으로 기대된다.
Purpose: The aim of this study is to develop an evaluation tool for operation of food safety and nutrition education projects for middle class elderly using the concept of the balanced score card. Methods: After the draft of the evaluation tool for the elderly training projects was completed, it was revised into the questionnaire and the validity of the indicators was tested by the Delphi group. The validity of the indicators was rated using a 5-point scale. The Delphi group consisted of 26 experts in the education sector, 16 government officials, and 24 professionals of the related area in communities. The first round test was conducted from July 9 to July 17, 2012, and 45 persons responded. The second round test was conducted from July 18 to July 25 and 32 persons responded. Results: The indicators, which were answered by more than 75 percent of the experts as 'agree' (4 points), 'strongly agree' (5 point) were included as the final indicators for the evaluation tool: 28 items out of 36 in outcome perspectives, 9 items out of 12 in process perspectives, and 17 out of 20 items in structure perspectives. The score was allocated as 50 points for outcome indicators, 20 points for process indicators, and 30 points for structure indicators. Conclusion: Completion of the evaluation tool is a prerequisite to determine whether the program is effectively implemented. The monitoring tool developed in the study could be applied for identification of the most optimal delivery path for the food safety and nutrition education program, for the spread of the food safety and nutrition education program for middle class elderly.

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사례 조사를 통한 한식 음식점의 주방면적 비율과 환기시설의 적정성 조사

장혜자, 최경기, 왕태환, 곽동경

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품조리과학회 한국식품조리과학회지 Vol.31 No.1 2015 pp.33-40

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For the globalization of Korean food restaurants, the kitchens should be equipped with proper ventilation systems and space to keep clean and ensure food safety. This study aimed to examine the ratio of kitchen to total space of restaurant and the suitability of the ventilation systems employed at Korean food restaurants. Data were collected by on-site survey of 12 Korean foods restaurants in Seoul. Length and width of the restaurants were measured with scale. Temperatures and air velocity around the heating equipment, working area, and hood were measured with a thermal imaging camera anemometer and thermometer. Statistical analyses were conducted with the SPSS program. The average space of the restaurants was $25.7m^2$. The ratio of kitchen to space was 0.22 for restaurants sized $32m^2$, 0.28 for $33-66m^2$, 0.21 for $66.1-99m^2$, 0.16 for $99.1-148.5m^2$, and 0.35 for those above $148.5m^2$. Average maximum and minimum air velocity around the hood were 0.28 m/sec and 0.22 m/sec, respectively. Under these conditions, the temperature of the working area was $41^{\circ}C$, presenting an uncomfortable indoor temperature for kitchen employees to work. When classifying 3 groups based on the minimum and maximum air velocity, the temperatures near the cooking area and in the hood of the restaurants showed significant differences among the three groups. When the maximum air velocity was over 0.3 m/sec, the temperature of the cooking area was as $30.1^{\circ}C$, showing a significantly lower temperature (p<0.01). Based on these results, the kitchen space rate of 0.25 to the total space and a ventilation system maintaining a maximum air velocity over 0.3 m/sec were recommended for ensuring the food safety of Korean foods restaurants sized 66 to $99m^2$.

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학교급식 직원의 고용유형에 따른 인적 자원 관리 활동에 대한 인식과 조직 몰입도

이옥, 조민주, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품영양과학회 한국식품영양과학회지 Vol.43 No.1 2014 pp.162-171

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본 연구는 경기 성남 용인 지역 학교 영양사 60명, 조리원 240명을 대상으로 학교급식소의 인적 자원 관리 활동의 수행수준에 대한 인식도와 조직 몰입도를 살펴보고, 생산성을 분석하여 이들 요소 간의 상관관계를 조사하였다. 또한 정규직원과 비정규직원이 인적 자원 관리 활동과 조직 몰입도에 차이가 있는지를 살펴보았다. 응답자는 모두 여성이고, 60.3%가 40대, 89.3%가 기혼자이며, 42.0%가 1년~3년의 근무 경력을 지녔고 정규직이 53.6%, 비정규직이 47.3%였다. 인적 관리 활동은 '인력 확보', '직원 교육', '경력 개발', '보상관리', '근로 조건', '근로 환경', '이직 관리', '수행력 평가' 8요인으로 분류되었고, 이들 영역 중에서 학교급식소는 '직원 교육'을 가장 활발하게 전개하고 있었다. 그러나 보상 관리, 근로 조건 영역의 활동이 부족한 것으로 나타나서 업무성과에 따른 보상, 보상제도, 복리 후생 제도에 선택권 부여, 다양한 직원혜택에 관한 개발이 필요하였다. 고용유형별로는 정규직(2.75)이 비정규직(2.55)보다 근로 환경을 제외한 모든 영역에서 인적 관리 활동을 더 높게 평가하였다(P<0.001). 특히 인력 확보 관리, 채용의 공정성, 신입직원 오리엔테이션, 수행력 기준의 적합성, 수행력 평가의 공정성면에서 비정규직원이 낮게 평가하였다. 직영 학교급식소의 생산성은 작업시간당 급식수는 13.7명, 1식당 작업소요시간 4.5분, 한 끼 식사당 인건비는 500원, 정규직원 1인당 1일 급식수는 109.6명으로 나타났다. 인적 자원 관리, 조직몰입도, 생산성의 관계 분석에서는 인적 관리 활동 중에서 수행력 평가 영역만 조직 몰입도에 긍정적 영향력을 미쳤고(${\beta}$=0.292, P<0.05), 직영학교급식소의 인적 자원 관리 활동과 급식생산성(작업시간당 급식소)은 양의 상관관계(r=0.432, P<0.001)를, 직원의 조직 몰입도와 생산성도 양의 상관관계를 보였다(r=0.36, P<0.01). 이상의 결과에서 학교급식 관리자는 급식생산성은 인적 자원 관리 활동과 조직 몰입도에 높은 상관관계가 있음을 인식하고 조직의 성공적 운영을 위하여 조직 목적에 적합한 인적 자원 관리 활동의 계획과 실행이 가능하도록 더욱 주의를 기울여야 할 것이다. 또한 직무 수행력 평가는 직무 몰입도 향상에 주요 영향인자임을 인식하고 비정규직 비율이 높은 학교급식의 특성을 감안하여 정규직원뿐 아니라 비정규직원의 니즈를 반영한 인적 자원 관리 활동과 직무 평가시스템의 구축을 이룩하여야 할 것이다. 또한 본 연구 결과에서 보상 관리 활동의 적극적 전개가 요구되었는데 "업무 성과에 따른 보상", "개인 또는 팀별 보상제도"와 근로 조건 "경쟁력 있는 급여", "승진기회의 공정성"의 개선이 이루어질 수 있도록 객관적 평가 기준을 마련하고 공정한 평가를 직원들의 사기 진작이 필요하겠다. 특히 비정규직원 교육에 주의를 기울이고, 보상 체계를 유연하게 구사한다면 조직 몰입도와 더불어 생산성은 더욱 향상될 것이라 사료된다.
As the foodservice industry is labor intensive, the efficient management of human resources is an essential element for improving operational efficiency. This study was designed to investigate the performance level of human resource management in self-operated school foodservices and to examine the relationship between human resource management, organizational commitment, and productivity. Whether these factors rated differently by employment and job types was also examined. Data were collected through questionnaires distributed to 60 dieticians and 240 cooks in Seongnam and Yongin. Frequency analysis, factor analysis, the t-test and multiple regression analysis were tested using Minitab. Human resource management practices rated highly in the dimension of employee training (3.51), followed by working environment (3.39), and turnover management (3.37). In contrast, reward management (1.73) and working condition (1.56) received the lowest score. Organizational commitment scored 3.65 points, and showed that dedication (3.82) was the highest score; however, self-esteem (3.50) was the lowest score. For human resource management, there were significant differences between employment types as full time workers (3.85) rated management more highly than part-time worker (3.43). Overall productivity was fairly high, especially in high school foodservices. Only the performance appraisal had an influence on organizational commitment (${\beta}$=0.292, P<0.05). Productivity was positively correlated with human resource management (r=0.432, P<0.001) and organizational commitment (r=0.36, P<0.01). In conclusion, school foodservices need to establish objective performance standards, and increase employee morale by enhancing reward systems and working conditions. In particular, irregular employees require training with job performance standards and given a proper reward program, depending on their performance, to improve organizational commitment.

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반응표면검사를 이용한 RS함유 노화쌀가루를 첨가한 단호박식혜 개발 및 시판음료와 품질비교

하경애, 박보석, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품조리과학회 한국식품조리과학회지 Vol.30 No.2 2014 pp.129-138

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This research aimed to develope squash sikhye containing retrograded rice flour using response surface methodology. For this, nonlinear regression equation was calculated with the setting of independent variables as retrograded rice flour containing resistant starch and squash, and dependent variables as viscosity, sugar content, pH, color, and sensory attributes. Under the experimental condition, the quality characteristics of squash sikhye were found as 6.20~6.25 for pH, $14.00{\sim}17.33^{\circ}Brix$ for sweetness, 2.64~4.45 cP for viscosity, 57.51~60.18 for lightness, 4.94~7.52 for redness, and 50.98~60.29 for yellowness. It also was revealed overall acceptability in sensory evaluation rated as 9.67~10.83 out of 15 point. These results showed statistically significant differences in quality attributes with the increase of retrograded rice flour and squash(p<0.05). Thus, optimal mixing quantity of squash and retrograded rice flour for squash sikhye was identified as 114 g and 65 g, respectively. Comparison of sensory qualities of four samples, namely squash sikhye with and without retrograded rice, and two commercial products, showed that squash sikhye including retrograded rice flour had the best quality in terms of color, taste, mouth feeling, flavor and overall acceptability (p<0.05). Thus the squash sikhye with retrograded rice flour can be the potential products as a health benefit beverage for the old adult and the young generation.

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반응표면 분석법을 이용한 노화쌀가루첨가 흑임자 튀일 레시피의 최적화

김선희, 조민주, 장혜자, 김우경, 박혜영

[Kisti 연계] 동아시아식생활학회 동아시아식생활학회지 Vol.22 No.2 2012 pp.255-263

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Tuile containing retrograded rice and black sesame was developed by optimization of the mixing rate of retrograded rice and egg white using response surface methodology. Nine samples of design points were obtained according to central composite design, and the optimal mixing rate of retrograded rice flour and egg white as independent variables was calculated with the sensory score, color, and texture as response variables. Nine samples of the experimental group and no added retrograded rice flour Tuile were also compared in terms of sensory properties, color and texture. According to the results, the optimal mixing rate of black sesame Tuile was 8.6 g of retrograded rice and 33.5 g of egg white. Regression analysis of the response showed that retrograded rice flour and egg white had effect on the color and texture of black sesame Tuile, with egg white more influential rather than retrograded rice. In a comparison of quality between retrograded rice flour added Tuile and no retrograded rice flour Tuile, lightness ($p$<0.05), hardness ($p$<0.001) and fracturability ($p$<0.001) of retrograded rice flour added Tuile was better than those of the other sample, and sensory quality in terms of color ($p$<0.01), taste ($p$<0.001), texture ($p$<0.01) were more excellent as well.

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노인을 위한 식품안전.영양교육 내용 개발 - 포커스그룹인터뷰와 델파이 조사를 통하여 -

최정화, 이은실, 이윤진, 이혜상, 장혜자, 이경은, 이나영, 안윤, 곽동경

[Kisti 연계] 대한지역사회영양학회 대한지역사회영양학회지 Vol.17 No.2 2012 pp.167-181

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Our society is aging rapidly, and the number of elderly people who are in charge of purchasing and preparing foods at home is increasing. However, most the elderly have difficulty managing nutrition and food safety by themselves. The purpose of this study was to develop the necessary knowledge, through focus group interview and Delphi technique to establish a food safety and nutrition education program. The diet and educational needs of the elderly were surveyed through FGI. The education topics were decided by the Delphi technique. The education program consisted of a five week program, and the topics taught were 'Dietary Change for Healthy Life', 'Prevention of Food Poisoning in Everyday Life', 'Safe Food Handling for my Health', 'Healthy Dietary Life to Prevent Chronic Disease', and 'Safety! Nutrition! Healthy Dietary Life'. This education program was designed to decrease the perceived barriers, and to increase the perceived interests and the sense of self-efficacy. Education program materials, lesson plans, slides, handouts, videos, leaflets, and booklets were developed. Based on the results, the contents of the food safety guideline leaflets for the elderly were decided as the following: (1) wash your hands in the correct way; (2) select safe food; (3) cook foods safely; (4) keep foods safely; (5) keep kitchen utensils clean. In conclusion, if advanced education programs are implemented and delivered continuously in locations such as health centers and community welfare centers, those will contribute significantly to enhance the perception of food safety and to change the desirable dietary behavior of the elderly.

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근접요구도와 버블다이어그램을 적용한 1300식 규모의 학교급식 시설 설계 모델

장선희, 장혜자

[Kisti 연계] 대한지역사회영양학회 대한지역사회영양학회지 Vol.16 No.1 2011 pp.98-112

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This study aimed to suggest a 1300 scale of a middle school foodservice facility floor plan which was compliant to the principle of HACCP, as well as ensuring food and work safety, and the flow of personnel and food materials. which consisted of 46 nutrition teachers and 6 experts, responded with a questionnaire on the relationship of functional area and space. Using their opinions, key principles for the design of the facility were single direction movement of food materials, customers and workers; minimization of the cross-contamination through the separation of functional space; and securement of customer-focused efficiency; staff-centered convenience and efficiency; and work and food safety. After the completion of an adjacency diagram, bubble diagram and program statement, the functional areas of a 1300 scale middle school food-service facility were allocated as follows: $9.9\;m^2$ for the receiving area, $56.1\;m^2$ for the pre-preparation area, $10.5\;m^2$ for the food storage area, $6.0\;m^2$ for the supplies storage area, $97.8\;m^2$ for the cooking area, $33.6\;m^2$ for the service area, $52.5\;m^2$ for dish washing area, cafeteria $410.5\;m^2$, $4.5\;m^2$ for the front room, for a total of $725.8\;m^2$. Expert groups have pointed to limitations within this model as there are no windows in the office for the influx of fresh outside air and a need for the straight line installation of steam-jacket and frying kettles on the sides of windows. This study can be useful as the guidelines for estimating the investment cost of the facility and placing the placement of functional areas and equipment in the renovation of the facility. It can be also useful data for a methodology of foodservice facility design.

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한식 상품화를 위한 내.외국인의 한식에 대한 선호도 및 상품 개발 견해

장혜자, 최보람, 이나영, 박보석, 김희선

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품조리과학회 한국식품조리과학회지 Vol.26 No.4 2010 pp.458-468

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The purpose of this study was to assess Korean and non-Korean customers' preferences with regards to Korean foods as well as their opinions concerning the commercialization of Korean foods. The subjects consisted of 268 Koreans and 217 non-Koreans in Seoul, Gyeonggi and Daejeon, Korea and in Texas in the United States. The respondents were asked to assess their preferences regarding 22 Korean food items using a 5-point scale (1: strongly dislike - 5: strongly like). Excluding responses with significant missing data, there were 485 usable responses. Data were analyzed using SPSS Windows (ver. 14.0) for descriptive analysis and t-test. Korean customers' perception and preferences regarding Korean foods were significantly higher than those of non-Korean customers (p<0.001). Among the 22 Korean food items, Galbi-gui (4.32) was chosen to be Koreans' favorite menu, whereas Bulgogi (4.25) was most preferred by non-Koreans. Patjuk was the least preferred by Koreans (3.37) and non-Koreans (3.18) alike. Regarding convenience food product equivalents of the 22 Korean foods, Koreans thought Bibimbap to be the bestseller while non-Koreans thought that Bulgogi was the most sold product. Korean and non-Korean mostly wanted to purchase Bibimbap and Bulgogi respectively, if Korean foods are commercialized as a convenience food. Koreans (44.4%) and non-Koreans (66.8%) reported "taste" as the most important factor when choosing a convenience food. Koreans chose "salty taste" (26.9%) and "simple cooking method" (23.1%), whereas non-Koreans chose "nutrition" (23.5%) and "hot taste" (21.2%) as aspects that require improvement in order to commercialize Korean foods.

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사업체 급식소에서 종합적품질경영(TQM) 수행이 영양사의 직무만족도 및 조직몰입도에 미치는 영향

임소영, 이나영, 장혜자, 곽동경

[Kisti 연계] 대한영양사협회 대한영양사회 학술지 Vol.16 No.4 2010 pp.353-368

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The purpose of the study was to identify the relationships Total Quality Management (TQM) performance, job satisfaction, and organizational commitment among dietitians in business and industry foodservice. A total of 300 dietitians working in business and industry foodservices in Seoul and Gyeonggi province were surveyed using a self-administrated questionnaire and 203 responses were obtained. The data were analyzed using SPSS Windows (Ver. 12.0) for descriptive analysis and reliability analysis, and AMOS (Ver. 5.0) for structural equation modeling. The respondents were all female, 56.7% single, and 71.4% under regular employment. By foodservice management type, 52.7% of the foodservice operations were self-operated. The majority of the operations provided meals more than twice a day (73.9%), and 70.4% offered a non-selective menu. The dietitians of the contracted foodservices tended to have higher TQM performance scores than those of the self-operated foodservices (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in job satisfaction and organizational commitment scores by the type of the foodservice management. TQM performance was found to have a positive effect on job satisfaction, and job satisfaction affected organizational commitment for both the self-operated and contracted foodservices. A relationship between TQM performance level and organizational commitment of self-operated foodservices was not found. On the other hand, TQM performance level was the principal significant factor for increasing the organizational commitment of contracted foodservices. This research suggests that business and industry foodservices need to improve TQM performance to enhance job satisfaction and organizational commitment of foodservice dietitians and to develop specified TQM strategies that can be applied to each type of foodservice management.

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