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1

从药品平行进口案例看中国法的正义价值选择

周凌轲, 徐希, 吳恩智

부산대학교 중국연구소 Journal of China Studies 제21권 4호 2018.12 pp.65-79

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The law can be seen as the choices of values by majority of people in the country. Generally, certain legal procedures are prescribed in order to realize the people’s choice of values. These legal procedures are called the procedural justice, and realizing the value the majority of people seek is called the entity justice. Ideally, the entity justice must be followed by the procedural justice. In practice however, sometimes it does not work in that way. In the case that the procedural justice and the entity justice do not match, how should the Chinese government make a choice? In this study this issue will be discussed by analyzing the recent example of parallel import of drugs in China. According to the Chinese Drug Management Act, if an individual or a corporate body wants to import a drug, he or she must receive an inspection report on the safety, treatment, and ingredients of the drug by the State Council of China. If the individual or a corporate body do not go through the inspection by government-related agencies or import the drugs that are not permitted to import, he or she could result in severe penalties up to imprisonment for the sale of counterfeit drugs. As parallel imports are imported without approval from officials, an import permission cannot be obtained from the government. Therefore, it is considered as a violation of the law under the current Chinese criminal law. In practice however, Chinese domestic medical products have poor remedial value and the price of the products with formal permission is very high. Thus, some heavy patients have no other choices but to seek parallel imported products in order to survive. In this case, punishing the heavy patients for purchasing the parallel imported products would be against the value of the public, but if not, it would be against the law. That is, in some parallel import cases, there is an inconsistency between the procedural justice and the entity justice. This study used a recent case of parallel imported of drugs in China to exam how the Chinese criminal justice system reaches a verdict on this issue. In this study, we found that current Chinese criminal justice system has three problems dealing with drug-related parallel import cases: First, when the law is vaguely defined, the case must be judged by the judge's discretion, and there were problems where similar cases were found differently due to different personal values of the judges. Second, although procedures must be independent, parallel drug import cases have been heavily influenced by the media in dealing with cases because they are highly publicized cases. Third, the procedural justice or the definition of result, which one is more important than either is a matter of philosophy of law, and the Chinese government currently tend to uphold the procedural justice. Consequentially, judicial authorities tend to seek formal definitions that seem to realize the procedural justice when dealing with problems. It should be Pointed out at the same time that the efficiency and cost considerations cannot support the "quasi-judicial" position of the PRB, either system design abroad. To solve the above problems need combined with Chinese Intellectual Property trial pilot experience and development trends of the reform of the judicial system, the implementation of Intellectual Property Rights trial fairness and efficiency, strengthen the exclusive jurisdiction, and the function of substantive patent court.

4,800원

2

화환신용장의 독소조항에 대한 실무적 유의점에 관한 연구

주령커, 박광서, 오은지

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제19권 제3호 2018.09 pp.49-73

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본 연구는 화환신용장에서 악용되고 있는 독소조항의 발생원인, 종류 및 예방할 수 있는 방법 등에 대하여 중국문헌과 신용장 실무를 중심으로 연구하였다. 독소조항의 발생원인을 선의의 독소조항과 악의의 독소조항으로 구분하였으며, 독소조항의 종류를 명시적인 독소조항과 묵시적인 독소조항으로 구분하여 설명하였다. 독소조항에 대한 실무적인 유의점으로 거래상대방의 선택, 거래은행의 선택, 무역계약의 활용을 다루었고, 특히, 신용장의 직접 계약당사자인 개설은행이 아닌 개설의뢰인(APPLICANT)의 경우에 유의할 점을 중심으로 연구하였다.
This study relates to the toxicological clauses of the letter of credit. Some clauses which interferes with the recovery of the beneficiary in the letter of credit transaction, are called a malicious special condition or a toxic clause. The toxic clauses in a letter of credit transaction requires careful consideration because it may be impossible for the beneficiary to meet the document requirements, or it may be very difficult, even if it seems unlikely that the toxic clause is correct. We investigate the causes, types and prevention methods of toxic clauses which are abused in documentary credits, focusing on Korean and Chinese trade practices. First, the cause of the toxic clauses can be divided into the good toxic clauses and the bad toxic clauses, and in general, the toxic clauses means the latter. Second, the types of toxic clauses can be divided into explicit toxic clauses and implicit toxic clauses. Especially explicit toxic clauses are to restrict the entry into force of the letter of credit, to limit the signature of the quality inspector, to limit the shipment, and related to shipping documents etc. The practical considerations of the toxic clauses in documentary credit are that dealt with the choice of the trading partner, the choice of the bank, and the use of the trade contract. In particular, careful attention is required if the “APPLICANT”, who is not a direct party to the documentary credit, appears under special conditions in SWIFT 46A and 47B.

6,300원

3

균형운동과 발가락 교정기가 두부전방전위 자세에 미치는 영향

김난수, 김유미, 김하리, 박선영, 오은지, 이동현, 정지혜, 배철민

대한스포츠물리치료학회 정형스포츠물리치료학회지 Vol.14 No.1 2018.06 pp.85-92

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Purpose: This study investigated the effects of balance exercise and foot orthotics on craniovertebral angle, foot pressure, and muscle activity in forward posture. Methods: Twenty-seven participants with forward head posture were included in this study and were randomly grouped into the control, exercise, orthotics, and exercise*orthotics groups based on the intervention provided. Craniovertebral angle, foot pressure, and muscle activity(sternocleidomastoid muscle & upper trapezius muscle) were measured using Image J, BioRescue, and electromyography, respectively. Results: A one-way analysis of variance showed that the craniovertebral angle increased in three groups compared with the control group. Left foot pressure was near perfect balance (50%) in the exercise and exercise*orthotics groups compared with the control group. Conclusion: Both orthotics and exercise led to an improvement in the craniovertebral angle. However, exercise more effectively improved static balance. Therefore, a combination of balance exercise and orthotics is expected to be more effective than only orthotics to correct forward head posture.

4,000원

4

Chlorella vulgaris를 이용한 양돈폐수 내 영양염류 및 중금속 제거

오은지, 황인성, 유진, 정근욱

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경과학회 Journal of environmental science international Vol.27 No.11 2018 pp.1059-1072

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Bioremediation has been recognized as a suitable alternative to conventional methods of removing contaminants, and it uses fungi, bacteria and microalgae. In contrast to other organisms, microalgae are unique in that they have the ability to perform photosynthesis like plants and to utilize organic/inorganic carbon substrates, in a process called phytoremediation. Microalgae can populate a reaction site rapidly and enhance the bioremediation efficiency. In this study, Chlorella vulgaris was used to evaluate the removal potentials of the nutrients (N and P) and heavy metals (Cu and Zn) from swine wastewater. The optimum growth conditions for Chlorella vulgaris and the removal potentials of N, P, Cu, and Zn from synthetic wastewater using Chlorella vulgaris were investigated. Based on the results, the applicability of this microalga to on-site wastewater treatment was examined. Optimal growth conditions for Chlorella vulgaris were established to be $28^{\circ}C$, a pH of 7, and light and dark cycles of 14:10 h. As the concentrations of the nutrients were increased, the efficiencies of N and P removal efficiencies by Chlorella vulgaris were decreased in the single and binary mixed treatments of the nutrients, respectively. Further, the efficiencies of Cu and Zn removal also decreased as the heavy metals concentrations added were increased, both in the single and binary mixed treatments. In addition, the efficiency of Cu removal was higher than that of Zn removal. Our results indicate that Chlorella vulgaris could be used in treatment plants for the removal of nutrients and heavy metals from swine wastewater.

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5

경운방법과 시비방법이 콩 재배 토양의 생물학적 활성에 미치는 영향

오은지, 박지수, 유진, 김숙진, 우선희, 정근욱

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경농학회 Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture Vol.36 No.4 2017 pp.223-229

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BACKGROUND: Tillage systems and fertilization play an important role in crop growth and soil improvement. This study was conducted to determine the effects of tillage and fertilization on the microbial biomass C and dehydrogenase activity of soils in a field under cultivation of soybean. METHODS AND RESULTS: An experimental plot, located in the temperate climate zone, was composed of two main sectors that were no-tillage (NT) and conventional tillage (CT), and they were subdivided into four plots, respectively, in accordance with types of fertilizers (non fertilizer, chemical fertilizer, hairy vetch, and liquid pig manure). Microbial biomass C and dehydrogenase activity were evaluated from May to July in 2016. The microbial biomass C and dehydrogenase activity of NT soils were significantly higher than those of CT in all fertilizer treatments, and they were further increased in hairy vetch treatment than the other fertilizer treatments in both NT and CT. The dehydrogenase activity was closely related to microbial biomass C. CONCLUSION: It is concluded that application of green manure combined with no-tillage can provide viable management practices for enhancing microbial properties of soil.

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6

무경운과 경운에서 콩 재배를 위한 녹비와 화학비료, 돈분액비의 생육특성 및 수량비교

유장환, 정현진, 정해룡, 박형준, 권수정, 오은지, 김숙진, 정근욱, 김홍식, 우선희

[Kisti 연계] 한국작물학회 한국작물학회지 Vol.62 No.4 2017 pp.346-351

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본 연구는 무경운 재배법을 확립하고자 비료종류와 시비 방법에 따라 콩의 생육 및 수량을 조사하였으며, 주요 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 경운과 무경운 처리구에서 풋거름, 돈분액비, 화학비료의 비료종류에 따라 콩의 생육이 각각 달랐다. 경운과 무경운 모두 화학비료처리구에서 콩의 생육이 높았으며, 경운유무에 따라서는 경운에서의 생육이 가장 높았다. 2. 엽색도 조사에서는 비슷한 양상으로 증가하였는데 엽색도 함량이 최고에 달했을 때를 비교해보면 무경운-화학비료처리구에서 가장 높았으며, 상대적으로 경운-풋거름처리구에서 엽색도가 낮은 수치를 나타냈다. 3. 콩 종실 1 g 및 0.5 g의 질소, 인, 칼륨의 성분량을 분석했을 때 인과 칼륨의 경우 경운과 무경운 모두 큰 차이를 두지 않고 비슷한 함량을 나타내었으며, 질소는 이와 다르게 돈액비료처리구에서 질소의 함량이 가장 높게 나왔다. 4. 콩 종실의 수량조사에서는 생육조사와는 다르게 무경운-돈분액비에서 수량이 가장 높았고, 상대적으로 무경운-관행처리구에서 수량이 가장 낮았다. 무처리구를 제외하고 풋거름처리구의 경우 경운, 무경운 모두 생육양상이 저조함에 따라 콩의 수량도 낮았다.
This study was conducted to establish the type and method of fertilization for no-tillage during the third year of No-tillage (NT) and Conventional-tillage (CT) practices, towards different kinds of fertilizers. In this experiment, the livestock manure showed higher in response to fertilizer effects of no-tillage. Comparing growth characteristics and yield in NT and CT. Regarding yield, there is no significant between livestock fertilizer and chemical fertilizer, but between livestock fertilizer and chemical fertilizer in conventional fertilization has significant differences. Based on the result, livestock fertilizer is effective way on the quantity of the crop. Nitrogen absorption of plant in livestock of no-tillage is more effective than conventional fertilization. In case of the phosphorus absorption and potassium absorption of plant, fertilizer effect has no significant. Nitrogen is highly absorbed in livestock fertilization of NT. Absorption of phosphorus and potassium are similar.

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7

기혼중년남성이 지각한 회복탄력성 및 은퇴태도가 의미있는 삶에 미치는 영향

오윤자, 윤시내, 오은지

[Kisti 연계] 한국가정관리학회 한국가정관리학회지 Vol.34 No.4 2016 pp.157-174

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of resilience and retirement attitudes perceived by middle-aged married men on a meaningful life, and provide basic data based on empirical research for reexamining meaningful lives of middle-aged married men. For the study, a survey was conducted with middle-aged men aged between 40 and 60 who were married with children and employed and live in Seoul or Gyeonggido. A total of 476 copies of data were analyzed. For the analysis, SPSS 20.0 was used to perform frequency analysis, descriptive statistics, t-test, and one-way ANOVA, and the Duncan multiple range test and multiple regression analysis were performed. The result was as follows: First, Levels of resilience, retirement attitudes and meaningful life were moderate. Second, middle-aged married men had significant differences according to education, job, religion, Monthly family income, Wife's employment, marital status and Subjective health condition on meaningful life. third, middle-aged married men had an impact on resilience and retirement attitude on a meaningful life. In particular, the Affirmation of the resilience of the sub-region and the Transition to Old Age part of the retirement attitudes were significantly affected. Therefore, it is necessary to consider enough family support and social support for middle aged men.

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8

상백피(Morus alba root barks)로부터 페놀화합물의 분리 및 동정

정재우, 박지해, 서경화, 오은지, 백윤수, 이대영, 임동욱, 한대석, 백남인

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Journal of applied biological chemistry Vol.58 No.2 2015 pp.153-155

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뽕나무(Morus alba L.) 뿌리껍질을 실온에서 80% MeOH 수용액으로 추출하고 이 추출물을 EtOAC, n-BuOH, 그리고 $H_2O$ 분획으로 나누었다. EtOAc 및 n-BuOH 분획에 대하여 silica gel, ODS 및 Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography를 반복 실시하여 4종의 phenolic 화합물을 분리, 정제하였다. NMR, IR, 및 EI/MS 등을 해석하여, norartocarpanone (1), 2',4',7-trihydroxy-(2S)-flavanone (2), methyl-${\beta}$-resorcylate (3), 그리고 (Z)-oxyresveratrol-4-O-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (4)로 각각 구조동정하였다. 화합물 (Z)-oxyresveratrol-4-O-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (4)는 상백피로부터는 이번 실험에서 처음으로 분리되었다.
The root barks of Morus alba L. were extracted with 80% aqueous MeOH, and the concentrated extract was partitioned with EtOAc, n-BuOH, and $H_2O$ fractions. The repeated silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies of the EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions led to isolation of four phenolic compounds. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined as norartocarpanone (1), 2',4',7-trihydroxy-(2S)-flavanone (2), methyl ${\beta}$-resorcylate (3), and (Z)-oxyresveratrol-4-O-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (4). Compound 4 was isolated for the first time from the root barks of M. alba L.

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9

황목련 꽃으로부터 Alkyl Glycoside의 분리 동정

오은지, 서경화, 권정화, 이대영, 백남인

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Journal of applied biological chemistry Vol.58 No.3 2015 pp.233-236

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황목련 꽃으로부터 3개의 alkyl glycoside 화합물을 분리, 동정하였다. 황목련 꽃을 80% MeOH에 추출하여 이를 EtOAc, n-BuOH, 그리고 $H_2O$ 층으로 계통분획을 실시하였다. 이중 EtOAc 분획에 대하여 silica gel과 ODS column chromatography를 반복 실시하여 3종의 화합물을 분리, 정제하였다. Nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared spectroscopy 및 mass spectrometry의 spectroscopic data를 해석하여 이 화합물들을 2-methylbutan-1-ol-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-galactopyranoside (1), 2-methylbutan-1-ol-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (2), 2-methylpropan-1-ol-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (3)로 각각 동정하였다. 동정된 화합물 모두 황목련 꽃에서는 이번 연구에서 처음으로 분리, 동정되었다.
The flowers of Magnolia obovata were extracted with aqueous MeOH and fractionated into EtOAc, n-BuOH, and $H_2O$ fractination. Three alkyl glycosides were isolated from the EtOAc fraction through repeated silica gel and ODS column chromatography. The structures were identified to be 2-methylbutan-1-ol-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-galacto-pyranoside (1), 2-methylbutan-1-ol-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (2), and 2-methylpropan-1-ol-${\beta}$-$\small{D}$-glucopyranoside (3) on the basis of spectroscopic analyses such as fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry, infrared spectroscopy, 1D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) ($^1H$ and $^{13}C-NMR$), and 2D NMR (gCOSY, gHSQC, and gHMBC). These compounds were isolated for the first time from the flower of M. obovata in this study.

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10

이팝나무(Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxton) 꽃으로부터 Triterpenoid 및 Sterol 화합물의 분리 및 동정

정재우, 서경화, 오은지, 이대영, 백남인

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Journal of applied biological chemistry Vol.58 No.3 2015 pp.237-240

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이팝나무(Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxton) 꽃은 실온에서 80% MeOH 수용액으로 추출하고 이 추출물을 EtOAC 분획, n-BuOH 분획, $H_2O$ 분획으로 나누었다. EtOAc 분획에 대하여 silica gel 및 ODS column chromatography를 반복 실시하여 4종의 화합물을 분리 및 정제하였다. nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, 및 Electronic ionization mass spectrometer 등을 해석하여, ursolic acid (1), corosolic acid (2), ${\beta}$-sitosterol (3), 그리고 daucosterol (4)로 구조동정 하였다. 분리한 4종의 화합물은 이팝나무 꽃으로부터 이번 실험에서 처음 분리 되었다.
The flowers of Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxton were extracted with 80% aqueous MeOH at room temperature. The concentrated extract was partitioned as EtOAc, n-BuOH, and $H_2O$ fractions. From the EtOAc fraction, two triterpenoids and two sterols were isolated using the repeated silica gel ($SiO_2$) and octadecyl $SiO_2$ (ODS) column chromatographies. According to the results of physico-chemical and spectroscopic data including nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and infrared. The chemical structures of the compounds were respectively determined as ursolic acid (1), corosolic acid (2), ${\beta}$-sitosterol (3), and daucosterol (4). All the compounds were isolated for the first time from the flowers of Chionanthus retusus Lindl. & Paxton.

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11

열간 압연 후 어닐링처리한 Mg 합금의 인장강도와 감쇠능과의 관계

이규현, 오은지, 김권후, 김재남, 강창룡

[Kisti 연계] 한국열처리공학회 열처리공학회지 Vol.27 No.6 2014 pp.295-301

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In this study, the relationship between strength and damping capacity of annealed magnesium alloys after hot rolling was investigated. The microstructure of hot rolled magnesium consisted of dendrite structure and $Mg_{17}Al_{12}$ compounds precipitated along the grain boundary. The dendrite structure was dissipated, $Mg_{17}Al_{12}$ compounds was decomposed by annealing, and then its dissolved in ${\alpha}$-Mg. With an increasing the annealing temperature and time, strength was slowly decreased and damping capacity was slowly increased by the growth of grain size and decreasing of defects induced by hot rolling. In annealing treatmented magnesium alloys after hot rolling, damping capacity was decreased rapidly with an increase of strength. There was on proportional relationship between tensile strength, and damping capacity.

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12

슈퍼 2상 스테인리스강의 공식에 미치는 R상의 영향

이병찬, 오은지, 강창룡

[Kisti 연계] 한국재료학회 한국재료학회지 Vol.24 No.11 2014 pp.610-616

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In this study, we investigated the precipitation behavior of the R-phase precipitated at the initial stage of aging and its effect on the pitting corrosion of 25%Cr-7%Ni-4%Mo super duplex stainless steel. The R-phase in super duplex stainless steel was mainly precipitated at the interface of ferrite/austenite phases and inside of the ferrite phase during the initial stage of aging, and it was transformed into the ${\sigma}$-phase with an increase in aging time. The ferrite phase was decomposed into a new austenite phase and ${\sigma}$-phase. The R phase was an intermetallic compound, which represented a lower Ni and higher Mo than the matrix, and also had a higher Mo and Cr concentration than the ${\sigma}$ phase. With an increasing aging time, the pitting potential $E_p$ was increased slowly by the precipitation of the R-phase, and it was then steeply decreased by the precipitation of the ${\sigma}$-phase. The R-phase was decreased the pitting potential, but its effect was smaller than effect of ${\sigma}$-phase.

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13

경사 기공 구조를 가지는 규조토의 제조에 원심 분리 성형 공정 변수들이 미치는 영향

하장훈, 오은지, 송인혁

[Kisti 연계] 한국분말야금학회 한국분말야금학회지 Vol.19 No.4 2012 pp.304-309

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The purpose of our study was to develop the fabrication method of porous diatomite ceramics with a porosity gradient by centrifugal molding. The processing variables of centrifugal molding were derived from Stoke's law of sedimentation, which were the radius of the particles, the acceleration due to centrifugal molding and the dynamic viscosity of the slurry. And these could be controlled by ball-milling conditions, centrifugal conditions, and the addition of methyl cellulose, respectively. The effects of processing conditions on the gradient pore structure of diatomite were investigated by particle size analysis, scanning electron microscope, and mercury porosimeter.

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14

High-k 산화물 박막의 열전도도 측정

김인구, 오은지, 김용수, 김석원, 박인성, 이원규

[Kisti 연계] 한국진공학회 한국진공학회지 Vol.19 No.2 2010 pp.141-147

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$Al_2O_3$, $TiO_2$, $HfO_2$와 같은 high-k (고 유전상수) 산화물 박막을 Si, $SiO_2$/Si, GaAs 기판에 각각 입혀서 주기적인 온도변화에 의해 발생되는 박막 표면에서의 반사율 변화를 이용한 열-반사율법을 이용하여 열전도도를 측정하였다. 그 결과, 약 50nm 두께에서 0.80~1.29 W/(mK)와 같은 높은 열전도도를 가지고 있어 CMOS와 메모리 디바이스와 같은 전자 회로에서 발생되는 열을 효과적으로 방산할 수 있고, 또 미세 입자의 크기에 따라 열전달이 변화하는 것을 확인하였다.
In this study, high-k oxide films like $Al_2O_3$, $TiO_2$, $HfO_2$ were deposited on Si, $SiO_2$/Si, GaAs wafers, and then the thermal conductivity was measured by using thermo-reflectance method which utilizes the reflectance variation of the film surface produced by the periodic temperature variation. The result shows that high-k oxide films with 50 nm thickness have high thermal conductivity of 0.80~1.29 W/(mK). Therefore, effectively dissipate the heat generated in the electric circuit such as CMOS memory device, and the heat transfer changes according to the micro grain size.

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