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1

사회안전망구축과 시민문화 및 지역사회결속의 관계

신상태, 김찬선

한국융합보안학회 융합보안논문지 제15권 제3호 제2권 2015.05 pp.59-70

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본 연구는 사회안전망구축과 시민문화 및 지역사회결속의 관계를 규명하는데 있다. 본 연구의 목적을 달성하기 위하여 2014년 7월 15일부터 9월 15일 까지 서울지역(강동, 강서, 강남, 강북) 일반 시민들을 모집단으로 선정한 다음 집락무선표집법 (cluster random sampling)을 이용, 400명을 표집 하였다. 불성실한 자료를 제외하고 최종분석에 사용된 사례 수는 337명이다. 수집된 자료는 SPSSWIN 18.0을 이용하여 연구의 목적에 따라 분석 하였으며, 통계기법은 요인분석·신뢰도분석·상관분석·독 립표본 t검증·일원변량분석·다중회귀분석·경로분석 등의 방법이 활용되었다. 결론은 다음과 같다. 첫째, 사회안전망구축은 시민 문화에 영향을 미친다. 자율방범활동이 활성화 될수록 질서준법정신은 높아진다. 지자체안전교육·경찰치안서비스가 활성화 될 수록 참여의식은 높아진다. 자율방범활동·거리CCTV시설·경찰치안서비스가 활성화 될수록 관용정신은 높아진다. 반면, 거리 CCTV시설은 시민들의 자율성을 감소시킨다. 둘째, 사회안전망구축은 지역사회결속에 영향을 미친다. 거리CCTV시설·경찰치 안서비스·범죄예방설계가 활성화 될수록 안정감은 높아진다. 지자체안전교육·경찰치안서비스·범죄예방설계가 활성화 될수록 공동체의식은 높아진다. 자율방범활동·지자체안전교육·경찰치안서비스·범죄예방설계가 활성화 될수록 지역사회제도는 높아진 다. 셋째, 시민문화는 지역사회결속에 영향을 미친다. 참여의식·관용정신이 활성화 될수록 안정감·공동체의식·지역사회제도는 높아진다. 넷째, 사회안전망구축은 지역사회제도에 직접적으로는 낮게 영향을 미치지만, 시민문화를 증대시켜 준다면 지역사회 결속에 더 크게 영향을 미친다.
This study aims at exploring relation of social security network building, civil culture and community unity. To achieve the purpose, this study selected the general citizens in Seoul Region (Gangdong, Gangseo, Gangnam and Gangbuk) from Jul. 15 to Sept. 15, 2014 as population and sampled 400 people using cluster random sampling. Excluding unhonest data, the number of cases used for the final analysis is 337 people. The collected data were analyzed for the study purpose using SPSSWIN 18.0, as statistical techniques, factor analysis, reliability analysis, correlation analysis, t-test, one-way ANOVA, multiple regression analysis, path analysis etc. were used. First, social security network building has an effect on civil culture. That is, the more activated voluntary crime prevention activity, the higher order law-abiding spirit. The more activated local government security education, police public order service, the higher awareness of participation becomes. First, social security network building has an effect on civil culture. That is, the more activated voluntary crime prevention activity, the higher order law-abiding spirit. The more activated local government security education, police public order service, the higher awareness of participation becomes. The more activated voluntary crime prevention activity, street CCTV facilities, police public order service, the higher tolerance spirit becomes. On the contrary, street CCTV facilities reduce citizens’ autonomy. Second, social security network building has an effect on community unity. The more activated street CCTV facilities, police public order service, crime prevention design, the higher a sense of stability becomes. The more activated local government security education, police public order service, crime prevention design, the higher awareness of community becomes. The more activated voluntary crime prevention activity, government security education, police public order service, crime prevention design, the higher community institution becomes. Third, civil culture has an effect on community unity. That is, the more activated awareness of community, tolerance spirit, the higher a sense of stability, awareness of community and community system become. Fourth, social security network building has an effect on civil culture and community unity. That is, social security network building has a low effect community institution directly, but if civil culture is enhanced through social security network building, then it has a high effect on community unity.

4,300원

9

동결보호제 및 Sucrose 농도가 급속동결한 마우스 집합배의 생존성에 미치는 영향

신상태

[Kisti 연계] 대한수의학회 대한수의학회지 Vol.31 No.4 1991 pp.523-527

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The effects of ethylene glycol, DMSO and glycerol as cryoprotectants and the effect of concentrations(0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0M) of sucrose in the diluent on the viability of the aggregated morulae frozen rapidly in liquid nitrogen$(LN_2)$ vapour were examined. The morulae were produced by aggregation of ICR and CBA mice embryos at 8-cell stage. Before freezing the embryos were equilibrated in 1.5M cryoprotectants+0.25M sucrose in oae-step or in 3.0M cryoprotectants+0.25M sucrose in two-steps. The embryos were pipetted into the freezing medium fraction of 0.25ml plastic straws. The straws were frozeu by directly transfer into $LN_2$ vapour(about lcm above $LN_2$) for 2 minutes, and then plunged into $LN_2$. After thawing the cryoprotectants were diluted with 0, 0.25, 0.5 or 1.0M sucrose solution. The post-thawed in vitro viability of the aggregated embryos was significantly dependent on the type and concentration of cryoprotectants in the freezing medium and also on the concentration of sucrose in the diluent. When the aggregated embryos were equilibrated in 1.5M cryoprotectants +0.25M sucrose in one-step and diluted with 0.5M sucrose after thawing, the survival rate of the embryo5 was significantly(p<0.05) higher in DMSO(62.5%) or ethylene glycol(52.2%) than in glycerol(33.3 %). In the case that the concentration of the cryoprotectants was raised to 3.0M in two-steps, thc higher survival rate of the embryos was obtained in ethylene glycol or glycerol than in DMSO followed by diluting them with 0.5 or 1.0M sucrose after thawing(p<0.01).

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10

간편한 Blowgun의 제작법

신상태

[Kisti 연계] 한국임상수의학회 Journal of veterinary clinics Vol.4 No.1 1987 pp.433-438

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A cheap, simple, and exact method for the preparation of handmade blowgun was studied. The blowgun-dart-adhesive -stand made of plastic syringe shaft was simple and convenient to make a blowgun dart accuratly. The needle end sealing method with wire-lead(solder) made the needle good to secure and simple to make. Because of easy exchangeability, the tail-piece made of yarn and a rivet is able to use permanently. And the materials of this blowgun were inexpensive, common and easily obtainable. This blowgun dart had various capacity up to 12ml.

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11

급속동결한 마우스 상실배의 체외배양후 생존성에 관하여

신상태

[Kisti 연계] 한국수정란이식학회 Journal of embryo transfer Vol.4 No.1 1989 pp.35-40

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The effects of cryoprotectants (glycerol, DMSO and ethylene glycol) and the concentrations (0, 0, 25, 0.5and 1.0 M) of sucrose in the diluent on the is vitro survival of mouse morulae froaen rapidly in liquid nitrogenvapour were examined. When the embryos were equilibrated in 1.5 M cryoprotectants +0.25 M sucrose in one-step or in 3.0 M cryoprotectants +0.25 sucrose in two-step and diluted with 0, 0.25, 0.5, or 1.0 M sucrose solution after thawing, high survival rates were obtained in ethylene glycol (48.0% to 88.2 %) or in glycerol (35.0 % to 77.8 %). These results show that 1.5 M ethylene glycol is a highly efficient cryoprotective agent for the rapid freezing of mouse morula embryos and 0.5 M sucrose was optimal concentration in the diluent after thawing.

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12

발정동기화 처리한 홀스타인 처녀소의 수태율 향상을 위한 비타민 ADE 또는 미네랄의 투여 효과

이승진, 신상태

[Kisti 연계] 한국수정란이식학회 Journal of embryo transfer Vol.31 No.3 2016 pp.255-260

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of vitamin or mineral supplements on the conception rates of dairy heifers when replacing the last injection of GnRH with hCG in ovsynch protocol (experiment 1) and also to investigate whether the estrus synchronization treatment in the heifer stage affects the conception rates after $1^{st}$ parturition (experiment 2). In experiment 1, 50 heifers were randomly assigned into 3 groups: 20 heifers each in groups 1 and 2, and 10 in group 3. All three groups were treated with an intramuscular injection of GnRH on day 0 (day 0 = the day of program start), $PGF_{2{\alpha}}$ on day 7 and hCG on day 9, and were inseminated on day 10, 12~16h after hCG injection. In group 1 (vitamin group), the heifers were treated with an intramuscular injection of 5 ml of vitamin-ADE $500^{(R)}$, and group 2 (mineral group) was treated twice with an intramuscular injection of 30 ml of mineral supplement-LAPTOVET$^{(R)}$ on a one-week interval beginning on the day of hormone treatment (day 0 and day 7 respectively). Group 3 (control) was treated only with hormones. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasonography through a rectal probe. First service conception rates (FSCR) and average services per conception (ASPC) were recorded for all subjects. Of the total 50 heifers, 6 (2 in group 1, 3 in group 2, and 1 in group 3) heifers were eliminated due to accidents during experiment 1. FSCRs were 58.8% (10/17), 66.7% (12/18) and 44.4% (4/9) in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. ASPCs were $1.53{\pm}0.72$, $1.27{\pm}0.59$ and $1.63{\pm}0.74$ in groups 1, 2 and 3, respectively. Although there were no significant difference between the groups, relatively good results (higher FSCR and lower ASPC) were obtained in both group 1 and 2. In experiment 2, 11 primiparous cows from group 2 of experiment 1 in heifer stage which had been treated both with the hormones for estrus synchronizing and mineral supplements (ES group), and 12 primiparous cows treated only with minerals (non-ES group) were compared to examine the effects of estrus synchronization program on conception rates after $1^{st}$ parturition. Following the examination, postpartum ASPCs were $1.55{\pm}0.82$ and $2.17{\pm}1.47$ in ES group and non-ES group, respectively. The postpartum average days open (ADO) were $116{\pm}56$ and $197{\pm}93$ in ES group and non-ES group, respectively. Although there were no significant difference between the two groups, desirable results (lower ASPC and shorter ADO) were found in ES group after $1^{st}$ parturiton. In conclusion, experiment 1 indicates that vitamin or mineral supplement with ovsynch protocol may have some positive effect on FSCR and ASPC of dairy heifers, and in experiment 2, ES program in heifer stage had a positive effect on ASPC and ADO following $1^{st}$ parturition.

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13

반복적인 과배란 처치 경험이 있는 한국흑염소에서 난포 자극 및 복강경을 이용한 난포란 채취(LOPU)

이용범, 이두수, 조상철, 신상태

[Kisti 연계] 한국수정란이식학회 Journal of embryo transfer Vol.29 No.1 2014 pp.35-41

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Laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) is a convenient method for collecting oocytes in small ruminants. LOPU has the advantage of being a less invasive means of oocyte collection, thereby allowing for a repeated usage of the oocyte donor animals. A total of 25 Korean black goats were used in the winter season (December to February) and LOPU was applied to the goats which had been treated for superovulation more than two times during the last twelve months. Estrus was synchronized with an intravaginal insert containing 0.3 g progesterone for 10 to 12 days. Ovaries were hyperstimulated with eCG 1,000 IU oneshot, FSH with eCG (50 mg / 1,000 IU; 70 mg / 500 IU; 70 mg / 1,000 IU) oneshot or FSH multiple-shot with eCG oneshot ($20mg{\times}6/300IU$) given intramuscularly 72 h prior to LOPU. For these groups, the number of follicles (mean ${\pm}$ SEM) observed which developed to larger than 2 mm in diameter were $1.6{\pm}2.5$, $4.3{\pm}3.1$, $5.5{\pm}4.2$, $6.6{\pm}2.1$ and $8.8{\pm}7.8$, respectively. Oocytes were aspirated by using OPU needles and a vacuum pump. The overall oocyte retrieval rates were 41.4%. Oocytes were matured in TCM-199 supplemented with 10% (w/v) bovine serum albumin + $10{\mu}g/ml$ FSH + $1{\mu}g/ml$ $17{\beta}$-estradiol for 27 h at $39^{\circ}C$ in 5% $CO_2$ in air. Oocytes were parthenogenetically activated by ionomycin combined with 6-diethylaminopurine (6-DMAP). Total oocyte maturation and cleavage rate were 67.3% and 78.8%, respectively. In summary, LOPU is a useful oocyte collection method in Korean black goats that can provide immature oocytes for transgenesis or nuclear transfer.

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14

Peritonitis Secondary to Pyometra & Ovarian Bursal Abscess in a Dog

박은정, 박지영, 정성목, 최호정, 이영원, 송근호, 박성준, 윤기영, 정태호, 신상태, 조종기

[Kisti 연계] 한국임상수의학회 Journal of veterinary clinics Vol.30 No.5 2013 pp.387-389

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8년령의 중성화하지 않은 암컷 시츄견이 자궁축농증을 치료받기 위해 충남대학교 부속동물병원에 내원하였다. 임상증상으로 질출혈, 외음부출혈, 다식, 다음/다뇨 및 구토 등이 있었다. 혈액검사상으로는 미약한 백혈구감소증이 있었고 혈청화학적으로 ALP 감소 및 GLU 증가가 있었다. 방사선, 초음파 및 복강천자로 이루어졌으며 자궁축농증에 의한 복막염으로 잠정 진단하였다. 수술적 처치로 난소자궁적출술을 실시하였으며 생리식염수로 복강을 세척하였다. 심산 장 괴사가 있었고 자궁축농증에 의한 난소간막에서 농의 복강내로의 유출이 있었다. 이번 보고에서 2차적으로 패혈성 복막염이 발병할 수 있으니 자궁축농증 진단 시 2차성 질병에 대해서도 고려되어야 할 것이다.
An 8-years-old intact female shih tzu was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital Chungnam National University for treatment of suspected pyometra. This dog had clinical symptoms of vaginal bleeding, vulvar discharge, polyphagia, polyuria/polydipsia and vomiting. In hematologic examinations, complete blood count (CBC) revealed mild leucopenia and a serum biochemistry profile revealed increased ALP, decreased GLU values. Diagnosis was made by radiographic examination, ultrasonographic examination, abdominocentesis. Peritonitis secondary to pyometra was tentative diagnosed. Surgical treatment was proceeding for ovariohysterectomy and peritoneal saline irrigation. It was confirmed that severe necrotized enteritis and pus leakage to ovarian bursa with pyometra. In this report, secondary severe disease also must be considered in diagnosis of pyometra because septic peritonitis could be occurred by pus leakage from uterus with pyometra.

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15

국내 유우(Holstein)의 쌍태임신율 및 분만에 관한 조사

조진행, 김명철, 정성목, 이재연, 신상태, 신범준

[Kisti 연계] 한국임상수의학회 Journal of veterinary clinics Vol.29 No.1 2012 pp.33-37

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This study was performed to evaluate the rate of twin pregnancy and parturition in dairy cows. Calving records of Holstein dairy cows from 1998 to 2009 comprising Goyang and Paju cities herd with 20,990 calving events representing 820 twin births were used to evaluate twinning rate, calf sex ratio, periods of pregnancy and complication after parturition in single and twin births. Overall, the reported twinning rate was 3.9% in Holstein dairy cows. Rate of bicornual pregnancy (75%) was larger than that of unicornual pregnancy (25%) among cows having twin. Regardless of parity, the greatest twinning rate was observed in fall season from September to November. Calf sex ratios (male, M; female, F) were 48.0% FM, 28.9% MM, 21.5% FF and 0.9% mummifications for twin calves. Parturition type among cows having twins included normal (4.7%), premature (66.9%), delayed (9.2%), abortion (18.4%) and mummification (0.8%). The period of pregnancy in twin pregnancy (mean 272.6 days) was shorter than single pregnancy (mean 278.1 days). The retained placenta after parturition was over fourth times such as twin parturition (34.8%) higher than single parturition (8.5%) and the abomasal displacement was over two times such as twin parturition (10.2%) higher than single parturition (4.9%). The distribution of twin pregnancy with parities was high rate during the 2~3 parities. The prevalence of complication such as retained placenta and abomasal displacement with twin parturition revealed higher than single parturition.

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16

개에서 발생한 정상피종 진단 및 치료 1례

서영민, 송근호, 박성준, 정성목, 최호정, 이영원, 윤기영, 신상태, 조성환, 조종기

[Kisti 연계] 한국임상수의학회 Journal of veterinary clinics Vol.25 No.1 2008 pp.44-47

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An unknown-aged intact male Yorkshire terrier dog with a mass on the right caudoabdominal region was referred to the Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital at Chungnam National University. Mass size was 4.5 cm in width, 6 cm in length and 3.5 cm in height. This case was suspected to seminoma by physical examination, laboratory examination, radiography, ultrasonography, CT and fine needle aspiration. This dog followed by treatment with surgical excision. After surgery, this case was diagnosed as seminoma by histopathological examination.

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17

개에서 주위고환부고환염 1례

송강준, 정성목, 박성준, 송근호, 최호정, 이영원, 윤기영, 신상태, 조성환, 조종기

[Kisti 연계] 한국임상수의학회 Journal of veterinary clinics Vol.25 No.1 2008 pp.40-43

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A 5-year-old male Shih-Tzu dog was referred with the primary complaint of scrotal swelling after surgery of urethrotomy 1 week ago. A diagnosis of the patient was made based on history taking, physical examination, laboratory examination, radiography, and ultrasonography. In the blood analysis, increase of leukocyte was seen. And there were enlarged and heterogeneous parenchyma of right testis in ultrasonic evaluation. The case was diagnosed as periorchiepididymitis and followed by treatment with bilateral orchiectomy and postoperative antibacterial agents. And conditions of patient were good.

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18

개에서 발생한 양성 전립선 비대증의 약물 치료 1례

임영환, 용환율, 손정민, 송근호, 최호정, 박성준, 정성목, 이영원, 신상태, 조종기

[Kisti 연계] 한국임상수의학회 Journal of veterinary clinics Vol.24 No.1 2007 pp.68-72

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An 8-year-old, male Shih-tzu dog with clinical signs of hemorrhage from penile orifice and pain on lifting hindlimb was brought to the Veterinary Medicine Teaching Hospital, Chungnam National University. The patient was shown polyuria/polydipsia (PU/PD), more than 10 times per day, and gasterointestinal signs such as intermittent vomiting and melena. On laboratory examination, BUN, creatinine and amylase level were all highly increased. Radiographic and ultrasonographic findings included that both kidneys were abnormal, and both prostates were hyperplastic bilaterally and cysts were presented in parenchyma. Additionally, hyperechoic pancreas and intact urinary bladder were observed from ultrasonographic examination. The dog was diagnosed as pancreatitis, acute renal failure and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). After the appropriate treatment for pancreatitis and acute renal failure, He dog was treated with administration of azasteroid for BPH. On day 71 after azasteroid treatment, good response to the treatment was defined by ultrasonography and clinical signs cured completely.

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전핵 미세 주입법으로 생산된 한국흑염소 수정란의 이식 조건이 수태율에 미치는 영향

최윤석, 신현국, 장성근, 양홍석, 이옥근, 이두수, 조종기, 신상태

[Kisti 연계] 한국수정란이식학회 Journal of embryo transfer Vol.22 No.1 2007 pp.53-61

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본 연구는 PI한 한국흑염소 수정란의 이식 결과를 통해 수란 흑염소의 수태율에 영향을 미칠 것으로 생각되는 여러 가지 요인을 분석함으로써, 높은 수태율을 얻을 수 있는 수란 흑염소의 최적 조건을 찾아낼 목적으로 수행하였다. 분석 결과, 수태율에 유의적인 영향을 주는 요인들은 발정형태, 수술 빈도, 이식 부위, 황체의 발육 단계, 수정란의 발육단계, 이식된 수정란의 수 등이었다. 자연 발정이 관찰되어 이식된 흑염소(59.1%, 13/22)들이 $CIDR^(R)$로 발정이 유도된 후 이식된 흑염소(36.8%, 118/321)에서보다 높은 수태율을 나타내었으며(P<0.05), 두 번째 수술 받은 흑염소의 수태율(56.5%, 13/23)이 처음 이식 받은 흑염소(36.5%, 116/318)에 비해 수태율이 높았다(P<0.05). 이식한 부위에 따른 수태율은 좌측 난관에 이식한 흑염소(49.0%, 50/102)가 오른쪽 난관에 이식한 흑염소(35.9%, 46/128)에 비해 수태율이 더 높게 나타났으며(P<0.05), 황체의 발육 단계에 따른 수태율에서는 $CH_1$단계(47.5%, 57/120) 출혈체를 가진 수란 흑염소에서 $CH_3(17.9%,\;7/39)$의 출혈체를 가진 수란 흑염소보다 높은 수태율을 얻었다(P<0.01). 수정란의 발육단계에 따른 차이는 난관 이식의 경우에 1세포기 배가 이식된 수란 흑염소의 수태율(51.6%, 49/95)이 4세포기배를 이식한 경우(24.5%, 12/49)보다 높았다(P<0.01). 수정란의 수는 2개를 이식했을 때(27.%, 37/137)보다 3개를 이식했을 때(47.6%, 50/105) 더 높은 수태율을 얻었다(P<0.01). 수태율에 유의적인 영향이 없는 요인들은 난관 유착이나 자궁 유착, 난소 유착, 자궁각의 크기, 황체의 수, 대형 난포의 존재 유무, 이식의 난이도 등이었다 그러나, 중간 크기의 자궁을 가진 수란 흑염소(38.9%, 122/314)에서 직경 5mm 이하의 작은 자궁을 가진 수란 흑염소(20%, 1/5)나 20mm 이상의 큰 자궁을 가진 수란 흑염소(18.2%, 2/11)보다 수태율이 높은 경향을 보였고, 배란 황체가 있는 같은 쪽 난소에 대형 난포가 존재할 경우(53.3%, 16/30)에 존재하지 않는 경우(37.1%, 104/280)보다 수태율이 높아지는 경향을 보였으며, 이식이 쉽게 이루어진 경우(39.2%, 125/319)에 이식이 어렵거나(27.8%, 5/18) 곤란한 경우(0%, 0/3)에서보다 높은 수태율을 얻을 수 있었다. 따라서, 자궁각의 크기나 대형 난포의 존재 유무, 이식의 난이도 등도 수정란 이식 후의 수태율에 영향을 줄 수 있을 것으로 생각된다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때 PI한 한국 흑염소 수정란의 이식 시 높은 수태율을 얻기 위해서는 수란 흑염소는 자연 발정 온 개체를 이용하고, 난관에 이식하고자하는 경우에는 난소에 $CH_1$ 단계의 출혈체가 존재하는 쪽 난관에 1세포기의 수정란을, 그리고 자궁에 이식하는 경우에는 난소에 발육 단계가 $CL_3$인 황체가 존재하는 쪽 자궁각에 중기 배반포나 후기 배반포를 이식하는 것이 가장 바람직하다는 결론을 얻었다.
This study was investigated factors affecting the pregnancy rates after transfer of pronuclear microinjected embryos for the production of transgenic Korean black goats. Embryo transfer was carried out in 343 recipient Korean black goats from September 1999 to June 2000. Estrus was induced by the insertion of intravaginal progesterone devices $CIDR^(R)$ for 2 weeks. A single injection of 400 IU equine chorionic gonadotropin was administered at 48h before $CIDR^(R)$ removal to increase the proportion of does cycling and ovulation rate. Good quality embryos were prepared by microinjection of DNA into the pronuclei of fertilized goat oocyte and cultured in vitro. Pronuclear microinjected $1{\sim}8$ cell stage embryos were surgically transferred into the oviducts of the recipient at day 4 or 5 following $CIDR^(R)$ removal, and morula to blastocyst stage embryos were surgically transferred into uterus at day 9. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound scanning at $20{\sim}30d$ and 8 weeks following embryo transfer. The pregnancy rate was affected by several factors, such as estrus induction, the number of previous transfer, transfer site, stage of CL (corpus luteum), the number of recipient CL, stage of embryos and the number of transferred embryo. The pregnancy rate was significantly higher in recipients that came into estrus naturally than recipients that induced to come into estrus with $CIDR^(R)$(59.1% vs. 36.8%; P<0.05). The pregnancy rate was higher when the embryos were transferred into the left oviduct than transferred into the right oviduct (42.9% vs. 35.3%; P<0.05). The pregnancy rate of recipients with $CH_1$ (early) stage corpus hemorrhagicum in ovary was hi틴or than recipient with $CH_3$ (late) stage hemorrhagicum (47.5% vs. 17.9%; P<0.01). Higher pregnancy rates were obtained by transfer of 1-cell stage embryos into oviduct while late blastocysts (51.6% vs. 66.7%; P<0.01) into uterus. The pregnancy rates when 3 embryos were transferred to recipients were significantly higher than when 2 embryos we.e transferred (47.6% vs. 27.0%; P<0.05). Although there were no significant difference among the group, adhesion of reproductive organs, uterine size, ovulation rate of recipients, presence of large follicle and difficulty of transfer affected pregnancy rate of recipient. Higher pregnancy rates were obtained in the recipients with $8{\sim}15m$ diameter uterine horn as compared to the recipients with <5m diameter or >20mm diameter uterine hem (38.9%, 20% vs. 18.2%), in the recipients with large follicle in the ovulated ovary ipsilaterally (53.6% vs. 37.1%) and in the transfer which was carried out easily (39.2% vs. 27.8%, 0%). In conclusion, the high rate of pregnancy was achieved following transfer of pronuclear microinjected embryos when three or four 1-cell stage embryos were transferred into oviduct with $CH_1$ stage corpus hemorrhagicum in the ovary of recipient which came into estrus naturally.

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복강경을 이용한 한국흑염소의 성주기 판정

양홍석, 장성근, 용환율, 조종기, 신상태

[Kisti 연계] 한국수정란이식학회 Journal of embryo transfer Vol.22 No.1 2007 pp.69-74

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

본 연구는 복강경을 이용하여 한국흑염소의 난소를 연속적으로 관찰하여 그 형태적 변화를 확인함으로써 한국흑염소의 성주기를 판정하고 그 결과를 한국흑염소의 수정란 이식시에 활용하고자 하는 목적으로 수행하였다. $CIDR^(R)$ 제거 2일 후부터 복강경 수술을 통해 난소의 형태적 변화를 관찰하였다. 난소의 크기와 황체의 변화를 관찰하였으며, 황체는 그 성숙과 퇴축 과정에 따라 corpus hemorrhagicum(CH), corpus luteum(CL), corpus albicans(CA)로 나누었다. 배란 전일(Day 0)에는 배란 직전의 대형난포(Graafian follicle)가 존재하였고, 배란일(Day 1)에는 배란 직후의 함몰 부위(OD)를, 그리고 배란 2일째(Day 2)에는 초기 출혈체$(CH_1)$가 관찰되었다. 배란 3일 및 4일째에는 배란된 자리로부터 형성된 출혈체가 성숙하여 $CH_2,\;CH_3$로 발육되며 점차 그 크기가 커지고 주위에 잘 발달된 혈관의 분지들을 관찰할 수 있었다. 배란 5일째와 6일째에는 완전히 성숙하여 난소의 절반 이상을 차지하는 성숙 황체$(CL_3)$를 관찰하였다. 배란 10일째에는 더욱 발달한 성숙 황체와 함께 같은 쪽 또는 반대편 난소에 작은 난포가 생성된 것을 확인하였고, 배란 15일째에는 10일째 생성된 난포와는 다른 새로운 난포가 나타나 발육되는 것을 확인하였다. 배란 17일과 18일째에는 점차 황체의 크기가 작아져 $CL_2,\;CL_1$의 단계로 퇴행하였고, 배란 20일과 22일째에는 완전히 퇴행된 황체, 즉 백체(CA)의 존재와 함께 같은 쪽 또는 반대편 난소에 발육된 우세난포를 확인하였다. 본 연구에서 복강경을 통한 난소의 변화상을 관찰한 결과, 한국흑염 소의 발정주기는 estrus기(성숙 난포기)가 1일(성주기제 0일), metestrus기(배란 및 황체 발육기)는 4일(성주기 제 $1{\sim}4$일), diestrus기(황체기)는 $12{\sim}13$일(성주기 제$5{\sim}16/17$일), proestrus기(황체퇴행 및 난포 형성기)는 5일(성주기 제 $17/18{\sim}21/22$일)인 것으로 확인되었다. 난소의 육안적 관찰을 위해 사용한 복강경 시술은 개복술에 비래 수술 상처와 감염이 적고 수술 후 회복도 빨랐으며 최소한의 유착과 수술 시간의 단축 등 많은 장점을 가지고 있어 한국흑염소의 수정란이식 등에 그 활용 가치가 클 것으로 사료된다.
This study was performed to determine the estrous cycles by macroscopic observation of the ovarian changes using the laparoscopy and to make use of these results for embryo transfer in Korean black goat (Copra hircus aegagrus). Laparoscopic examinations of the ovaries were performed from 2 days after $CIDR^(R)$ removal to 22 days after ovulation. The serial morphological changes of follicles and corpus luteum (CL) were observed. CL was classified corpus hemorrhagicum(CH), corpus luteum (CL) and corpus albicans (CA) by its maturation and regression. On the day before ovulation (Day 0), Graafian follicles (GF) were found on one or both ovaries. On the day (Day 1) and $2^{nd}$day (Day 2) of ovulation, and ovulation depression (OD) and an early stage corpus hemorrhagicum $(CH_1)$ were observed at the site of GF, respectively. On Days 3 to 4, more developed and enlarged corpus hemorrhagicum $(CH_2\;and\;CH_3)$ arised from the ovulation of the GF with well vascularization. On Days 5 to 6, it was identified that mature corpus luteum $(CL_3)$ was grown on the ovary, and fully developed CL with adjacent follicles were occupied most part of the ovary on Days 17 and 18. Then the size of CL was diminished, and completely luteal regression $(CL_1\;or\;CA)$ with new large follicle was identified on Days 20 and 22. From these results, the 4 stages of the estrous cycle in Korean black goats were 1) estrus (Day 0) for 1 day, 2) metestrus $(Day\;1{\sim}4)$ for 4 days (stage of CH development), 3) diestrus $(Day\;5{\sim}16/17)$ for 12 or 13 days (luteal stage), and 4) proestrus $(Day\;17/18{\sim}20/22)$ for 4 or 5 days (stage of luteal regression and follicular growing). Laparoscopy for observation of ovarian changes was invasive than laparotomy. Additionally, it had advantages of reduced adhesion and quick operation time. It was considered that laparoscopic examination of ovarian changes will be useful for embryo transfer in the Korean black goats.

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