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1

수출사기채권과 무역보험연구의 성립여부에 관한 연구

서정두

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제20권 제1호 2019.03 pp.1-24

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오늘날 대외무역이 확대되면서 수출사기로 인한 피해가 급증하고 있는데, 그 주된 원인을 보면 거래량이 증가하고 첨단복사기 등 과학기술이 발달하면서 문서의 위․변조가 용이한 데 비하여 수출업무의 참여은행들이 주의의무를 소홀히 한 것에서 비롯된 경우가 많다. 본 연구는 수출거래를 신용장, 무신용장 추심 또는 O/A 거래 등 수출사기가 빈발하는 주요 형태별로 그동안의 선행연구와 문헌 및 판례를 바탕으로 하여 수출사기가 발생한 경우 수출채권 매입은행의 책임한계뿐만 아니라 무역보험의 성립여부 등에 관하여 논증하였다. 요컨대 신용장, 무신용장 추심 내지 O/A 거래 등 각 거래형태별 수출업무 참여은행은 무역서류의 선량한 관리자로서 다른 무역거래에서와 같이 상당한 주의를 다하여 무역서류의 원본 또는 사본을 상호 대조하여야 하며, 수출사기로 오염된 채권으로는 무역보험을 기대할 수 없다.
There has been a gradual increase in the number of exporting trades spoiled by the fraud recently. It may happen that the documents which are tendered to the banks under a exporting contract of goods are forged, altered or fraudulent. They may be forged or untrue in relation to the goods to which they refer, however on their face they appear to be correct and good tender under the documentary credit, the collection instruction or the sale’s contract. If the documents presented by the exporter are forged or fraudulent, the negotiating bank is entitled to refuse payment or acceptance if it finds out before payment or acceptance and is entitled to recover the money as paid under a mistake of fact if it finds out after payment. Banks will act in good faith and exercise reasonable care of the documents received. Banks must determine that the documents received appear to be as listed in the exporter’s instruction and must advise by telecommunication or, if that is not possible, by other expeditious means, without delay, the party whom the instruction was received of any documents found to be other than listed. Banks will present documents as received without further examination and have no further obligation in this respect. Banks assume no liability or responsibility for the form, sufficiency, accuracy, genuineness or falsification of any documents, or … for the good faith or acts or omissions, solvency, performance or standing of the consignors, the carriers, the forwarders, the consignees or the insurers of the goods, or any other person.

6,100원

2

화환신용장거래에서 사기서류에 대한 당사자간의 책임문제

서정두

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제13권 제4호 2012.12 pp.129-149

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최근 신용장거래에는 사기(fraud)에 관련된 문제가 빈발하고 있다. 신용장거래의 사기는 주로 서류의 위조, 변조 또는 허위내용 등에 기인하고 있다. 본 연구는 신용장의 독립ㆍ추상성과 엄격일치성에 따른 거래의 본질을 악용하는 사기가 개입된 경우에 야기되는 법률상의 효과를 검토하는데 목적을 두었다. 즉, 본고는 화환신용장거래의 사기가 발생된 경우에 거래당사간의 책임한계에 관한 판단기준을 찾는데 중점을 두었으며, 이를 위하여 사기의 대표적인 규칙을 형성해 온 영미법계와 대륙법계의 판례를 중심으로 논하였다. 요컨대 기존의 사기규칙은 늘어나는 신용장 사기사건을 감당하기에 역부족이므로, 사기서류에 대한 법원의 금지명령은 명백한 증거 외에 추정적 증거로도 허용되어야 하며, 또 영국에서처럼 개설은행은 사기서류로 인하여 신용장조건이 위반된 데 대하여 항변할 수 있도록 개선되어야 할 것으로 본다.
There has been a worldwide increase in the number of letter of credit cases involving fraud recently. It may happen that the documents which are tendered to the banks under a documentary credit are forged, altered or fraudulent. Banks assume no liability or responsibility for the form, sufficiency, accuracy, genuineness or falsification of any documents. Where the seller's fraud has been called to bank's attention the documents have been presented for payment, the principle of the independence of the bank's obligation and the strict compliance under the letter of credit should not be extended to protect the delinquent seller. That is, if the documents are presented by the seller and are forged or fraudulent, the bank is entitled to refuse payment or acceptance if it is discovered before payment or acceptance and is entitled to recover the money as paid under a mistake of fact if it is discovered after payment. The above mentioned fraud rule, based in the common law definition, requires three elements accordingly to be present : first, a false presentation of fact made by the seller ; secondly, knowledge on the part of the seller that the presentation is false, and thirdly, an intention to induce the bank to act or to refrain from action in reliance upon the misrepresentation.

5,700원

3

Incoterms® 2010 규칙의 위험 · 비용분담기준 비교

서정두

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제12권 제2호 2011.06 pp.75-95

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인코텀즈® 2010은 200년대 이후 무역관습의 시대적인 변화와 일부 규칙의 한계, 9. 11 테러 등을 겪으면서 물품이동에 따른 보안문제, 운송관습의 변화 등을 극복하기 위하여 불가피하게 준비되었다. 즉, 용도별 각 규칙의 당사자간 인도의무에 따른 위험과 비용분담의 한계에 대한 문제가 중점적으로 검토되었다. 본고의 연구는 인코텀즈® 2010의 주요특징을 정리한 후 전통관습과 문헌연구를 바탕으로 하여 각 규칙별 당사자간의 위험과 비용분담기준의 변화추이와 11개 규칙의 차이점 등에 관하여 사용자들이 명확히 구분할 수 있도록 도움을 주고 오해와 분쟁을 줄일 수 있는 가이드라인을 제시하고자 하였다. 요컨대 인코텀즈® 2010의 11개 규칙 중에는 위험과 비용분담기준이 일치하는 경우도 있지만 일치하지 아니하는 경우도 있으며, 또 구규칙으로부터 상당히 변화되었거나 첨삭된 내용도 있다. 따라서 각 규칙의 사용자들은 물품의 위험과 비용부담의 분기점을 정확히 숙지하고 이를 사용하여야 할 것이다.
The Incoterms® 2010 rules take account of the continued spread of customs-free zones, the increased use of electronic communications in business transactions, heightened concern about security in the movement of goods and changes in transport practices. They are focused on the critical point of transfer of risks and allocation of costs between the parties. This paper has aimed to summarize the main characteristics of the Incoterms® 2010, to study the each rule’s history and distinction of the standard on the transfer of risks and allocation of costs relating to the goods between the seller and buyer, and to support the Incoterms® 2010 users with the guideline to diminish the misunderstanding or disputes. The parties should choose the appropriate Incoterms rule to the goods, to the means of their transport, and above all to whether to put the obligation of carriage or insurance, on the seller or on the buyer. Furthermore, the parties should specify your place or port as precisely as possible. Under the Incoterms rules EXW, FCA, DAT, DAP, DDP, FAS and FOB, the named place is the place where risk passes from the seller to the buyer. Under the Incoterms rules CPT, CIP, CFR and CIF, the named place is the place of destination to which carriage is paid. Indications as to place or destination can helpfully be further specified by stating a precise point in that place or destination in order to avoid doubt or argument.

5,700원

4

국제비즈니스계약에서 Hardship의 성립요건과 효과에 관한 비교연구

서정두

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제14권 제4호 2013.12 pp.209-228

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Hardship은 계약체결시에 예견하지 못한 통제불능의 본질적인 사정변경에 대비한 제도로서 계약해제를 전제 하지 아니하고, 당사자들에게 계약수정의 협상을 의무화하여 계약관계를 계속 유지시키도록 한다는 것이 특 징이다. Hardship 법리는 국제규범에 따라 다소 차이가 있다. 즉, CISG는 불가항력에 의한 면책 이외에 Hardship의 직 접적인 규정이 없다. PICC는 불가항력에 의한 면책뿐만 아니라 Hardship의 요건과 효과를 구체적으로 규정하 고 있다. 또 PECL도 PICC와 동일하게 불가항력과 사정변경규정을 두고 있다. 특히 Hardship 조항은 후발적인 사정변경의 개연성이 많은 장기적인 국제비즈니스계약에 있어서 불가항력, Frustration 법리 등의 부정적인 법적 효과를 극복할 수 있고, 당사자들에게 계약수정의 직접 협상을 의무화함 으로써 제3자에 의한 조정, 중재 또는 소송으로 이어지는 시간과 비용도 줄일 수 있다.
There is hardship where the occurrence of events fundamentally alters the equilibrium of the contract, and i) the events occur or become known to the disadvantaged party after the conclusion of the contract, ii) the events could not reasonably have been taken into account by the disadvantaged party at the time of the conclusion of the contract, iii) the events are beyond the control of the disadvantaged party, and iv) the risk of the events was not assumed by the disadvantaged party. This paper has compared the provisions of CISG, PICC of UNIDROIT and PECL of EU that related to force majeure, hardship or the change of circumstances. Concerning hardship or the change of circumstances, CISG has not any provisions of its doctrine. In contrast to CISG, PICC and PECL expressly provide the doctrine of hardship or the change of circumstances. It’s very important that in case of hardship the parties concerned must renegotiate the terms of their contracts, and upon failure to reach agreement within a reasonable time either party may resort to court. Therefore, it’s time when we should draft the standard provisions of hardship suitable to various international contracts and research the basic requirements and effects of hardship under each country’s legal system.

5,500원

5

‘등재지’를 향하여 도약하는 학회

서정두, 이승영

한국무역보험학회 무역보험연구 제12권 제1호 2011.03 p.2

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약에 따라 개인회원에게 무료로 제공됩니다.

6

수출거래(輸出去來)에서 상업송장(商業送狀)의 일치성의무(一致性義務)에 관한 관습적(慣習的) 해석기준(解釋基準)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.25 2005 pp.99-119

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Recently, the export claims related to the compliance of the commercial invoice are increasing. This paper aims to review the basic requirements of the invoice, and two theories on the document compliance, i.e., the strict compliance and the substantial compliance, and to analyse the substantial compliance of the invoice through some recent cases under the UCP 500, ICC's opinions and the International Standard Banking Practice (ISBP). As regards the compliance of the invoice, a majority of the cases has held that it must comply strictly with the credit terms ("strict compliance rule"). However, a minority of courts and credit industry standards such as the UCP and ISBP published by ICC take a different approach, infusing the credit law notions such as equity, "substantial compliance rule", etc. The extent of the substantial compliance of the invoice is particularly explained in the above-mentioned invoice paragraphs of the ISBP and supported by a large number of ICC's official opinions. Especially, the parties and descriptions in the invoice must correspond with those in the credit, being not inconsistent with the other documents. Other issues related to invoices such as a tolerance of the quantity, the amount, and the number of originals or copies, etc. must comply with the credit terms substantially.

원문보기
7

ISBP(신용장 국제표준은행관습(信用狀 國際標準銀行慣習))의 주요내용(主要內容)과 적용상(適用上)의 문제점(問題點)에 관한 연구(硏究)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.20 2003 pp.317-341

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The publication International Standard Banking Practice for the Examination of Documents under Documentary Letters of Credit (ISBP) is the product by a task force of the ICC Banking Commission. The ISBP is a practical complement to UCP 500, ICC’s universally used rules on documentary credits. The ISBP does not amend the UCP. It explains, in explicit detail, how the rules are to be applied on a day-to-day basis. It fills a needed gap between the general principles announced in the rules and the daily work of the documentary credit practitioner. By using the ISBP, document checkers can bring their practices in line with those followed by their colleagues worldwide. The result should be a significant reduction in the number of documents refused for discrepancies on first presentation.

원문보기
8

국제은행관습상 Surrender B/L의 한계성에 관한 연구

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.69 2016 pp.201-220

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

A bill of lading is a document which is signed by the carrier or his agent acknowledging that the goods have been shipped on board a named vessel bound for the destination and stating the terms on which the goods so received are to be carried. Therefore, the bill of lading is a document of title enabling the holder to obtain credit from banks before the arrival of the goods, for the transfer of the bill of lading can operate as a pledge of the goods themselves. In the other words the bill of lading creates a privity between its holder and the carrier as if the contract was made. A bill of lading, for obtaining credit from banks, must appear to indicate the carrier's name and signature, the "shipped on board" notation, the port of loading and unloading stated in the sales contract and the credit. Data in the bill of lading, when read in context with the sales contract, the credit, the bill of lading itself and international standard banking practice, need not be identical to, but must not conflict with, data in that bill of lading, any other stipulated document, the sales contract or the credit. The surrender bill of lading, stamping "surrendered" on the original bill of lading by request of the shipper, is not recognized the legal effectiveness as a document of title by the statutory law and court. The surrender bill of lading may increase the risk of impossibility of payment to the holder. Therefore, the surrender bill of lading should be used restrictively between the credible parties and suggested to avoid in the other cases.

원문보기
9

국제기술이전계약상(國際技術移轉契約上)의 부공정조항(不公正條項)에 관한 연구(硏究)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.12 1999 pp.107-132

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The technology transfer agreements, which transfer technology from industrialized countries to developing countries, are subjected to control and restrictions in many developing countries in order to protect national interests. The licensors endeavour, therefore, to ensure that their activities fit satisfactorily into the technological policies and plans of the host countries, and contribute to the development of national scientific and technological potential, including the establishment and improvement in host countries of their capacity to innovate. Secondly, the licensors adopt in the course of their business activities practices which permit the rapid diffusion of technologies with due regard to the protection of industrial and intellectual property rights. Thirdly, the licensors endeavour to grant licenses for the use of industrial property rights or to otherwise transfer technology on reasonable terms and conditions.

원문보기
10

UCP 600 서류심사기준의 문제점과 실무상 유의점

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 한국무역상무학회 학술대회논문집 2006 pp.117-150

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

11

화환신용상거래(貨換信用狀去來)의 제조건(諸條件)의 해석(解釋)에 관한 비교연구(比較硏究)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.3 1992 pp.108-169

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

12

UCP 600 서류심사기준의 문제점과 실무상 유의점

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.33 2007 pp.91-118

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

In the transaction of credits, banks must examine the presentation to determine, on the basis of the documents alone, whether or not the documents appear on their face to constitute a complying presentation. And bank shall each have a maximum of five banking days following the day of presentation to determine if a presentation is complying. This period does not depend on any upcoming expiry date or last day for presentation. Data in a document, when read in context with the credit, the document itself and international standard banking practice, need not be identical to, but must not conflict with, data in i) that document; ii) any other stipulated document; or iii) the credit. When a bank determines that a presentation is complying, it must honour or negotiate. But, when a bank determine that a presentation does not comply, it may refuse to honour or negotiate. When a bank decides to refuse to honour or negotiate, it must give a single notice to that effect to the presenter. That notice must be given by telecommunication or, if that is not possible, by other expeditious means no later than the close of the fifth banking day following the day of presentation.

원문보기
13

국제프랜차이즈계약의 표준조항과 불공정거래행위

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국중재학회 한국중재학회지:중재연구 Vol.22 No.3 2012 pp.165-185

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Franchising has proved over many years to be a successful commercial vehicle for the international distribution of products and services. However, there has long been missing a user-friendly model contract that would reflect the diversity of international franchising contracts. Because the ICC has drafted a model form of international franchising contracts, taking into account the most commonly encountered clauses in franchising agreements, their model could be used as a checklist of the core obligations of a cross-border franchise contract. Because there is no internationally agreed-upon uniform legislation on franchising, parties must rely on national laws and regulations applicable to the international franchise (when such laws and regulations exist) and should therefore very carefully draft stipulations for the legal status of the contract. This study has been intended to cite some provisions for striking a fair balance between the interests of the franchisor and those of the franchisee and for avoiding unfair trade acts in international franchising contracts.

원문보기
14

화환신용장거래(貨換信用狀去來)에서의 서류수리거절권(書類受理拒絶權)의 상실사유(喪失事由)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.10 1997 pp.377-405

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15

서비스관련 대외무역법령상의 문제점과 개정방안

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.29 2006 pp.65-86

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In general, goods can be defined as objects, devices or things, whereas services can be defined as deeds, efforts or performances. Ultimately, the primary difference between goods and services is the property of intangibility - lacking physical substance. Recently, service industries span a wide variety of enterprises, from hamburgers to high technology. And the rules-based multilateral trading system so successful in reducing barriers to international trade in goods is now being expanded in the area of international trade in services. Therefore, the Korean Ministry of Trade, Industries and Energies has revised the Korea Foreign Trade Act and its Enforcement Ordinance to focus on expanding trade in service sectors, including transportation, communications, tourism services, and business services.

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16

개정(改正) 신용장(信用狀) 통일규칙상(統一規則上)의 서류심사 기준(書類審査 基準)과 문제점(問題點)에 관한 고찰(考祭)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.7 1994 pp.682-724

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17

개정(改正) 인코텀즈(INCOTERMS 2000)의 주요특징(主要特徵)과 실무적용상(實務適用上)의 유의점(留意點)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.13 2000 pp.43-68

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Incoterms mean the ICC official rules for the interpretation of trade terms which facilitate the conduct of international trade. Thus, the uncertainties of different interpretations of such terms in different countries can be avoided or at least reduced to a considerable degree. Nevertheless, Incoterms has been revised successively to adapt them to contemporary commercial practice. In particularly, substantive changes in Incoterms 2000 have been made in two areas: (i) the customs clearance under FAS and DEQ; and (ii) the loading and unloading obligations under FCA. But it should be stressed that the scope of Incoterms is limited to the contract of sale and not apply to the contracts of carriage, insurance and financing. Moreover, merchants wishing to use Incoterms 2000 should clearly specify that their contract is governed by 'Incoterms 2000'. It is particularly important to note that Incoterms are not dealt with a great number of problems, such as transfer of property rights, breaches of contract and exemptions from liability. Therefore, the contracting parties should clearly agree to the applicable law related their contract of sale, like the 1980 United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Sale of Goods.

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18

FTA와 전문직서비스산업 수출증대방안 - 교육.의료서비스를 중심으로 -

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국통상정보학회 통상정보연구 Vol.8 No.3 2006 pp.23-42

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Services, despite the difficulty of its exact definition, can be defined as deeds, efforts, or performances by economical bodies, attributing to four unique characteristics - intangibility, inseparability, heterogeneity, and perishability. This study aims to research the global competition and problems of the local professional services, especially educational services and health services, and to suggest some devices for increasing the exportation of both educational services and health services. Educational services and health services were reserved in the multilateral negotiation to open the WTO parties' markets because of its national public benefits. But it is indispensable to open our local market by the bilateral FTA negotiation. Legal restrictions, therefore, related to both education and health should be erased according to the basic rule of the market competition, and it is advisable to control the national public benefit of these services by enacting the different legal systems. For recovering from minus balance of payment in the educational services or health services, furthermore, it is necessary to drive rather some offensive exporting policies than the defensive policy against supply from the foreign countries. In conclusion, the korean Foreign Trade Act and other relative acts should be revised, and both educational services and health services should be contained within the definition of "the international trade" for the governmental benefits of supporting the services exportation.

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19

신용장거래(信用狀去來)에서의 일치성판단(一致性判斷)에 관한 "표준관습(標準慣習)"의 해석(解釋)

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.11 1998 pp.337-360

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20

국제신용장관습간의 효력관계에 관한 비교검토

서정두

[Kisti 연계] 한국무역상무학회 무역상무연구 Vol.41 2009 pp.25-50

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In this article, I have reviewed the definition of international mercantile customs, their preferential application, the developing status of the credit practice, the effectiveness and relationship of the international standard banking practices, e.g. UCP 600 and ISBP 2007, ISP98, URR 725, eUCP 1.1. and the like, established by the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC). It is important to emphasize that the autonomous agreements between the credit parties and the international practice on the credit transaction are respected above all because of the special nature of its transaction. When we want to apply to a letter of credit by the international rules - UCP 600, ISP98, URDG, URR 725 and eUCP 1.1, we must indicate expressly in the text of the credit that it is subject to the respective rule. But the International Standard Banking Practice, 2007 revised by the ICC is applicable to without its indication in case of the UCP 600 credit. On the other hand, the UN Convention on Guarantees and Standby Credits applies to an international undertaking referred to in its article 2, (a) if the guarantor/issuer is in a Contracting State, or (b) if the rules of private international law lead to the application of the law of a Contracting State, unless the undertaking excludes the application of the Convention. And this Convention applies also to an international credit not falling within its article 2, if it expressly states that it is subject to this Convention.

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