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6,100원

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A Qualitative Research Method in Service Encounters - A Critical Incident Technique

Jungyoung Park, Jungnam Yoo

관광경영학회 관광경영연구 제4권 제3호 통권 9호 2000.10 pp.42-60

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최근 관광학 연구 분야에서 질적 연구방법(qualitative research methods)에 대한 관심이 커지고 있으나, 질적 연구방법론에 대한 자료, 실질적인 지침 및 선행연구의 부족으로 인하여 현재까지는 많은 연구가 이루어지지 못하고 있는 실정이다. 중요사건기법(critical incident technique)은 질적 연구의 한 방법으로 서, 어떠한 활동에 긍정적 혹은 부정적인 영향을 미치는 중요한 사건(incident)을 수집한 후 내용분석(content analysis)을 통해 새로운 분류체계를 개발하는 방법이다. 중요사건기법은 귀납적(inductive)인 연구방법론과 내용분석법의 장⋅단점을 모두 가지고 있으나, 다른 질적 연구방법론에 비해 좀 더 과학적(scientific)이고 객관적(objective)이라고 할 수 있다. 본 연구에서는 중요사건 기법을 이용한 세 편의 서비스 조우(service encounters) 연구를 중요사건기법의 절차에 따라 분석함으로써 중요사건기법에 대한 실질적인 지침을 마련하는 동시에, 관광학 연구 분야에 대한 이 기법의 다양한 응용가능성을 제시한다.

5,400원

5

패밀리 레스토랑의 핵심${\cdot}$고품질${\cdot}$기본서비스 요인과 요인 별 고객관리 차별화 전략에 관한 연구

박정영

[Kisti 연계] 한국식생활문화학회 한국식생활문화학회지 Vol.23 No.2 2008 pp.184-193

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The purpose of this study was to determine the detailed customer satisfaction and dissatisfaction factors of family restaurants in Korea, and to then classify the factors into 3 groups, inlcuding core service, quality service, and basic service. ‘Core service’ represents the critical factors that generate both satisfaction and dissatisfaction; ‘quality service’ generates only satisfaction; and ‘basic service’ generates only dissatisfaction. This categorization is based on Herzberg’s motivation-hygiene theory (1976) as well as Cadotte & Turgeon (1988). Based on the characteristics of the three groups, differentiation strategies in managing customer service were suggested to the family restaurant managers. A qualitative research method, termed the critical incident technique (CIT), was used in the study. This method helps researchers find new factors or attributes by grouping key issues from the anecdotes (critical incidents) and then categorizing common factors from the key issues. This research categorized key satisfiers and dissatisfiers into 33 factors, which were from 402 critical incidents described by 261 respondents. Eleven factors (response to service failures, food taste and quality, attention paid to customers, coupon/mileage point/discount card, customer’s ordinary requests, waiting, food diversity, food price, facility sanitation, checking out, customer’s special requests) were classified into core service, which required maximum management not regarding the level of customer satisfaction. Six factors (employee attitude, event, education and explanation, complementary food, customer’s mistakes, attention paid to children) were classified into quality service, which required differentiation strategy management. Finally, nine factors (speed of food service, employee’s mistakes, food sanitation, atmosphere and interior, seating, forcing orders, parking, other customers, reservations) were classified into basic service, which required minimum management at the level of the industry standards.

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6

난연제의 최근 개발 동향

박정영

[Kisti 연계] 한국염색가공학회 염색가공기술지 Vol.1 2006 pp.96-105

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7

여자 노인의 거주지별 영양상태 및 관련 요인

박미연, 박정영, 박필숙

[Kisti 연계] 동아시아식생활학회 동아시아식생활학회지 Vol.25 No.1 2015 pp.39-48

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This study aimed to compare and evaluate nutritive conditions of the female elderly (2,893 people) based on a national health nutrition survey and health-related factors influencing nutritional intake. The results are as follows.- Average age of all subjects was $72.12{\pm}5.2$ old. BMI ($24.48{\pm}3.3kg/m^2$) and waist size ($83.9{\pm}9.5cm$) of urban elderly was larger ($23.74{\pm}3.3kg/m^2$, $82.28{\pm}9.9cm$) than that of rural elderly. MAR[4] and MAR[10] were also higher in urban elderly than rural elderly. The results of multiple regression analysis showed that factors influencing poor nutrition of elderly subjects were increasing age, smoking, and self-rated health. Old-old and current smokers were associated with a higher likelihood of poor nutrition (OR 1.82, 95%CI 1.43~2.30) and (OR 3.40, 95%CI 2.17~5.33) elderly female subjects in urban areas. Smoking (OR 2.29, 95%CI 1.33~3.95), poor self-rated health (OR 1.55, 95%CI 1.11~2.16), over nine hours of sleep per nighting (OR 1.72, 95%CI 1.17~2.53) and stress (OR 1.46, 95%CI 1.10~1.92) of elderly female subjects in rural areas were associated with higher likelihood of a poor nutrition. In conclusion, rural elderly are more influenced by poor health practice behaviors (self-rated health, sleeping stress) and psychological factors. Nutrition status of the rural elderly is worse than that of the urban elderly. To reduce nutritional risk of Korean elderly, especially rural elderly, active nutrition arbitration should include psychological environmental factors.

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8

계란의 저장·보관 조건에 따른 위생적 품질 변화

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경보건학회 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.41 No.6 2015 pp.438-448

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Objectives: This study was performed to examine the effects of storage time and temperature and their interaction on the hygienic quality parameters of shell eggs. Methods: Eggs from 40-week-old Hy-Line Brown hens were sampled immediately after being laid and subjected to storage periods of four weeks at a refrigerated temperature ($4-5^{\circ}C$) or room temperature ($13.0-19.7^{\circ}C$). Interior/exterior qualities were examined every one week. Results: Weight loss was 2.4-3.1%. The initial specific gravity of the eggs was maintained until one week at both temperatures. Air cell size exceeded 4 mm when stored for one week at room temperature, and two weeks at refrigerated temperature. Albumen index and Haugh unit were significantly decreased at both temperatures after one week (p<0.001). Rapidly increased pH of the albumen with one week of storage was observed, regardless of temperature (p<0.001). Extension of the storage for up to four weeks at room temperature resulted in remarkable deterioration of eggshell quality and instrumental color as redness (a). Air cell size, albumen and yolk indices, Haugh unit, pH of albumen and yolk were found to be influenced by storage time and temperature (p<0.001). Interaction effects between storage time and temperature were also significant for air cell size, pH of albumen and yolk (p<0.001). Conclusion: The results suggest that air cell size and pH of albumen and yolk were important parameters influenced by storage time and temperature in shell eggs. Storage time was more influential for air cell size, and temperature for the pH of yolk. Both variables almost equally influenced the pH of albumen.

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9

서울 일부 지역 노인의 체지방률, 허리둘레와 체질량지수에 의한 비만 분류 및 만성질환 유병율과의 연관성

강민정, 박정영, 김정연, 이연주, 도민희, 이상선

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품영양학회 한국식품영양학회지 Vol.27 No.3 2014 pp.358-368

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The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of obesity indices among the body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and body fat percentage (BF%), and to determine which is the most useful index to predict the risk of chronic diseases of elderly people. This study was conducted as a cross-sectional study at welfare centers in Seoul. The total number of subjects was 261 (68 men and 193 women) with age ${\geq}60$ years. The distribution of obesity using 3 obesity indices in the subjects with hypertension, diabetes, or arthritis was BF%>WC>BMI in elderly men and WC>BF%>BMI in elderly women. In elderly women, odds ratios (ORs) for hypertension in BMI and WC quartiles were significantly increased in quartile 2 and 3 (p<0.05). The ORs for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and arthritis in BF% quartiles were significantly increased in quartile 3 and 4 (p<0.05). The BF% was sensitive obesity index for predicting the occurrence of chronic disease in men, and the WC was sensitive index in women. Our results suggested maintaining BMI less than $23.5kg/m^2$, WC less than 82 cm, and BF less than 35% in order to prevent chronic diseases in elderly women.

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10

일부 음식점 주방의 부유세균 및 부유진균 조사연구

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경보건학회 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.40 No.2 2014 pp.98-104

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Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine airborne bioaerosols such as bacteria and fungi in the kitchens of restaurants, and to assess the effects of thermal factors on the levels of the bioaerosols. Methods: Air samples were taken from kitchens of nine restaurants. An Anderson type air sampler was used for sampling and measurements. Petri dishes filled with a microbiological culture medium (trypticase soy agar for bacteria and Sabouraud dextrose agar for fungi) were used as the sampling surface. Results: The levels of bacterial aerosol measured were $10-10^3CFU/m^3$ and fungal aerosol $10-10^2CFU/m^3$, respectively The mean values of air temperature and relative humidity in the kitchens were $24.6^{\circ}C$ and 46.4%, respectively. Overall, the levels of bacterial aerosol varied by the restaurant type, and fungal aerosol by the business period (p < 0.05). The main effect of air temperature and interaction effect of air temperature and relative humidity onto the bacterial level were significant (p < 0.05), whereas the effects were not significant onto the fungal level. Conclusions: The results indicate a wide variation in the levels of bioaerosols among different kitchens. The observed differences in bioaerosol levels in the kitchens reflect different periods of use. The interactions of air temperature and relative humidity onto the bacterial level suggest that constant attention should be paid to avoid peaks of contamination during the summer season.

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11

Atomic Force Microscopy를 이용한 그래핀의 미세구조 및 나노역학 특성 분석

권상구, 박정영

[Kisti 연계] 한국세라믹학회 세라미스트 Vol.16 No.3 2013 pp.61-70

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12

외식업소 종사자의 손 위생관리에 관한 연구

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경보건학회 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.39 No.1 2013 pp.71-82

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Objectives: This study was performed in order to investigate hand hygiene practices among food-service businesses employees based on the awareness of hand-washing and load of indicator bacteria on their hands. It focused on the comparison of full-time and part-time workers in food-service workplaces. Methods: A direct-interview questionnaire survey and microbiological analysis were carried out with sixty workers each. Samples for microbiological analysis were collected through a modified glove-juice method from the hands of the food-service workers and were analyzed for aerobic plate count, total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Microbiological analysis was done according to the Food Code of Korea. Results: Significant differences (p<0.01) were found in the survey between the full-time and part-time workers in hand-washing frequency, use of hand-washing agents, and hand-drying methods. More full-time workers responded to washing their hands after preparing food, after visiting outside, after handling raw materials, and before putting on gloves/when changing gloves than did part-time workers (p<0.05). No remarkable difference was found in bacterial load on the hands except in the aerobic plate count between the two groups. The detection of E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp. on the hands of some food-service workers in both groups revealed poor hand hygiene practices. Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that there is a need for training programs in order to improve hand hygiene practices and strict hand hygiene compliance by food-service workers.

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13

조리종사자의 손 위생관리에 관한 연구 - 패스트푸드점 및 일반음식점 종사자의 비교 -

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품위생안전성학회 Journal of food hygiene and safety Vol.27 No.3 2012 pp.215-223

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본 연구는 패스트푸드점 종사자와 일반음식점 종사자의 손 위생관리를 조사하고 이들에 대한 비교를 하기 위하여 수행되었다. 패스트푸드점 종사자 30명과 일반음식점 종사자 40명을 대상으로 손 씻기 의식(손 씻기 방법, 손 씻기 이행 상황 등)을 조사하고 손에서 지표세균 및 식중독성 세균(일반세균, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus 및 Salmonella spp.) 오염도를 시험하였다. 손 씻기 의식은 설문조사에 의하여, 미생물시험을 위한 시료채취는 glove-juice법에 의하여, 그리고 미생물시험은 식품공전에 준하여 수행하였다. 설문조사에서 손 씻기 방법에 있어서는 손 씻기 도구 사용 및 손 씻기 후 물 잠금방법에서 두 집단 간에 유의한 차이가 있었다(p < 0.05). 손 씻기를 이행하는 상황에 대해서는 신체부위나 옷을 만졌을 때, 생식품 취급 후, 그리고 주기적 손 씻기 등에서 두 집단 간에 유의한 차이가 있었다(p < 0.05). 손의 미생물 시험에서 일반세균수 오염도는 패스트푸드점 종사자가 일반음식점 종사자보다 높았고, total coliforms 오염도는 패스트푸드점 종사자가 일반음식점 종사자보다 낮았으며(p < 0.05), 나머지 미생물은 두 집단 간에 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 그렇지만 E. coli, S. aureus 및 Salmonella spp. 양성자 비율은 패스트푸드점 종사자가 일반음식점 종사자에 비하여 낮은 편이었다. 설문조사에서 일부 항목에서 차이를 보였지만 전반적으로 현저한 차이를 보이지 않은 결과와 더불어 두 집단 모두 E. coli, S. aureus 및 Salmonella spp. 양성자가 나타나 있어 손 위생관리가 철저하게 이루어지지 않았음을 알 수 있다. 두 집단 모두 손 위생관리 수준이 향상되어야 할 것이며, 이를 위한 교육 및 훈련 프로그램이 필요한 것으로 본다.
This study was performed to investigate hygienic behavior of food workers on the awareness of hand-washing, and the microbial load of their hands. This study focused on the comparison of fast food restaurant workers and full-service restaurant workers. A questionnaire survey and microbiological analysis were carried out for thirty fast food restaurant workers and forty full-service restaurant workers. Samples for microbiological analysis were collected through the glove-juice method from the hands of the food workers, and were analyzed for the presence of aerobic plate counts, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Microbiological analysis was done according to the Food Code of Korea. In the survey, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found between the fast food restaurant workers and full-service restaurant workers in the use of hand washing tools and method of turning off water. More full-service restaurant workers responded to wash their hands after touching face, hair, or clothes; after handling raw food materials, and more fast food restaurant workers periodically (p < 0.05). Aerobic plate counts were higher in fast food restaurant workers while total coliforms were higher in full-service restaurant workers (p < 0.05). No remarkable difference was found between the two groups in the load of fecal coliforms, E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp. Poor hand hygiene practices were indicated by the positive results for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp. on the hands of some food workers in both groups. The findings of this study emphasize the need for strict adherence to hand hygiene compliance among the food workers.

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14

휴게음식점 주방의 환경위생상태에 관한 조사연구 - 계절별 변화를 중심으로 -

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경보건학회 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.38 No.2 2012 pp.118-127

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Objectives: This study was undertaken to assess the sanitary conditions in the kitchens of food court/cafeterias and determine seasonal variations. Methods: We measured environmental factors (air temperature, relative humidity, illumination intensity, noise level), and dropping airborne microbes (bacteria and fungi) in the kitchens of eight food court/cafeterias in four seasons (January, April, July, and October). Air temperature and relative humidity were measured with in/out thermo-hygrometers at 1.2-1.5 m above floor level. Illuminance measurement was performed through the multiple point method of Korean Standards (KS). Noise level was measured by the standard methods for the examination of environmental pollution (noise and vibration) of Korea. The estimation of dropping airborne bacteria and fungi was performed through use of Koch's method. Results: The highest kitchen air temperature was in July, and the lowest in January. The average temperature surpassed $21^{\circ}C$ throughout the seasons, suggesting a higher temperature than required for the safe handling of food. Humidity in all the kitchens was measured in the range of 50-60%. Half of the kitchens showed illumination intensities below 300 Lux in April. It was found that the sound pressure level of noise in almost all of the kitchens was higher than 85 dB (A). The highest levels of dropping airborne bacteria and fungi were noted in July. The numbers of airborne bacteria were higher than those of fungi. The levels of dropping airborne bacteria and fungi were affected by air temperature, relative humidity, season, and place. Conclusions: This study indicates that the kitchen environments were unqualified to supply safe food. The hygiene level of the kitchens should be improved.

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15

일반인과 식품취급자의 손 위생관리에 관한 비교

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경보건학회 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.38 No.3 2012 pp.241-250

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Objectives: This study was performed to investigate hygienic behavior of food handlers and general population focusing on awareness of hand-washing and the microbial load of their hands. Methods: A questionnaire survey and microbiological analysis were carried out for sixty-four people each. Samples for microbiological analysis were collected through the glove-juice method from the hands, and were analyzed for the presence of aerobic plate counts, total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. according to the Food Code of Korea. Results: In the survey, significant differences between the food handlers and general population (p < 0.01) were found in hand-washing frequency, duration, use of hand-washing agents, washing parts of hands, hand-drying method, and method of turning off water. In eight different situations among the ten particular situations in their daily life, more food handlers responded to wash their hands than general population (p < 0.05). Bacterial load on hands with general population was consistently higher than with food handlers (p < 0.05), however, percentages of positive hands of S. aureus and Salmonella spp. were not. Conclusions: Poor hand hygiene practices were indicated by the positive results for E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp. on the hands of some respondents in both groups. This study reveals that there is the need for programs or campaigns to increase hand-washing practices of both groups.

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16

원자힘 현미경으로 측정된 리튬화 실리콘 나노선의 나노기계적 성질

이현수, 신원호, 권상구, 최장욱, 박정영

[Kisti 연계] 한국진공학회 한국진공학회지 Vol.20 No.6 2011 pp.395-402

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원자힘 현미경을 이용하여 실리콘 기판 위에 증착된 실리콘 나노선과 리튬화된 실리콘 나노선의 나노기계적 성질을 연구했다. 금 촉매를 사용하여 스테인리스 기판 위에서 증기-액체-고체 과정을 통해 실리콘 나노선을 합성하였다. 완전히 리튬화된 실리콘 나노선을 얻기 위해서 전기 화학적 방법을 사용했고, 이를 실리콘 기판 위에 증착하였다. 접촉모드 원자힘 현미경으로 측정된 표면 거칠기는 실리콘 나노선에서 $0.65{\pm}0.05$ nm에 비해 리튬화된 실리콘 나노선에서 $1.72{\pm}0.16$ nm으로 더 큰 값을 보여주었다. 탐침과 표면 사이의 접착력에서 리튬화의 영향을 조사하기 위해 힘 분광기법을 사용했다. 실리콘 나노선의 접착력이 실리콘 기판과 ~60 nN으로 흡사한 반면에, 리튬화된 실리콘 나노선은 ~15 nN으로 더 작은 값을 나타냈다. 또한, 탄성적으로 부드러운 무정형 구조 때문에 국부적 탄성 스프링 상수도 실리콘 나노선 66.30 N/m보다 완전히 리튬화된 실리콘 나노선이 16.98 N/m으로 상대적으로 작았다. 실리콘 나노선과 완전히 리튬화된 실리콘 나노선에서 탐침과 표면 사이에 마찰력의 수직항력 의존성과 스캔 속도 의존성을 조사하기 위하여 각 0.5~4.0 Hz와 0.01~200 nN으로 측정했다. 본 연구에서 실리콘과 리튬화된 실리콘의 기계적 성질에 관련된 접착력과 마찰력의 경향성이 보여졌고 이러한 방향의 연구는 충-방전 동안 리튬화된 나노수준의 영역의 화학적 맵핑에 응용성을 보여준다.
The nanomechanical properties of fully lithiated and unlithiated silicon nanowire deposited on silicon substrate have been studied with atomic force microscopy. Silicon nanowires were synthesized using the vapor-liquid-solid process on stainless steel substrates using Au catalyst. Fully lithiated silicon nanowires were obtained by using the electrochemical method, followed by drop-casting on the silicon substrate. The roughness, derived from a line profile of the surface measured in contact mode atomic force microscopy, has a smaller value ($0.65{\pm}0.05$ nm) for lithiated silicon nanowire and a higher value ($1.72{\pm}0.16$ nm) for unlithiated silicon nanowire. Force spectroscopy was utilitzed to study the influence of lithiation on the tip-surface adhesion force. Lithiated silicon nanowire revealed a smaller value (~15 nN) than that of the Si nanowire substrate (~60 nN) by a factor of two, while the adhesion force of the silicon nanowire is similar to that of the silicon substrate. The elastic local spring constants obtained from the force-distance curve, also shows that the unlithiated silicon nanowire has a relatively smaller value (16.98 N/m) than lithiated silicon nanowire (66.30 N/m) due to the elastically soft amorphous structures. The frictional forces of lithiated and unlithiated silicon nanowire were obtained within the range of 0.5-4.0 Hz and 0.01-200 nN for velocity and load dependency, respectively. We explain the trend of adhesion and modulus in light of the materials properties of silicon and lithiated silicon. The results suggest a useful method for chemical identification of the lithiated region during the charging and discharging process.

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RhPt 이종금속 나노입자의 크기 및 조성 제어를 통한 촉매 활성도에 관한 연구

박정영, 김선미

[Kisti 연계] 한국분말야금학회 한국분말야금학회지 Vol.18 No.6 2011 pp.538-545

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This study shows that catalytic activity of bimetallic RhPt nanoparticle arrays under CO oxidation can be tuned by varying the size and composition of nanoparticles. The tuning of size of RhPt nanoparticles was achieved by changing concentration of rhodium and platinum precursors in one-step polyol synthesis. Two-dimensional RhPt bimetallic nanoparticle arrays in different size and composition were prepared through Langmuir-Blodgett thin film technique. CO oxidation was carried out on these two-dimensional nanoparticle arrays, revealing higher activity on the smaller nanoparticles compared to the bigger nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicate the preferential surface segregation of Rh compared to Pt on the smaller nanoparticles, which is consistent with the thermodynamic analysis. Because the catalytic activity is associated with differences in the rates of $O_2$ dissociative adsorption between Pt and Rh, this paper suppose that the surface segregation of Rh on the smaller bimetallic nanoparticles is responsible for the higher catalytic activity in CO oxidation. This result suggests a control mechanism of catalytic activity via synthetic approaches of colloid nanoparticles, with possible application in rational design of nanocatalysts.

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18

고온에서 안정적인 TiO2/Pt/SiO2 하이브리드 나노촉매의 제작 및 촉매 특성

정찬호, 김선미, 윤중열, 박정영

[Kisti 연계] 한국분말야금학회 한국분말야금학회지 Vol.18 No.6 2011 pp.532-537

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Thermally stable $TiO_2$/Pt/$SiO_2$ core-shell nanocatalyst has been synthesized by chemical processes. Citrated capped Pt nanoparticles were deposited on amine functionalized silica produced by Stober process. Ultrathin layer of titania was coated on Pt/$SiO_2$ for preventing sintering of the metal nanoparticles at high temperatures. Thermal stability of the metal-oxide hybrid catalyst was demonstrated heating the sample up to $600^{\circ}C$ in air and by investigating the morphology and integrity of the structure by transmission electron spectroscopy. The surface analysis of the constituent elements was performed by X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the hybrid catalysts was investigated by CO oxidation reaction with oxygen as a model reaction.

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19

맨손과 장갑 낀 손의 미생물 오염도 비교

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국환경보건학회 한국환경보건학회지 Vol.37 No.4 2011 pp.298-305

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Objectives: There has been a great amount of controversy in the food industry over the effectiveness of using gloves. The objectives of this study were to examine the microbial contamination of food handlers' hands and determine if using gloves could ensure safe handling of foods. Methods: Samples were collected through the glove-juice method from the bare and gloved hands of food handlers at work and were analyzed for the presence of aerobic plate counts, total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichiacoli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Microbiological testing was conducted according to the Food Code of Korea. Results: Microbial contamination was consistently higher with bare hands than with gloved hands, although the microbial loads on both hands increased over time. Under certain conditions, there were significant differences between the bacterial loads on bare and on gloved hands (p<0.05). E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp. were still alive on both bare and gloved hands at the time the food handlers finished their work. Conclusions: Wearing gloves was associated with a marked reduction of bacterial contamination of the hands. However, the practice of continuously wearing gloves during food handling increases the potential for cross-contamination of bacteria. The findings of this study emphasize the need for a rational use of gloves, and strict adherence to hand hygiene compliance among food handlers.

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20

손의 미생물 오염도의 경시적 변화 - 조리종사자를 중심으로

김종규, 박정영, 김중순

[Kisti 연계] 한국식품위생안전성학회 Journal of food hygiene and safety Vol.26 No.2 2011 pp.154-159

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부적절한 식품취급과 불량한 손 위생관리는 식품매개성 질환 발생에 주요한 역할을 한다. 본 연구는 조리 중 손의 미생물(일반세균, 총대장균군, 분변성대장균군, 대장균, 황색포도상구균 및 살모넬라) 오염도의 경시적 변화를 알아 보고자 수행되었다. 시료 채취는 음식점 조리종사자 20명의 왼손과 오른손에서 조리 전부터 조리 후까지 2시간 간격으로 glove-juice method에 의하여 수행하였다. 미생물 시험은 식품공전에 따라 수행하였다. 손의 미생물 오염도는 시간 경과에 따라 변화하였으며 조리 전과 8시간 후에 높게 나타났다(p < 0.05). 왼손보다 오른손에서 미생물 오염도가 일관되게 높았다. 일부 조리종사자의 손에서 총대장균군 분변성 대장균군, 대장균, 황색포도상구균 및 살모넬라가 검출되어 손 위생관리가 불량한 것으로 보인다. 본 연구결과는 이들 조리종사자의 손이 조리 중 미생물 전파매개 체가 될 수 있음을 제시한다. 본 연구는 또 식품안전을 확보하기 위하여 이들 조리종사자의 손 위생관리 향상을 위한 교육 및 훈련이 더 필요함을 제시한다.
Inadequate food handling and poor hand hygiene playa major role in the occurrence of foodborne diseases. The objective of this study was to find out if the level of microbial contamination on the hands of food preparers varies by time during their working period. This study focused on the contamination of aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Salmonella spp. Sampling from left hand and right hand of twenty food preparers was done with glove-juice method at every two hours during their work. Microbiological testing was conducted according to the Food Code of Korea. The microbiological load on the hands was changed over time. Samples taken from their hands before work and at 8 hours showed higher levels of bacteria than those taken at 2, 4, and 6 hours during work and/or after work (p < 0.05). The contamination levels of microorganisms were consistently higher in right hand than in left hand. Poor hand hygiene practices were indicated by the positive results for total and fecal coli forms, E. coli, S. aureus, and Salmonella spp. on the hands of some food preparers. This study indicates food preparers' hands can be a vehicle of pathogen during their work. The results of this study emphasize the importance of hand hygiene education and training targeting the food preparers.

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