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2

손익분기점 관중수 분석을 통한 K-리그 경영수지 개선 방안

김종환

중앙대학교 스포츠정보테크놀로지연구소 스포츠 정보테크놀로지 연구 제1권 제1호(창간호) 2006.08 pp.29-35

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본 연구 목적은 한국프로축구리그(K-리그)에 소속된 모든 구단의 손익분기점 관중수 및 달성도를 분석하고 구단의 서열(가치)평가하여 향후 프로구단의 수지개선 방안을 제시하는 데 그 목적이 있다. K-리그 경영수지 개선 방안을 다음과 같다. 첫째, 경기수를 늘여야 한다. K-리그는 2004년 및 2005년의 경기수로는 어떤 경영기법을 도입하더라도 손익분기점 관중수의 달성이 불가능하다. 만일 경기수를 늘리면 늘린 만큼 BEP관중수은 줄어들게 되며, TV 중계권이나 스폰서십 유치 가격이 상승하게 된다. 둘째, 스타선수 마케팅을 펼쳐 경기장으로 유인하는 전략이 필요하다. 그렇게 하기 위해서는 구단에서 스타선수(올 해의 간판선수)를 만들어 홍보 및 광고, 판촉을 통해 키워나가야 한다. 셋째, 수입원을 다각화해야 한다. 통합마케팅을 통해 다양한 수입원을 확보하면 할수록 입장수입 의존도는 줄어들게 될 것이다. 넷째, 중장기 관중증대 전략을 세워야 한다. K-리그의 영업장인 경기장(장소나 유통)의 조건은 월드컵 경기장을 사용하고 있어 경영조건이 최상으로 나타났다. 그러므로 관중(소비자)을 증대 전략을 통해 입장수입을 높일 수 있는 세부전략을 세워야 한다.
The purpose of this study was to present a plan to improve financial performance of K-League through the analysis of Break-Even Point(BEP) attendance. The plan to improve K-League's finance indicates following results. First, the number of matches must be increased. In case of pro-football, it would be impossible to reach the BEP with the number of matches held in 2004, 2005 no matter of what kind of management technique is used. Second, the star players increasing marketing strategy must be established for the audience. K-League office and the clubs must be increased club's advertise, promotion, PR. Third, the source of income must be diversified. The dependence on entrance income would be decreased as they ensure diversified source income through integrated marketing. Fourth, an extended audience increasing specific strategy must be established.

4

가상현실 기반 실전적 정밀사격훈련 구현 연구

이병학, 김종환, 신규용, 김동욱, 이원우, 김남혁

한국융합보안학회 융합보안논문지 제18권 제4호 2018.10 pp.62-71

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4차 산업혁명 시대에 가상현실 기술의 급속한 성장은 국방 분야에서도 ICT 융합과 더불어 군사훈련체계의 과학화를 가속 시키고 있다. 최근 육군에서는 사격장 소음문제에 따른 민원증가, 사격장 안전사고 예방, 그리고 훈련비용 절감과 같은 민감한 사안을 해결하기 위해 모의 사격훈련 시뮬레이터 연구개발이 활발하게 진행되고 있다. 본 논문에서는 기존의 사격훈련시뮬레 이터의 기술적 한계점을 살펴보고 이를 극복하기 위해 훈련자 중심의 공간 동기화 기법과 미소각 근사 수정질점탄도모델을 제안한다. 자체 개발한 정밀사격 시뮬레이터 MARS(medium range assault rifle shooting simulator)에 조성된 혼합현실 (mixed reality) 환경에서 반응조끼(haptic vest)를 착용한 훈련자는 가상적군과 양방향 교전간 실시간 피격을 경험할 뿐만 아 니라 실제 탄도궤도가 적용된 정밀사격훈련을 수행하게 되어 훈련 결과에 따른 신뢰 높은 훈련평가를 받을 수 있게 되었다.
The rapid growth of virtual reality technology in the era of the 4th Industrial Revolution has accelerated scientification of combat training systems in addition to ICT(information and communications technology) in military field. Recently, research and development of simulators based on virtual reality have been actively conducted in order to solve sensitive issues such as increase of civil complaints due to the noise of a shooting range, prevention of shooting accident, and reduction of training cost. In this paper, we propose two key solutions: spatial synchronization method and modified point mass trajectory model with small angle approximation to overcome technical limitations of a current training simulator. A trainee who wears a haptic vest in a mixed reality environment built in MARS(medium-range assault rifle shooting simulator) is able to conduct not only precision shooting but also two-way engagement with virtual opponents. It is possible for trainee to receive more reliable evaluations in the MARS than an existing rifle simulator based on laser.

4,000원

5

게임 봇(Bot) 탐지를 위한 게임 환경변화에 따른 게임 플레이어 반응 연구 : 「테라」와 「나이트온라인」을 중심으로

김성규, 오규환, 김종환

한국컴퓨터게임학회 한국컴퓨터게임학회논문지 제27권 제3호 2014.09 pp.77-88

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In online game, Game-bot is a kind of AI based software which performs laborious tasks for a game-player to accumulate resources such as experience, in-game items. The game-bot causes serious problems of balancing and other game-players’ play in the game. So, detecting and avoiding game-bot’s behaviors in online game is one of the important issues in live game management. This paper proposes a study on a player reaction in MMORPG environment focused on two games of 「TERA」 and 「Knight Online」. We first characterize core game-elements to affect a player’s reaction in game environment change and finally propose a template of a player’s reaction in the game environment change. The paper will contribute to detect a behavior of a game-bot in online-game, effectively.

4,300원

6

한국과 스웨덴의 기본소득제 도입 가상(假想)상황 비교

박승희, 김금자, 김종환, 홍세영

한국스칸디나비아학회 스칸디나비아 연구 제12호 2011.08 pp.79-110

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Recently it is being insisted that the basic income program be introduced in Korea. We can imagine two kinds of the feasible basic income programs. One is the simple basic income programs, replacing the existing social benefits. The other one is the supplementary one, supplementing the existing social benefits. If the simple basic income program were put into practice, people would enjoy income security without exception, the level of income security would be higher and the efficiency for mobilization and distribution of resources would increase. But the social benefit for the industrial accident workers would be decreased too much. If the supplementary basic income program were put into operation, the merits of the simple basic income program would be sustained and the demerits would disappear. But, compared with even for current income security system of Sweden, it would have many problems. The replacement rate of the existing income by the social benefits would be too low. The minimum living standard of all people would not be guaranteed because of the high private share of cost for medical service and so forth.

7,300원

9

사회복지사의 직무만족과 자기효능감에 관한 탐색적 연구

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국컴퓨터정보학회 Journal of the Korea society of computer and information Vol.18 No.8 2013 pp.157-165

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본 논문에서는 사회복지사의 직무만족과 자기효능감과의 관계에 대한 실증적 탐색을 위한 이론적 배경을 제안한다. 선행 연구들에 의하면 자기효능감이 높은 사람일수록 해당 직무를 적극적으로 선택하고 많은 노력을 경주하고, 지속적으로 시도할 가능성이 높고 따라서 한 개인이 취하는 행동이나 과업이 성공할 확률이 높다고 한다. 하지만 사회복지 영역에 있어서는 업무의 특수성 상, 다른 사회과학 영역에서와는 다른 이론적 차이점이 존재할 것으로 추정된다. 따라서 이 논문에서는 직무만족과 자기효능감에 대한 기존 사회과학 영역에서의 이론적 배경들을 살펴보고, 향후 실증분석을 통하여 사회복지실천 연구의 영역확장을 꾀할 수 있는 기초를 제공하고자 한다.
This paper provides theoretical background on the relationship between social worker's Job satisfaction and Self-efficacy for Empirical Search. According to previous researches, the more social workers feel self-efficacy the better they select their jobs actively and work very hard. In addition, they are more likely to challenge constantly and have more possibility to carry out their tasks successfully. However, it is assumed that there are theoretical differences in Social Welfare Area compared with other Social Science Area due to the particularity of Social Worker's Job and tasks. Therefore, the aims of this paper is to review theoretical background on the relationship between Job Satisfaction and Self-efficacy in other Social Science Area and provide the groundwork for the expansion of Social Work Practice Research Area through Empirical Analysis in the future.

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10

자랑스러운 KSLA인(人) - 김재수

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국전문도서관협의회 KSLA Bulletin Vol.3 2011 pp.3-5

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11

자랑스러운 KSLA인(人) - 김태승

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국전문도서관협의회 KSLA Bulletin Vol.2 2010 pp.2-4

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12

사회복지 관리체제간의 상호작용수준에 관한 실증적 연구

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국컴퓨터정보학회 Journal of the Korea society of computer and information Vol.14 No.11 2009 pp.213-219

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본 연구는 사회복지 기관 내부 구성원을 두 부류로 구분하여 대상자들을 직접적으로 관리, 감독하는 1차 조직과 이를 지원, 보조하는 2차 조직으로 분류하고, 양 조직을 조직간 관계이론 중 협력관계와 관련하여 양자의 상호작용 수준을 기반으로 하여 어느 정도의 협력수준을 확보하고 있는지에 대하여 실증적 연구를 통하여 분석하였다. 이는 사회복지 업무의 특성상 대상자와 관계인 들이 필요로 하는 궁극적인 목적에 효과적으로 도달하기 위해서는 양자의 유기적인 협력이 필수 요소로 추정되기 때문이다. 이 연구결과를 통하여 양자는 관리체제간의 협력의 필요성에 대해 모두 폭넓게 인식하고 있으며, 조직 간의 유기적 협력을 위해 조직 내부적인 차원에서 담당자들의 협력에 대한 가치관과 행태의 정립이 우선시되어야 한다는 정책적 시사점이 도출되었다.
This study is that internal members of social welfare are divided into the first organization directly controlling and managing subjects and the second organization supporting and assisting the first one, and both organizations are analyzed through the empirical study about cooperation degree on the basis of interaction degree related with cooperation relationship from interorganizational relationship theories. That is because organic cooperation between both sides is essential element to effectively approach the ultimate purpose which subjects and related people need because of the social welfare business. This result suggests that both sides broadly recognize the need about cooperation between management systems and that it must come first to establish values and behaviors about the cooperation among the persons in charge on the organizational internal level for organic cooperation between organizations.

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13

유전자 로봇

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국과학기술단체총연합회 과학과 기술 Vol.38 No.5 2005 pp.80-83

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14

로봇 ··· 상상 속에서 차세대 성장산업 핵심으로

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국과학기술단체총연합회 과학과 기술 Vol.37 No.5 2004 pp.80-83

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15

의정부시 주택 현황에 관한 연구

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 한국디지털건축ㆍ인테리어학회 한국 디지털 건축ㆍ인테리어학회 논문집 Vol.4 No.2 2004 pp.19-25

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This study is to furnish basic data for establishing the improvement counterplan of Housing environment and to solve the problem of Housing supply resulting from the continuous increase of population and to examine the historical flowing, the present condition and problems of Housing in Uijeongbu city. Including of the multi-house to the number of Housing, the supply ratio of Housing is 95% in quantity of the Housing in Uijeongbu city in 2004. Now, it is important time in the respect of quality as well as the quantity in supply matter of Housing. In fact, the main viewpoint in housing supply policy has been brought focus into the economic profits more than public interests. As a result of that, the residence environment has been worse. From now on, a Local autonomous entity including the construction authorities and Uijeongbu city authorities must focus on the public interests in solving problems of Housing.

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16

이오네스큐 단고형 승모판의 내구성

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 대한흉부외과학회 대한흉부외과학회지 Vol.25 No.8 1992 pp.863-870

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The low profile Ionescu-Shiley pericardial xenograft valve had been initially introduced to have improved hemodynamic performance and expected superior durability, However, subsequent clinical reports and laboratory studies have repeatedly indicated early failure of the valve from mechanical reasons in valve design, A total and consecutive 169 patients underwent isolated MVR with the low profile Ionescu-Shiley valve at Seoul National University Hospital from November 1984 to October 1989 [Group ISLM]. Five patients [3.0%] died within 30 days of surgery, and early survivors were followed up for 734.9 patient-years [Mean$\pm$SD, 4.9$\pm$2.0 years], Late mortality rate was 0.136% /patient-year [pt-yr], Linearized incidences of major complications were: 0.953% embolism /pt-yr; 0.680% bleeding /pt-yr; 0.272% endocarditis /pt-yr; and 0, 408% primary tissue failure [PTF] /pt-yr, The actuarial survival was 99.4$\pm$0.6%, and probabilities of from thromboembolism and from PTF were 90.7$\pm$4.6% and 95.9$\pm$2.6% at 8 years, respectively These results were compared with the clinical data from the 291 patients of isolated MVR with the standard Ionescu-Shiley valve at the same hospital during the period between October 1978 and June 1983 [Group ISUM], Group ISUM included 11% of patients younger than 15 years of age, whereas Group ISLM did no patient of this age. The mean age at the time of surgery was significantly younger in Group ISUM than one in Group ISLM [P<0.001]. Differences were not statistically significant in operative mortality, mean follow-up period and linearized incidences of thromboembolism, bleeding and endocarditis, between two groups, However, the linearized rate of PTF was lower [P<0.001] and probabilities of freedom fro PTF higher [P<0.001] in Group ISLM at least up to postoperative 8 years. While the features of PTF of the standard valve was predominantly degeneration with calcification and stenosis, the ones of the low profile valve was cusp tear and incompetence. It remains, however, to be seen whether the low profile valve fails mostly from mechanical reason, and further follow-up will still be necessary to determine the differences in mode of PTF of two valves.

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17

Hancock 판막의 임상적 평가

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 대한흉부외과학회 대한흉부외과학회지 Vol.20 No.2 1987 pp.281-288

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A total and consecutive 163 patients underwent cardiac valve replacement using the Hancock porcine xenograft cardiac valves from 1 976 to 1984. Of 198 substitute valves, 177 were the Hancock valves. One hundred twenty-nine patients[79.1%] had single valve replacement: MVR 118, AVR 8 and TVR 3; 33[20.3%] had double valve replacement: MVR+AVR 27 and MVR+TVR 6; and a single case had triple valve replacement. Other surgical procedures were added in 34 patients. The operative mortality rate within 30 days of surgery was 6.1%, and it was, however, 4.2%, with single MVR. Late mortality rate was 6.7% or 1.95%/patient-year of a linealized mortality rate. Early survivors of 153 patients were followed up for a total of 565.1 patient-years [a mean of 44.3*27.1 months]. The linealized annual complication rates were: 1.95% emboli/patient-year, 0.89% bleeding/patient-year 1.24% endocarditis/patient-year, and 4.25% overall failure/patient-year. Primary tissue failure occurred at a rate of 1.59%/patient-year. The actuarial survival rates including operative mortality were 87.0*4.1% and 77.3*6.6% at 5 and 11 years after surgery respectively. The probability of freedom from thromboembolic complication of 89.2*3.4% at 5 years after surgery lasted unchanged upto 11 years. The probability of freedom from overall valve failure was 81.3*4.5% at postoperative 5 years, and it dropped down to 26.2*19.4% at 11 years, although the latter was statistically insignificant because of a small number of patients entering into the years approaching the follow-up end. However, the probability of freedom from the primary tissue failure was 81.3*10.6% at postoperative 9 years, which coincides closely with the speculated rate of tissue degeneration of about 20% in 10 years. These clinical results confirm the low thrombogenicity of the Hancock porcine valve and the reasonable failure rate of tissue degeneration.

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18

이종조직판막의 장기임상성적

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 대한흉부외과학회 대한흉부외과학회지 Vol.20 No.2 1987 pp.289-299

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A total of 1,239 patients had cardiac valve replacement using 1,514 substitute valves at Seoul National University Hospital from 1968 to 1986. Of the total substitute vales, 84.9% were the glutaraldehyde-treated xenograft valves. Six hundred ninety-four patients who had 820 bioprosthetic tissue valves were studied for their clinical characteristics. They were a total and consecutive cases to the end of the study. Four hundred sixty-four patients had the lonescu-Shiley pericardial valves: MVR 291, AVR 66 and MVR+AVR 107; 163 had the Hancock porcine valves; 46 had the Angell-Shiley porcine valves; and 21 had the Carpentier-Edwards porcine valves. Five hundred forty patients underwent single valve replacement: MVR 460, AVR 76 and TVR 4; 154 had multiple valve replacement: MVR+AVR 141, MVR+TVR 12 and one triple valve replacement. Additional surgery was necessary in 22.3% of the cases. Operative mortality rate within 30 days of surgery was 6.77% for the total patients: 5.2% and 4.2% with MVR, 13.6% and 12.5% with AVR, and 7.5% and 7.4% with MVR+AVR using the lonescu and the Hancock valves respectively. A linealized annual late mortality rate was 2.56%/patient-year. Six hundred forty-three operative survivors were followed up for a total of 1482.7 patient-years [a mean 27.7 months], and the follow-up rate was 67.7%. The Idealized complication rates were: 2.02% emboli/patient-year, 0.94% bleeding/patient-year, 1.21% endocarditis/patient-year, and 3.84% overall valve failure/patient-year. A linealized rate of primary tissue failure was 0.87%/patient-year. Actuarial survival rates including the operative mortality were: 87.8*2.6%, 82.3*4.9% and 82.2*4.7% with MVR, AVR and MVR+AVR using the lonescu valves at 4 years after surgery respectively; and they were 88.0*4.1% with MVR at 8 years, 82.3*4.9% with AVR at 4 years and 84.9*7.0% with MVR+AVR at 6 years after surgery using the Hancock valves respectively. Probabilities of freedom from thromboembolism were 89.8*6.3% with MVR using the lonescu valves at postoperative 5 years and 89.2*3.8% with MVR using the Hancock valves at postoperative 7 years, and 93.3*3.9% with AVR using the lonescu valves at postoperative 5 years. None had embolic complication after AVR using the Hancock valves. Probabilities of freedom from valve failure [according to the Stanford criteria] were 81.0*7.1% with MVR using the lonescu valves at postoperative 4 years and 57.4*12.5% with MVR using the Hancock valves at postoperative 9 years. These clinical results prove the excellent antithrombogenicity of the glutaraldehyde-treated xenograft substitute valves and confirm the previously speculated rate of tissue failure. At the present situation, it may be concluded that there is a room for the further development of more durable bioprosthetic valves.

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19

Angell-Shiley 판막의 임상적 평가

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 대한흉부외과학회 대한흉부외과학회지 Vol.19 No.1 1986 pp.75-82

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The use of the Angell-Shiley porcine xenograft cardiac valve was limited in number at Seoul National University Hospital chiefly because of the cessation of supply from the manufacturer, Forty-eight Angell-Shiley valves along with the 5 other mechanical or tissue valves were used in 46 patients during the period from 1977 to 1980, and a total of consecutive cases was studied for their early and long-term clinical results. The operative mortality rate was 4.3%; no death after single and 2 deaths after double valve replacement within 30 days of surgery. The 44 early survivors were followed up for a total of 171.6 patient-years and a mean of 46.8$\pm$31.1 months. Four died during the follow-up period with a linealized late mortality rate of 2.33%/patient-year. Four patients had experienced 5 episodes of thromboembolism and one died; a linealized incidence of 2.91% emboli/patient-year. A single case each had a bleeding complication related to the anticoagulants, 0.58% bleeding/patient-year, and prosthetic valve endocarditis, 0.58% endocarditis/patient-year. The clinical improvement was excellent by 70% of the survivors having no cardiac symptoms at the end of the follow-up. The actuarial survival rates were 89.9$\pm$4.9% at 5 years and 69.2$\pm$15.0% at 9 years after surgery. The probabilities of freedom from thromboembolic complication were 92.3$\pm$5.5% and 80.9$\pm$9.0% at 5 and 9 years after surgery. And, the probability of freedom from overall valve failure was 83.4$\pm$6.3% at 5 years and it declined sharply down to 55.9$\pm$22.2% at 9th year of the follow-up. These results are comparable with those in the major reports, except a more accelerated and time-related increases in valve failure after 5 or 6 years after operation with the Angell-Shiley valve. The durability of the xenograft tissue valve remains as the most important debate and the need of more durable tissue valves was also discussed.

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20

대동맥판 치환수술의 임상성적

김종환

[Kisti 연계] 대한흉부외과학회 대한흉부외과학회지 Vol.18 No.1 1985 pp.46-53

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A single aortic valve replacement using the lonescu-Shiley bovine pericardial xenograft valve was performed in 66 consecutive patients during the period from February, 1979 to June, 1984. They were 49 males and 17 females with ages ranging from 9 to 61 [mean, 31.113.1] years, and 9 of them were children younger than 15 years of age. Twenty-seven patients [40.9%] required the combined operative procedures to either other valvular lesions or congenital defects. There were 9 early deaths within 30 days of surgery [operative mortality rate, 13.6%] and 2 late deaths thereafter [late mortality rate, 3.0%; or 1.75%/patient-year]. The 57 early survivors were followed for a total duration of 114.2 patient-years [mean, 24.016.0 months]. Four patients experienced thromboembolic complication with no death [3.50%/patient-year]; one died from intracranial bleeding related to anticoagulation [0.88%/patient-year]; one recovered from prosthetic valve endocarditis [0.88%/patient-year]; and four developed aortic regurgitant murmur with none or minimal cardiac symptoms and they were classified into cases of tissue valve failure [3.50%/patient-year]. The actuarial survival rate was 82.34.7% at 6 years, and the actuarial probabilities of freedom from thromboembolism and valve failure were 93.33.9% and 89.15.8% at postoperative 6 years respectively Symptomatic improvement was excellent in most late survivors at the follow-up end with the mean of NYHA Classes of 1.040.19 while the one was 2.290.67 at the time of operation. Excluding the higher operative mortality rates, these clinical results are fully comparable with the ones of reports from the major institutions using the porcine aortic or the bovine pericardial tissue valves and warrants the continued use of the xenograft valve in the aortic position. The importance of more detailed preoperative evaluation of the myocardial function and the need of improved myocardial preservation during surgery for the improved early clinical results were discussed.

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