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초등영어 문법교육에 대한 영어 전담교사의 인식과 통합적 문법지도 방안


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제31권 3호 2018.09 pp.135-160

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This paper has dual aims. One is to analyze the results of interviewing four English teachers about focus on form approaches and corrective feedback techniques as well as English grammar teaching in elementary schools, focused on the necessity, the timing and the methods of grammar instruction. The other is to discuss strategies for integrating grammar instruction with communicative language use to propose effective grammar teaching approaches which can be implemented in the elementary school English classroom. The results of this study are as follows: Grammar should be taught to 5th and 6th grade students deductively, if necessary, as well as inductively since they will have to develop productive skills and written language skills to communicate more accurately with each other. Focus on form approaches are needed for students to pay attention to specific forms or correct their errors by themselves during communicative tasks under the teacher’s preferred corrective feedback techniques such as recasts, elicitation, repetition, etc. Two types of approaches are discussed to integrate grammar instruction with communicative language use. One is to design focused communicative tasks that focus students' attention on the predetermined specific forms during the tasks. The other is to provide reactive feedback explicitly or implicitly when grammatical errors occur while students’ primary attention is on meaning during the tasks. It is suggested that grammar can be taught to students at the intermediate level or above based on the former approach in which they can pay attention to specific forms, whereas it can be taught to most other students based on the latter in which they can receive the teacher’s feedback to correct errors, during communicative tasks.


예비 초등교사의 사회수업관점 변화 : 강의와 교육실습경험을 중심으로


한국사회교과교육학회 사회과교육연구 제25권 4호 2018.11 pp.27-42

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본 연구는 사회과교육론 강의와 교육실습 경험이 예비 초등교사들의 사회수업관점 변화에 주는 영향 을 파악한 연구이다. 이를 위해 사회과교육론 강의와 교육실습을 경험 전과 후 , 두 차례에 걸쳐 사회수업관점 을 조사하고 이를 대응표본 T검증으로 분석하였다. A 교육대학교 2학년 47명의 예비교사를 대상으로 한 연구 의 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 사회수업의 단계와 조직의 독립적 이해가 연계적 이해로 변화하였다. 둘째, 사회 수업에서 교사와 학생을 전달자와 수용자로 보는 이분법적 관점에서 상호귀속적 관점으로 변화하였다. 셋째, 교육실습과 사회과교육론에 근거하여 사회수업을 판단하기 시작하였다. 넷째, 사회수업에 대한 평가를 넘어 예비교사 스스로 수업 속 문제를 찾고 그 대안을 제시하였다. 사회과교육론 강의와 교육실습으로 변화된 예 비교사의 사회수업관점을 이해하는 것은 초등 사회과교사교육이 나아갈 방향과 그 가능성을 모색할 수 있는 중요한 자원이 될 것이다.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of social studies education lecture and teaching practice experience on the change of perspective of pre-service primary school teachers. To do this, we surveyed social studies lesson viewpoints before and after the experience of social studies teaching lectures and teaching practices and analyzed them by paired t-test. The results of this study are as follows. First, the independent understanding of the step and organization of social studies lesson changed into a cooperative understanding. Second, it changed from a dichotomy to a mutual perspective in which teachers and students are regarded as communicators and receivers in lesson. Third, it started to judge social studies lesson based on teaching practice and social studies education theory. Fourth, beyond the evaluation of the social studies lesson the prospective teacher found the problem in the lesson by himself and suggested the alternative. Understanding the viewpoint of social lessons of pre-service teachers transformed into social studies education lectures and educational practices will be an important resource to explore the direction and possibility of education for elementary social studies teachers.



초등 영어 수업에서 파닉스 기반 읽기 지도에 관한 실태 조사


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제27권 4호 2014.12 pp.255-277

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This paper aims to survey the current situation in which phonics-based reading has been taught to third and fourth graders and propose effective strategies for teaching phonics-based reading in the elementary school English classroom. The results of the survey are as follows: Although most teachers recognized the necessity of teaching phonemic awareness and phonics-based reading, they were not very satisfied with teaching contents, times, activities and materials included in the textbooks in terms of students' achievement and involvement. Phonics-based activities in the textbooks focused mainly on typical controlled practice. But teachers wanted to use various activities like games, songs, etc. which students can be actively involved in. Almost half of the teachers were not very satisfied with their own methods to teach reading based on phonics, because they were unacquainted with the phonics approach and did not feel competent with their phonics-based teaching techniques. Only a few teachers completed in-service teacher training programs for teaching phonics-based reading. But most teachers wanted to participate in the future programs. In conclusion, it is suggested that various activities for teaching phonics-based reading be developed and distributed among classrooms, and the range of teaching contents and times be sufficiently extended, and finally, teacher training programs for phonics approach be built up and available to any teachers wishing to attend them.


초등 영어 문법 교육에 관한 실태 조사와 효과적 방안


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제26권 2호 2013.06 pp.241-268

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This paper aims to survey the current situation in which the English grammar has been taught in elementary schools and propose effective strategies for grammar teaching in the elementary EFL classroom. The results of the survey are as follows: The necessity of grammar teaching was recognized by most teachers, and grammar should be taught to fifth graders and over deductively, if necessary, as well as inductively. Grammar teaching was required to develop productive skills, especially, writing one, rather than receptive ones, since grammar would be needed to generate sentences. Most teachers have usually taught grammar to fifth and sixth graders inductively and deductively. As a result, productive skills were insignificantly improved, but receptive skills and communicative competence were not developed at all. Most teachers acknowledged the necessity of deductive grammar teaching, since there would not be enough time to conduct inductive grammar teaching within the limited EFL classes. And it should be applied to fifth graders and over when they learn to write sentences. Only half of all teachers were satisfied with their own knowledge of grammar teaching methods and techniques. Nearly all teachers hoped to participate in teacher training programs of English grammar teaching to develop their grammar teaching techniques and skills. For effective grammar teaching in the elementary EFL classroom, it would be suggested that while third and fourth graders should be taught grammar in the implicit-inductive approach through communicative tasks where the focus is mainly on meaning and fluency not on forms, fifth and sixth graders should be taught in the explicit-inductive approach through task-based activities where the focus is on forms and accuracy as well as meaning and fluency.


"내가 혹시 치매는 아닐까" 걱정되십니까?


열린전북 열린전북 2012 9 통권 제154호 2012.09 pp.36-39

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외모도 스펙이다? 얼짱, 몸짱 권하는 세상


열린전북 열린전북 2010 12 통권 제133호 2010.12 pp.44-47

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With 절대 구문의 통사구조 분석


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제9집 1994.12 pp.365-389

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Half bannet crown과 Gothic Arch를 이용한 Full mouth rehabilitation


대한치과기공학회 대한치과기공학회지 Vol.27 No.1 2005.07 p.250

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신자유주의시장에서 성역은 없다


열린전북 열린전북 2005. 5 통권 제66호 2005.05 pp.81-82

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TBLT 적용 초등영어 교실수업 — 관찰 분석과 실행 방안


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제29권 4호 2016.12 pp.231-252

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This paper aims to discuss the theoretical background of TBLT(Task-based Language Teaching) and analyze a TBLT-applied elementary school English lesson to help teachers implement TBLT in their classrooms. This provides them with an opportunity to recognize and acquire the details of the TBLT lesson including textbooks adaptation, tasks design and sequence, techniques, strategies, etc. under the premise that TBLT is an appropriate approach for realizing core competencies in the curriculum. First, the definitions of tasks and the features, principles and frameworks of TBLT and TSLT(Task-supported Language Teaching) are examined, so teachers can implement them appropriately in the classroom, alongside PPP(Present-Practice- Produce), the main approach reflected in the current textbooks. Then, the observed TBLT-applied lesson is analyzed in terms of Willis & Willis(2007)’s framework. In post-analysis interviews with the teacher C, some points identified in the process of the lesson are discussed as strategies for implementing TBLT in the classroom. In our EFL context, TBLT and TSLT as supplementary approaches to PPP can be usefully implemented in the classroom for higher and lower graders respectively.


흉노 분묘의 구조에 대한 소고


한국전통문화대학교 한국전통문화연구소 한국전통문화연구 제16권 2015.11 pp.51-113

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본 논문에서는 몽골과 러시아 자바이칼 지역에서 확인된 흉노 분묘 자료의 분석 를 통하여 형식 분류를 실시하고 그 특징을 살펴보았다. 현재까지 몽골 및 러시아 자바이칼 지역에서 확인된 흉노 분묘의 연대는 일반적으로 기원전 1세기 중엽 이후, 즉 북흉노 시기에 해당되는 것으로 추정되고 있다. 지금까지 발굴 조사된 흉노 분묘의 봉분은 일부 뚜렷하게 나타나는 경우를 제외하면, 인지할 수 있을 정도로만 드러 나 있는 사례가 많으며, 일부 분묘에는 묘도가 포함된다. 내부 시설, 특히 매장주체부의 경우 축조재료에 따라 목제와 석제로 나눌 수 있으며, 별도의 매장주체부 시설 없이 토광을 파고 곧바로 시신을 묻는 순수 토광 묘도 존재한다. 또한 축조방식 및 구조를 포함한다면 매장주체부는 이중목곽묘, 단 곽묘, 석곽묘, 목관묘, 석관묘, 순수 토광묘로 분류할 수 있다. 본 논문은 흉노 분묘들의 성격에 대한 초보적인 연구로 형식 분류 및 형식 분류의 의미를 살펴보기 위한 목적에서 작성되었다. 발굴 조사된 흉노 분묘 164기를 대상 으로 묘도의 유무, 곽 또는 관의 구조 및 형태에 따라 형식 분류를 실시하였다. 세부 적으로는 묘도의 유무에 따라 묘도가 있는 ‘가’형식, 묘도가 없는 ‘나’형식으로 대분 하였고, 목곽묘를 ‘A’형식, 석곽묘를 ‘B’형식, 목관묘를 ‘C’형식, 석관묘를 ‘D’형식, 순수 토광묘를 ‘E’형식으로 세분하였으며, 또한 봉분의 크기를 5개의 군으로 나누어 각 각의 형식에서 어떠한 분포 형태를 나타내는지를 살펴보았다. 형식 분류의 결과 묘도가 설치된 ‘가’형식에는 이중곽과 단곽의 목곽묘만 존재하 였으며, 1․2․3군에 포함되는 분묘만 속하는 것을 알 수 있었다. 묘도가 존재하지 않는 ‘나’형식에는 이중곽의 목곽묘는 존재하지 않으며, 그 외 다른 모든 소형식들은 확인되었다. 또한 분묘의 크기 역시 3․4․5군에 속하는 것들만이 확인되어 ‘가’형 식에 비해 소규모의 분묘들이 존재하였다. 형식 분류의 결과와 더불어 지역적 분포 현황 및 내부 출토 유물 등을 종합적으로 고려해볼 때, ‘가’형식의 분묘들은 흉노 선우와 그 씨족들, 그리고 상위 계층의 관리 자들의 것으로, ‘나’형식의 분묘들은 지방의 주요 관리 및 일반 흉노 평민들의 것으 로 파악하였다.
The purpose of this study is to understand the hierarchy of Xiongnu graves in Mongolia and Transbaikal of Russia. This study analyze the features of Xiongnu graves and categorized them according to their forms. Xiongnu graves confirmed through the excavations were generally assumed belong to the Northen Xiongnu period, the middle part of the 1st century BCE. Xiongnu grave consists of two structure parts. First, outward structure has a mounds which were exposed distinct or not, and some graves include passage. Next, the internal structure is divided into wooden, stone, earthen depending on the construction material. According the construction method or structure of principal part they are divided into double wooden compartment grave, wooden compartment grave, stone lined grave, wooden coffin burial, stone coffin burial, pit grave in details. In this article analyze 164 Xiongnu graves. Category is based on the type of graves passage, structure and form of coffin or outer coffin. Xinognu graves broadly divided into two groups, having a grave passage or not, type ‘Ga’, ‘Na’, and subdivided into five classes A to E. Type ‘A’ is wooden compartment tomb, type ‘B’ is stone lined tomb, type ‘C’ is wooden coffin burial, type ‘D’ is stone coffin burial, and type ‘E’ is pit grave. They Also divided into five groups, depending on the size of external mounds, to investigate whether any distribution pattern shown in each type. As a result of classification, The type ‘Ga’ included only wooden compartment tomb(type Aa, Ab) and turned out they belong to the graves of group 1․2․3. Type ‘Na’ is nonexistent has no double compartment tomb(type Aa), but all other types are confirmed. Also type ‘Ga’ has big size graves(type 1․2), and small graves(type 3․4․5) were included in only type ‘Na’. Taking into account the geographical distribution, excavated artifacts, and classification graves type ‘Ga’ belongs to Xiongnu Chanyu, his clan and higher level, bureaucrat, on the other hand, type ‘Na’ belongs to provincial officials and ordinary people of Xiongnu.



호텔종사원의 감정불일치가 감정조절 및 감정부조화에 미치는 영향


관광경영학회 관광경영연구 제17권 제4호 통권 57호 2013.12 pp.99-122

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This study is to examines relationship between emotional discrepancy and emotional regulation as well as emotional regulation and emotional dissonance for hotel employees. With this purposes, this study used emotional labor model based on control theory and measured respectively emotional discrepancy and emotional dissonance. Emotional discrepancy shows differential effect on emotional regulation. Emotional discrepancy shows significant effect on deep acting negatively, and on surface acting positively. In addition, deep acting is negatively related to emotional dissonance and surface acting is positively related to emotional dissonance. Therefore, hotel organization have to be interested in the emotional discrepancy to encourage employees to do deep acting. And this is closely related with reducing emotional dissonance. Finally, this could be interesting variable in the future studies related to the emotional labor.



단결(團結) 국어교육과!


대구대학교 국어교육과 나랏말쌈 제25호 2010.12 pp.7-8

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대구대학교 국어교육과 나랏말쌈 제21호 2006.12 p.126

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과업 기반 학습을 위한 초등 영어 교수 절차와 교재 재구성 방안


21세기영어영문학회 영어영문학21 제28권 4호 2015.11 pp.273-294

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This paper has dual aims. One is to examine the appropriateness of teaching procedures for task-based learning focused on language skills and communicative activities in elementary school English lessons. The other is to discuss some strategies for adapting elementary school English textbooks to do task-based teaching (TBT) for fifth and sixth graders. The results are as follows: (1) Presentation-practice-production (PPP) is useful in a focus on forms lesson, where grammar points are taught particularly to lower-level third and fourth graders. Whereas TBT is useful in a skills lesson for higher-level fifth and sixth graders, where focus on form may occur as a result of something they hear or read. (2) Fifth and sixth graders should be taught based on TBT procedures with an initial focus on meaning which enable them to use the language they have already learned or known as maximally as possible while doing tasks. (3) The current textbook lessons based on PPP for fifth and sixth graders should be adapted to suit TBT procedures by reordering textbook activities, turning the activities into tasks or doing the skills lesson first and the form-focused work last. (4) The sample application of TBT procedures to a textbook lesson for sixth graders will help teachers reconsider the weakness and strength of PPP and TBT called ‘PPP upside down' and adapt textbooks for TBT procedures with focus on meaning first and on form last.


음식관광 온라인구전정보특성이 신뢰, 구전수용, 행동의도에 미치는 영향

백소엽, 김영현

관광경영학회 관광경영연구 제22권 제3호 통권 82호 2018.05 pp.627-650

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The purpose of this study is to find out the effect that online word-of-mouth has on the reliability, acceptance of word-of-mouth and behavior intentions of tourists. A survey was conducted on tourists who used online word-of-mouth information in consuming or purchasing food, visiting venues where food is made or observing or learning how food is made in a different region. To secure reliability of the survey, online word-of-mouth that was used within the past one week was considered at the time of the survey. The survey was conducted from September 1 to October 1, 2017 and the findings based on the empirical analysis were as follows. First, of the characteristics of online word-of-mouth, usefulness had the biggest positive effect on reliability, followed by liveliness, entertainment value and agreeability. Interaction had a negative effect on reliability. Second, reliability had a positive effect on acceptance of word-of-mouth. Third, reliability had a positive effect on behavioral intentions. This indicates a higher level of reliability is correlated with a higher degree of behavioral intentions. Lastly, an analysis of the relationship between acceptance of word-of-mouth and behavioral intentions showed that former had a positive effect on the latter. Based on the results, managerial implications and limitations of the study were discussed.



카자흐스탄의 발굴과 보고서

최인화, 김영현, 조소은

한국문화유산협회 야외고고학 제30호 2017.11 pp.189-216

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중앙아시아의 카자흐스탄에는 우리나라의 고총 고분과 유사한 쿠르간(Курган)이 확인된다. 2015년 국립문화재연구소를 시작으로 국내 조사 기관들이 이에 대한 발굴조사를 진행하면서 관련 자료들이 국내에 널리 알려지게 되었다. 본고에서는 이러한 카자흐스탄의 발굴조사와 보고서 작성의 방법과 절차에 관해 검토하여 보았다. 특히 대표 유적인 ‘고분’에 대한 조사 방법을 알아보고, 이들이 가지는 장단점과 한국과의 차이점 등을 분석하여 보았다. 카자흐스탄의 고고학 관련 법령이나 조사방법 등은 러시아의 영향을 많이 받았다. 한편, 고분의 발굴조사는 매장주체부를 확인하는 데만 집중하는 경향이 있다. 이로 인해 고분의 축조 방식이나 묘도 등 부속 시설에 대한 조사가 면밀히 이루어 지지 못하는 경우도 있으나, 최근에는 여러 조사 기법을 적용하고자 하는 시도가 보인다. 발굴조사 보고서는 행정용으로 5부만 출판하게 되며, 우리와 같이 배포는 하지 않는다. 발굴조사 보고서의 내용은 우리와 유사한 점이 많지만 주요 유물에 대해서만 선별하여 보고서에 싣는 등 일부 차이점이 확인된다. 한편 보고서에 유구·유물에 대한 해석과 다양한 민족지적, 자연과학적 연구를 함께 수록하는 경우가 있는데, 이는 우리 보고서에 적용할 수 있는 좋은 사례로 볼 수 있다. 본 연구를 통해 유라시아 주요 국가인 카자흐스탄 고고학의 조사 기법을 이해하고, 이러한 해외의 다양한 조사 방법과 이론을 통해 한국 고고학이 더욱 발전하는 계기가 되기를 기대한다.
In Kazakhstan of Central Asia, there is kurgan which is similar to mounded tomb in South Korea. National Research Institute of Cultural Heritage has started excavation research in 2015, followed by others thus related materials have been introduced to Korea. In this article, excavation research and reporting methods of Kazakhstan are introduced. Especially, I looked at the methods of excavation of tombs, analyzed and compared similarities and differences with ours. Laws regarding archeology and excavation of Kazakhstan have been affected by Russia. Meanwhile, excavation research of tombs is mostly concentrated on confirming the burial parts. For this reason, research of construction methods of tombs and extra parts like added burial is not being closely looked at. Applying trial of various research methods has been gradually growing recently. Only 5 copies of excavation research report are published, and not be distributed to public. The contents of excavation research report is similar with Korea, but are different in including only selected relics. Meanwhile, they include various interpretation of remains and relics, such as ethnographic research, and scientific research, etc, which could be applied to our research report as good examples. Through this research, I hope that we understand the methods of archeological research of Kazakhstan, one of the main country of Eurasia, and make this as an opportunity for Korean archeology to further advance.


IPA를 활용한 커피전문점 선택속성에 대한 연구

김태욱, 김영현, 서천영

관광경영학회 관광경영연구 제21권 제6호 통권 79호 2017.11 pp.73-93

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With the expansion of the coffee market and rapid competition, consumers are becoming more and more picky about choosing coffee shops because of their wider choice, and the trend of competition among coffee shops is not stopped. As one of the fastest growing sectors in the domestic food service industry, there is a need for careful management strategies based on the perception of local customers among coffee shops. In addition, I tried to find implications in terms of the necessity of management and operation and marketing strategy through different strategies. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of loyalty by importance and performance of choice attributes and analysis the impact of the visiting motivation as well. Empirical study with 566 samples of customer in Coffee shop shows that 1) for the purpose of visit, it is significantly importance (tangibles, pleasantness, reliability, and kindness except for credibility) and overall satisfaction 2) the importance factor was comparatively higher than satisfaction factor in most of variable by paired t-test 3) it showed that variables such as cleanliness of cup and toilet, an overall cleanliness, and staff's fast response for order were situated in the grid 1 known as "Keep up the Good Work" and variables situated grid 2 known as "Possible Overkill" are brand image, brand reputation, and staff's appearance. Variables situated in the grid 3 known as "Low Priority" are ease of access, ease of parking, and visually building's exterior. And, variables situated in the grid 4 known as "Concentrate Here" are freshness and quality of coffee, mode, and location. This study is meaningful in that it proposes to show the marketing strategies for a coffee shop and what to avoid and give intensive management direction by analyzing customer needs of variegation and the rapidly changing coffee market. And it will also show how the coffee industry can create better quality of service and create culture.


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