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2

유아교사의 인성과 전문성 발달이 영유아 권리존중 실행에 미치는 영향

강인숙, 이희경

한국홀리스틱융합교육학회 홀리스틱융합교육연구 제20권 제4호 2016.12 pp.49-66

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이 연구의 목적은 유아교사의 인성과 전문성이 영유아권리존중 실행에 미치는 영향에 대하여 알아보는 것이다. 연구결과 유아교사의 인성, 전문성 발달 수준, 영유아권리존중 실행 수준이 모두 높은 수준의 결과를 나타냈다. 유아교사들의 영유아권리존중 실행 수준은 학력에 유의미한 차이가 있어 학력이 높을수록 높게 나타났으며, 유아교사의 인성, 교사 전문성 발달과 영유아권리존중 실행 수준 간 높은 상관관계가 나타났다. 즉 유아교사의 인성 점수가 높을수록, 교사 전문성 발달 수준이 높을수록 영유아권리존중 보육의 실행 수준이 높은 것으로 나타났다. 유아교사의 인성, 교사 전문성 발달이 영유아권리존중 보육의 실행 수준에 미치는 영향과 상대적 설명력을 분석한 결과 보육교사의 창의인성 영역의 인성 수준이 높고, 유아교사의 전문성 발달 중 지식과 기술의 발달과 생태적 발달의 수준이 높을수록 영유아권리존중 실행 수준이 높다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 이 연구결과를 토대로 교사의 인성과 전문성을 향상시킬 수 있는 유아교사 개인의 노력과 이를 뒷받침하는 제도적 지원을 제안하며, 이는 유아교육 현장에서 영유아권리존중 실행수준을 향상시키는 데 기여할 것이다.
At present that arises the necessity of education on human rights and execution of the right respect, while the debate over child abuse, this study focused on the influence of an infant teacher’s personality and professional development on the implementation of infant’s right respect. This study involved 159 teachers in the children house. To them it was provided the personality self-assessments and questionnaire of the child rights respect and the infant teacher’s professional development level. Studies showed that the high level of infant teacher’s personality and professional, and the execution of infant right respect. The result of analysis regarding the execution of infant right respect effected by the infant teacher’s personality and teacher’s professional as well the relative explanation showed that as the high level of teacher’s personality in creative personality and as the high level of knowledge, skill, and ecological, there was higher level of execution of infant right respect. Through this study, it suggests that there should be systemic support and the infant teacher’s efforts individually in order to enhance the teacher’s personality and professionalism, this shall contribute to implementing the infant right respect in the field of infant education.

5,200원

3

화장품의 보존제 함량 및 사용기간에 따른 미생물오염도 조사

김광곤, 강인숙, 류종아, 하동룡, 김은선, 서진종

한국피부미용향장학회 한국피부미용향장학회지 Vol.8 No.1 2013.06 pp.39-47

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In this study, the contents of preservatives and microbial contamination before- and after-use were investigated to assess the safety of cosmetic products and to use it as a preliminary data. Cosmetic creams and lotions of domestic brand were purchased in retail stores. A high-performance liquid chromatographic method were used to analyze methylparaben (MP), ethylparaben (EP), propylparaben (PP), butylparaben (BP), benzoic acid (BA), sorbic acid (SA), dehydroacetic acid (DHA). Of 30 products, 14 products were found to contain 5 types of preservatives and concentration was parabens (0.02~0.22%), dehydroacetic acid (0.14~0.15%). None of them exceed the cosmetic combination limits (0.8%, 0.6%, respectively). None of them exceed the cosmetic combination limits (0.8%, 0.6%, respectively). E. coli, Staphylococuus aureus, Salmonella spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not detected in all samples, and general bacteria, yeast and mold were detected in 13 of 30 samples while using them for 3 month. But the level of them does not yield the Microbial Limits. As microorganisms can greatly increase depending on the type of cosmetics and usage environment it is desirable to label the expiration date, storage and application method to secure the safety and to prevent the skin troubles.

4,000원

4

A Comparative Study of the Rainfall Intensity Between Ground Rain Gauge and Weather Radar

Ryu Chan-Su, Kang In-Sook, Lim Jae-Hwan

조선대학교 기초과학연구원 조선자연과학논문집 제4권 3호 2011.09 pp.229-237

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Today they use a weather radar with spatially high resolution in predicting rainfall intensity and utilizing the information for super short-range forecast in order to make predictions of such severe meteorological phenomena as heavy rainfall and snow. For a weather radar, they use the Z-R relation between the reflectivity factor(Z) and rainfall intensity(R) by rainfall particles in the atmosphere in order to estimate intensity. Most used among the various Z-R relation is Z=200R1.6 applied to stratiform rain. It's also used to estimate basic rainfall intensity of a weather radar run by the weather center. This study set out to compare rainfall intensity between the reflectivity of a weather radar and the ground rainfall of ASOS(Automatic Surface Observation System) by analyzing many different cases of heavy rain, analyze the errors of different weather radars and identify their problems, and investigate their applicability to nowcasting in case of severe weather.

4,000원

5

비행청소년의 정신건강 재활을 위한 무용치료요법으로서의 방송댄스 프로그램 적용

강헌진, Masayo Naruse, 전용관, 최대혁, 강인숙, 윤용진

한국운동재활학회 한국운동재활학회지 제6권 제4호 통권14호 2010.11 pp.53-64

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The goal of this study is to explore the potential possibility of Korean pop-dance program on helping mental health among juvenile delinquents. Having views on this idea, the study was constituted for Korean girl delinquents in juvenile training school focusing on treatment of adolescent misconducts based on their depression mainly, aggression and social anxiety. The subject for the study was divided into two groups; Experimental group(Ex, n=7) and control group(Con, n=11) on the range of 14-18 year-old female delinquents in J juvenile school. Subjects completed 2-hour, once a week of K-pop dance program for 8 weeks. Depression, aggression and social anxiety were measured pre-session, and post-session by questionnaires which were Beck Depression Inventory(BDI), Aggression Questionnaire-Korean version(AQ-K) and Korean-Social Avoidance & Distress Scale(K-SAD). Also, for more verifying the effects of this research, participants were asked via self-report and interviewed. Collected data were analyzed by the reliability analysis, paired t-test and two-way ANOVA with repeated measures. The results are as follows. First, the K-pop dance program has an effect on depression in Ex group significantly. Second, the three of five categories - refusal, guilty feeling and dissatisfaction are significantly declined in Ex group after 8 weeks K-pop dance program. Also, there are significant difference in refusal. guilty feeling and dissatisfaction after 8weeks. In case of refusal and dissatisfaction, it is significantly declined in the Ex group after 8 weeks. Finally, there's no significant difference in relation to aggression and social anxiety. However, post score is apparently reduced than pre score in Ex group.

4,300원

7

무더위 속의 降福

姜仁淑

세계평화교수협의회 광장 74호 1979.08 pp.77-79

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3,000원

8

초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 우렁쉥이 껍질로부터 β-carotene 추출

강인숙, 윤현석, 박지연, 전병수

한국생물공학회 KSBB Journal 제21권 제3호 2006.06 pp.194-198

※ 원문제공기관과의 협약기간이 종료되어 열람이 제한됩니다.

본 연구는 초임계 이산화탄소와 에탄올 보조용매를 사용하여 천연물질에 존재하는 기능성 물질을 효율적으로 분리하여 식품 및 의약산업에 이용할 수 있는 천연 기능성 소재를 제공할 수 있는 가능성을 보여 주었다. 초임계 이산화탄소와 보조용매 에탄올 3 mL/min를 사용하여 멍게로부터 β-carotene을 추출하기 위한 최적의 조건은 35℃, 350 bar이었으며, 추출물질을 흡착하는 흡착칼럼으로부터 β-carotene을 회수하기 위한 rinse 용매는 methanol이 우수한 결과를 나타내었다. 따라서 초임계 이산화탄소를 사용한 멍게 껍질로부터 β-carotene 추출 공정이 상업화될 경우 기존의 재래식 유기용매 추출법에서 회수한 것에 비해 잔존 유기용매가 없고 환경 친화적 공정으로 식품, 의약품 산업 등의 고품질 원료 소재로 이용될 수 있을 것으로 사료된다.
Dried raw Ascidians (Halocynthia roretzi) shells harvested from fish farms in southern coast area in Korea were used to extract β-carotene using supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO2) and with ethanol as a co-solvent at the range of temperatures and pressures, from 25 to 65℃ and 100 to 350 bar respectively. The size of the dried Ascidians shells was around 850 μm. The system used this study was a semi-batch flow type high pressure unit. The efficiency of β-carotene extraction using SCO2 with and without co-solvent, ethanol, influenced to pressure and temperature changes. The highest solubility of β -carotene in SCO2 was 1.35 mg/g for β-carotene at 35℃ and 350 bar. With addition of 2 (v/v%) ethanol the recovery of β-carotene was 93%. As a result of using n-hexane and methanol for rinse, at 35℃ and 350 bar the amount of β-carotene by methanol rinse was 5 times higher than that of n-hexane rinse.

9

입자의 분산안정성이 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향(III) -PET섬유직물에의 Hematite 입자의 부착과 제거-

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.39 No.4 2002 pp.485-492

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between the dispersion stability of particles and the detergency of particulate soil as functions of pH, ionic strength, electrolytes, and surfactants using $\alpha$-Fe$_2$O$_3$ particles as a model of particulate soil. The dispersion stability of particles was estimated by suspending power and the detergency of particulate soil was determined by the adhesion of hematite particles to polyester fabrics and their removal from the fabrics. The dispersion stability of particles was biphases and minimum at pH 6~7. The suspending power decreased with the addition of electrolytes and increased with decreasing ionic strength, and the effect of surfactant on the suspending power was insignificant. Although some deviation exists in the effect of surfactant on detergency of particular soil, the general trend of detergency of particulate soil was similar to that of dispersion stability of particles. Therefore, it appears that the detergency of particulate soil correlates with the dispersion stability of particles.

원문보기
10

자기세정산업용 소재 개발을 위한 O2 플라즈마 처리가 Poly(imide) 필름의 표면 형태 및 특성에 미치는 영향

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국의류학회 한국의류학회지 Vol.36 No.10 2012 pp.1117-1124

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study was a preliminary study to investigate the influence of surface morphology and characteristics on the self-cleaning of substrates. PI film was treated by $O_2$ plasma to modify the surface; in addition, AFM and Fe-SEM were employed to examine the morphological changes induced on a PI film treated by $O_2$ plasma and surface energies calculated from measured contact angles between several solutions and PI film based on the geometric mean and a Lewis acid base method. The surface roughness of PI film treated by $O_2$ plasma increased with the duration of the $O_2$ plasma on PI film due to the increased surface etching. The contact angle of film treated by $O_2$ plasma decreased with the increased treatment time in water and surfactant solution; in addition, the surface energy increased with the increased treatment times largely attributed to the increased portion on the polar surface energy of PI film. The coefficient of the correlation between surface roughness and surface polarity such as contact angle and surface energy was below 0.35; however, it was over 0.99 for the contact angle and surface energy.

원문보기
11

친수 및 소수화한 의류소재의 특성이 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향 -의류소재의 표면특성-

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.44 No.1 2007 pp.53-60

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study was preliminary part to investigate the influence of surface characteristics of tektite materials finished with hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemicals on detergency of particulate soil. The hydrophilic and hydrophobic finish for PET fabric were treated with polyester, silicone and fluorine organic compound or resin respectively. Porosity, coefficient of friction and surface roughness of fabric were measured as surface structures of textile, and water up take, water vapor transport, wettability of fabric and contact angle to determine hydrophilicity of material. The porosity of polyester fabric treated with hydrophilic and hydrophobic agent were slightly decreased with increasing concentration of chemicals regardless of chemical types. And influence of finishing concentration of chemicals on coefficient of friction and surface roughness of fabric was small. The affinity to moisture such as water up take, water vapor transport, and wettability of fabric was increased with increasing concentration of hydrophilic chemicals and decreased with decreasing concentration of hydrophobic chemicals. The contact angle of solution on treated fabric were decreased with hydrophilic treatment but increased with hydrophobic finish. The whole results of surface structures and hydrophilicity of material exhibited a similar behavior in fabric treated with hydrophilic agent, but slightly differed in fabric treated with hydrophobic agent.

원문보기
12

Poly(ethylene Terephthalate) 필름의 표면 모폴로지가 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향 (III)

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.48 No.6 2011 pp.355-363

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The effect of surface morphology of poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) film on the detergency of particulate soil was investigated as functions of surfactant concentration, ionic strength, electrolytes type, washing time and particle size. The PET surface film was modified with NaOH and dimethylformamide (DMF) for different times. Generally, the removal of particles from the PET film treated with NaOH and DMF was relatively higher than that of nontreated film in both nonyl-phenol polyoxyethylene ether and sodium dodecyl-benzene sulfonate solution. The removal of particles from the film increased with increasing concentration of surfactant and ionic strength regardless of treated condition, but the effects of electrolytes type, washing time and particle size on the removal of particle from the PET film varied with treated condition such as chemical type (NaOH or DMF) and treatment time. The removal of ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particles from the PET film treated with NaOH and DMF were better related with surface energies than surface roughness and surface area. The correlation coefficient between the removal of particle from the film and adsorption of surfactants to film was 0.9.

원문보기
13

화장품 광고 모델의 속성이 여성 소비자의 구매욕구에 미치는 영향

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국디자인학회 디자인학연구 Vol.14 No.3 2001 pp.37-48

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

이 논문은 우리나라의 광고에 큰 비중을 차지하고 있는 화장품 광고에서 광고모델 속성이 여성 소비자의 화장품 구매에 미치는 영향에 대한 실증적인 연구이다. 그 결과 소비자들은 광고 모델 속성에 대해서 신체적 매력 보다 전문성과 진실성이 있어야 한다고 응답하였다. 광고 모델이 좋아서 화장품을 구입한 경우, 호감과 신체적 매력은 매우 긍정적인 반응으로 나타났고, 전문성과 진실성은 부정적인 반응으로 나타났다. 여성 소비자들은 현재 광고되고 있는 화장품 광고 모델들에 대해서 관심은 있으나 모델들의 신뢰도가 부족하여 구매에 영향을 미치지 못하고 있다. 우리나라의 화장품 광고 모텔은 대부분 유명 연예인이기 때문에 신체적 매력, 호감, 친밀감은 높은 긍정적 반응을 보이고 있으나, 전문성, 진실성, 유사성은 매우 부정적인 반응을 나타내고 있다. 그러므로 화장품 광고 모델 유형에 따른 모델 속성을 실증적으로 연구한다는 것이 다소 무리였다고 생각된다. 화장품은 감성적으로 선택되며 자기 관여도가 높은 제품이므로 광고하는 제품에 대한 지식·경험·능력을 가진 전문성이 연상되는 모델의 선정이 바람직하다고 본다. 그리고, 제품에 대한 어떤 편견도 없이 순수하게, 객관적으로 의견을 제시할 수 있는 진실성과 제품·소비자와 이미지가 일치하는 광고모델이 적합하다고 본다.
This paper is a study on how women consumers purchase are affected by models who appear in advertisements for cosmetics, focusing especially on studies concerning the impact that models have on advertisement strategies of the cosmetic industry in korea. In surveys conducted, consumers responded that cosmetic advertisement models should examplify a expertness and trustworthiness attitude more than just display their own physical attractiveness. The consumers who bought cosmetic products based on its endorsement from particular models responded that they had a positive reaction to the models physical attractiveness and likability while experiencing a negative reaction to the model's expertness and trustworthiness attitude. Women consumers are interested in cosmetic advertisement models, but do not necessarily trust them. Hence, the use of a Particular model does not directly affect the consumers Purchasing decision. Famous stars often appear in cosmetic advertisements in korea, and targeted consumers have a very positive response to their physical attractiveness, familiarity and perceived likability. However, the consumers have a completely negative response to the models in regards to their expertness, trustworthiness, and their sense of similarity with the model. The models, then, should be used in these advertisements to try and uphold the fellowing qualities. expertness in regards to having some knowledge of, experience with, and expertness in using the cosmetic produces, trustworthiness when expressing their own opinion of the product, matching image of products and targeted consumers.

원문보기
14

지용성 오구 혼합이 O2 플라즈마 처리 Poly(ethylene terephthalate) 필름의 고형 오구 부착에 미치는 영향

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.52 No.4 2015 pp.215-223

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The effect of the addition of oily soil to particulate soil dispersions on the adhesion of ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particles to poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) films treated by $O_2$ plasma was investigated as a function of the ionic strength, surfactant concentration, and surfactant type. After $O_2$ plasma treatment, the contact angle of the film decreased with increasing treatment time in water and surfactant solutions. In general, the adhesion of the particle to the PET film was relatively higher with the addition of oily soil to the particulate dispersion than for the single-particulate dispersion solution. In addition, the adhesion of the particle to the film was higher in the dispersion solution mixed with polar rather than nonpolar oily soil. The effect of mixing oily soil into the particulate dispersions on the adhesion of the particle to the film resulted in no significant change in the concentration of the surfactant and ionic strength regardless of the treatment condition. The adhesion of the ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particles to the PET film was related to the contact angle and surface roughness; the coefficients of correlation between the adhesion of the particle to the film and the surface roughness and contact angle were over 0.9.

원문보기
15

입자의 분산안정성이 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향(제1보) - Nonyl Phenol Polyoxyethylene Ether 용액 내에서 α-Fe2O3 입자의 분산안정성 -

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국의류산업학회 한국의류산업학회지 Vol.4 No.1 2002 pp.86-91

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To estimate dispersion stability of particles, suspending power and particle size were examined as functions of pHs, surfactants, electrolytes and ionic strengths using ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particle as the model of particulate soil. Suspending power and particle size were determined by UV-Vis spectrumeter and by light scattering using the polarization ratio method, respectively. The suspending power was relatively high with polyanion electrolytes and was low with neutral salts. The suspending power was biphasis, minimum pH 6~7, and the effect of surfactant on the suspending power was insignificant. Generally suspending power increased with decreasing the particle size governed aggregation of dispersed particles regardless of solution conditions. Hence the suspending power was inversely related to the particle size.

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16

O2 플라즈마 처리에 따른 필름기질의 친수 및 소수화 상반효과

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.50 No.4 2013 pp.266-274

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We studied the effects of $O_2$ plasma on the hydrophilic/hydrophobic contrast of film substrates. PET (polyethylene terephthalate) and FEP (fluorinated ethylene propylene) films were treated by $O_2$ plasma, and the surface of the films was investigated using atomic force microscopy(AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and contact-angle and surface energy measurements. Surface energies were calculated from the measured contact angles between several solutions and the films based on the geometric mean and Lewis acid-base method. The contact angle of PET films treated by $O_2$ plasma decreased with increasing treatment time in water and surfactant solution, and surface energy increased with increasing polar component of surface tension of the film. In contrast, the contact angle of the $O_2$ plasma-treated FEP film decreased, and surface energy decreased with decreasing nonpolar component of surface tension of the film.

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17

낙태의 후유증과 여성의 자살$\ldots$ 그리고

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국가톨릭의료협회 헬스앤미션 Vol.20 2010 pp.23-25

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18

표면전하가 다른 입자오구의 친수 및 소수 필름에서의 탈락거동

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.53 No.4 2016 pp.241-249

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The removal behavior of ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ and carbon black particles from surface-modified PET[poly(ethylene terephthalate)] films were investigated as functions of surfactant concentration and type. Moreover, the ${\zeta}$-potential, the potential energy between particles and film, and the adsorption of surfactants to the film were examined as detergent environments. The function of the two-step plasma treatments of $O_2$ and $O_2+CHF_3$ was to impart hydrophilicity and hydrophobicity to PET film respectively. The negative ${\zeta}$-potential of the film, the potential energy between the particles and film, and the adsorption of surfactants by the film increased with the two-step plasma treatment of $O_2$ and $O_2+CHF_3$. Generally, the removal of ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particles from the modified PET film was higher than that of carbon black particles. However, the removal behaviors of ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ and carbon black particles were different depending on the surface property of the PET films. There was no difference in the removal behavior between ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ and carbon black particles in the hydrophilic film; however, there was a significant difference between behaviors of the two particles in the hydrophobic film. With ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particles having a high surface charge, the removal of particles from the film increased with increasing film hydrophobicity. On the other hand, in the case of low surface charge carbon black particles, their removal from the film decreased with increasing film hydrophobicity.

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19

친수 및 소수화한 의류소재의 특성이 고형오구의 세척성에 미치는 영향 - 계면활성제의 흡착 및 섬유기질의 ${\zeta}Potential$ -

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국섬유공학회 한국섬유공학회지 Vol.43 No.6 2006 pp.344-352

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The steric stability by adsorption of surfactant to the labric and interfacial electrical condition such as the ${\zeta}-potential$ and the interaction energy between substrate and particle of fabric treated with hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical was examined as a fundamental environment of detergency of particulate soil. The hydrophilic and hydro-phobic finish for PET fabric were treated with polyester, silicone and fluorine organic compound of resin respectively. The adsorption of anionic and nonionic surfactant to fabric were measured by abbott method and HPLC analysis. And the ${\zeta}-potential$ of particles and fabric were measured by microelectrophoresis and streaming potential method, respectively. The potential energy of interaction between u·Fe201 particle and fiber were calculated by using the heteroco-agulation theory for a sphere-plate model. The adsorption of anionic and nonionic surfactant to polyester fabric was largely influenced by concentration of surfactant and ionic strength as compared to concentration of finishing agent and adsorption time of surfactant regardless of chemicals. And the adsorption of surfactant to fabric treated with hydrophobic chemicals was higher than fabric treated with hydrophilic chemicals. With the increase of concentration of finishing agent, the ${\zeta}-potential$ of fiber treated with hydrophilic and hydrophobic chemical were converted from negative to positive regardless of chemicals. And the potential energy of interaction between ${\alpha}-Fe_2O_3$ particle and fiber were adhesion force in fabric treated with hydrophobic chemical and repulsion force in fabric treated with hydrophilic chemical.

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20

지용성/고형오구의 혼합오염계에서 지용성오구의 혼합특성에 따른 PET직물의 세척성

강인숙

[Kisti 연계] 한국의류학회 한국의류학회지 Vol.35 No.10 2011 pp.1242-1251

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This study investigates the effect of mixed characteristics of oily soil such as mixed ratio, polarity of oily soil on contact angle of fabric, removal of oily and particulate soil from PET fabric in oily/particulate soil mixed system. The contact angle of fabric in the surfactant solution with suspended oily soil was examined as a fundamental environment of detergency of soil from fabrics. Detergency was investigated as function of mixed ratios of oily/ particulate soil, type of oily soil, surfactants concentration, surfactant type and temperature of detergency in surfactant solution. The contact angle of fabric in surfactant solution sharply increased with mixing nonpolar oily soil; in addition, the contact angle slightly increased with increasing contents of oily soil and decreased with increasing surfactant concentration. The removal of oily and particulate soil from fabric was higher in the solution mixed with polar versus nonpolar oily soil. The detergency increased with increasing surfactant concentration and the increased temperature of surfactants solution that were relatively improved in NPE compared to DBS solutions, The results indicated that the detergency of oily and particulate soil showed a similar trend in oily/ particulate mixed soil systems. The general contact angle of fabric was well related with the detergency of oily and particulate soil in oily/particulate mixed soil system, therefore, the primary factor determining the detergency of soil in oily/particulate mixed soil system may be the contact angle of fabric caused by wettability.

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