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1

자영업 대책으로서 우수 상생프랜차이즈 육성의 필요성

박주영, 이원정

한국프랜차이즈학회 프랜차이징저널 제4권 제2호 2019.02 pp.103-123

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프랜차이즈는 청년층이 젊어서는 아르바이트에서 시작하여 점포매니저 등으로 성장하다가, 나이가 들 어서는 가맹점 사업자나 가맹본부 경영자가 될 수 있는 등 기업가정신을 현실화할 수 있는 분야로서 청 년층 비경제활동자를 흡수할 수 있는 매력적인 산업이라고 할 수 있다. 베이비부머 은퇴자 역시 평생 모 은 자금을 검증된 비즈니스 모델에 투자함과 동시에 본인의 일자리도 스스로 창출하는 등 경제적으로나 정신적으로나 건강한 사회 분위기를 조성하는 데 일조한다. 그리고 무엇보다도, 프랜차이즈 점포는 독립 자영업 점포에 비해 더 많은 고용을 창출한다. 상생 프랜차이즈의 전제인 공정한 이익배분 구조를 실현하기 위해서 우선적으로 로열티 방식의 가맹 금 구조 및 구매협동조합의 결성이 중요하다. 연계판매는 가맹본부의 중요한 수익원이지만 가맹점과의 신뢰관계에 부정적인 영향을 미친다. 따라서 미국의 일부 가맹본부는 가맹점들이 구매협동조합 운영을 승인하고 연계판매 계약을 포기하고, 대신 가맹점 대다수를 로열티 계약으로 전환하였고, 이들 가맹본부 는 소송 등 갈등비용을 최소화하면서 프랜차이즈 시스템 확장 등 핵심사업에만 집중함으로써 성공할 수 있었다. 그러나 현실적으로 구매협동조합이 활성화되기에는 어려운 문제가 있는데, 필수품목 범위와 물품공급 에서 잃게 되는 본부수익을 매출비례 로열티로 전환하는 데 있어서 가맹본사와 가맹점사업자 당사자 간 에 타협점을 찾기가 쉽지 않다는 점이다. 본 연구는 이러한 문제에 대한 해결책으로서 한국공정거래조정 원 산하에 필수품목 지정, 물품공급 마진 및 로열티 조정을 주된 기능으로 하는 상생조정협의회를 설치 하는 것을 제안한다.
A franchise is an attractive industry that can absorb entrepreneurial youth, such as being able to become an entrepreneurial spirit, such as being able to become a store manager or a franchisee manager or a franchise headquarters manager when the young man grows up as a store manager. Baby Boomer retirees also contribute to the creation of an economically and mentally healthy society, such as investing in lifetime savings in a proven business model, as well as creating jobs for themselves. And above all, franchise stores generate more employment than independent self-employed stores. In order to realize a fair profit distribution structure that is a premise of a win-win franchise, it is important to establish a royalty-type revenue structure and a purchasing cooperative. Tying agreements are an important source of revenue for the franchise headquarters, but they have a negative impact on trust relationships with franchisees. As a result, some franchise headquarters in the United States approved the operation of the cooperative to purchase, abandoned the contract to sell, and instead converted the majority of the franchisee into a royalty contract. These franchise headquarters were able to succeed by focusing only on franchise system expansion while minimizing conflict costs such as litigation. In reality, however, it is difficult to activate a purchasing cooperative. It is not easy to find a compromise between the franchisor and the franchisee in shifting the essential commodity range and the headquarters profit lost in the supply of goods to running royalty. This study suggests the establishment of a win-win coordination council as a main function under the Korea Fair Trade Mediation Agency as a solution to these problems, by designation of essential items, margin of goods supply and royalties adjustment.

5,700원

2

자영업 혼잡의 경제적 영향에 대한 분석 : 서비스부분 자영업자와 임금근로자의 소득에 미치는 영향을 중심으로

스티븐 에스.밤멜, 서환주

경성대학교 산업개발연구소 산업혁신연구 제33권 제4호 2017.12 pp.145-174

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본 연구는 ‘자영업 혼잡’이 국내 서비스 부문에 종사하는 자영업자들과 임금근로자들의 소득에 미치는 영향을 분석하였다. 한국노동연구원에서 발표하는 한국노동패널조사자료를 활용하여 분석한 결과 1998년에서 2014년 기간에 27개 서비스 업종 중 9개의 업종에서 자영업 혼잡률이 증가한 반면 10개의 업종에서 감소한 것으로 밝혀졌다. 나머지의 업종에서는 큰 변함이 없었다. 총 종사자 중에서 영세 자영업자가 차지하는 비중으로 정의한 자영업 혼잡은 해당 서비스 업종에 속해 있는 영세 자영업자들과 비-영세 자영업자들 소득 모두에 부정적인 영향을 미치며 또한 해당 서비스 업종에 고용되어 있는 임금근로자들의 임금에도 부정적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 그리고 자영업 혼잡률이 낮은 서비스 업종에서는 자영업 혼잡의 부정적인 영향이 매출액 수준이 상대적으로 낮은 영세 자영업자들에게 집중적으로 나타난 반면, 자영업 혼잡률이 높은 업종에서는 자영업 혼잡의 부정적인 영향이 선도 자영업자들에게서 집중적으로 나타났다. 특히 이 부정적인 영향이 상위 10%의 자영업 집단에 속해 있는 자영업자들에게서 가장 높은 것으로 나타났다. 자영업 혼잡이 임금근로자들의 임금에 미치는 부정적인 영향은 자영업 혼잡률이 높은 업종에서는 유의미 하였지만 혼잡률이 낮은 업종에서는 유의미하지 않았다. 본 연구의 분석 결과는 한국 서비스업의 자영업 혼잡이 한국 서비스산업 발전에 부정적으로 작용한다는 가설을 지지한다고 보여 진다.
This study looks at the effects of excessive weak self-employment (referred to as “self-employment congestion“) on the economic outcomes of the self-employed and wage earners in the Korean service sector. Using the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study data (KLIP) of the Korea Labor Institute between 1998 and 2014, of twenty-seven service businesses, the self-employment congestion rate is found to have fallen in nine business types and risen in ten business types during the surveyed period. There were not large changes in the remaining business types Defined as the proportion of weak self-employed within the total number of workers, self-employment congestion in the service sector is found to lower the earnings of both weak and non-weak self-employed and the wages of wage earners within individual service businesses. Specifically, this study finds that the negative effects of self-employment congestion in low self-employment congestion businesses are higher on less successful self-employed but that the negative effects of self-employment congestion in high self-employed congestion businesses are higher on more successful businesses, and especially on the top 10%. It also finds that the negative effects of self-employment congestion on the wages of wage earners are significant in high self-employment congestion businesses, but not in low self-employment congestion businesses. These results support the hypothesis that excessive weak self-employment in the Korean service sector is a factor hindering development of the Korean service sector.

7,000원

3

자영업의 지속기간과 지속의사의 영향요인에 관한 연구

홍성희, 유가효, 강세영

한국가족자원경영학회 한국가족자원경영학회지 제9권 1호 2005.02 pp.41-58

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the influencing factors on the continuity and the willingness of continuing self-employment. The sample of 321 was selected from self-employed workers living in Daegu. For data analysis, t-test, multiple regression, and logistic analysis were used. The major findings were as follows : 1. The sustaining period of self-employment were affected by gender, age, and educational attainment of self-employed workers, as well as the amount of starting capital, couple's partnership in business or not, and the type of industry in business. 2. Willingness to continue self-employment is more likely for those who without other income source, have positive vision with future economic prospects, have more satisfied with their self-employed work.

5,200원

4

유통 자영업과 SSM규제법 : SSM 규제법에 대한 소비자 반응을 중심으로

김동태

한국창업학회 한국창업학회지 제8권 제4호 2013.12 pp.37-55

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With the effect of SSM Regulation Law looking bleak, this study aims to investigate promotion strategies for a consumer’s adoption of SSM Regulation Law. For this, we verified the effect of perceived risk of traditional market/small neighborhood shops and practical buying tendency on the consumer attitude toward the SSM regulation law. And in this process, the present study examined the moderating role of a perceived fairness of the SSM Regulation Law and the attitude toward the large discount chain. The main findings of this study were as follows. First, all the moderating effect hypotheses on a perceived risk were supported. This means we can manage consumer attitude toward the SSM regulation law by managing the degree of perceived fairness. On the otherhand, the moderating effect hypotheses on an attitude toward the large discount chain were rejected. So, we see the consumer attitude toward the large discount chain was irrelevant to the relations between the perceived risk/practical buying tendency and consumer attitude toward the SSM regulation law.

5,400원

5

소규모자영업의 경제적ㆍ교육적 지원 선택의 영향요인

홍성희

한국가족자원경영학회 한국가족자원경영학회지 제9권 2호 2005.05 pp.1-21

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The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of the influencing factors on the economic and educational supports selection of small self-employed business. A sample of 321 was selected from self-employed workers living in Daegu. For data analysis, logistic regression was used. The major findings were as follows: 1 The determinants of the economic supports selection in self-employed business were father's working experiences in self-employed business, taking employees or not in business, having housing ownership or not, and as well as the amount of starting capital. 2. The determinants of the educational supports selection in self-employed business were self-employer's working experience as self-employed before or not, and empowerment with self-employed work.

5,700원

7

베이커리 종사자의 직무환경이 직무만족, 조직몰입, 이직의도에 미치는 영향 - 광주지역 자영업 베이커리 종사자 중심으로 -

마칠석

한국호텔리조트학회 호텔리조트연구 제18권 제1호 2019.02 pp.251-275

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The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of job environment on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention of Artisanal bakery workers in Gwangju. To achieve the purpose of the study, theoretical background, research model, and hypothesis setting were constructed based on the literature survey and previous studies. This study distributed the questionnaire focusing on the employees of representative Artisanal bakery specialty shops in Gwangju area. For the improvement of the questionnaire, 40 copies of the preliminary questionnaire were distributed firstly on July 15, 2018, and the questionnaire was revised and revised by verifying the items of each variable through the coding process of the response. The data of 308 questionnaires for the study of this study were data - coded and the frequency of the respondents' general items was analyzed using the program of SPSS 21.0. Bakery employees' perception of work environment is perceived to be difficult to change the environment of kitchens due to the individual business. Because of the study, most bakery employees are aware that the human environment is sensitive to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and turnover intention. In particular, considering that the private workplace has a lot of physical labor and a long-standing working condition, It is necessary to have a management plan of the executives who encourage and praise the achievements. Bakery Employees' managers recognize that employees are the human resources that produce the product and quality.

6,300원

8

대학생의 창업환경, 기업 및 기업규제에 대한 태도가 창업선호도에 미치는 영향 구조분석 : 부모의 자영업경험의 조절효과를 중심으로

허경옥

한국창업학회 한국창업학회지 제11권 제4호 2016.12 pp.41-66

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This study investigated differences by university student’s socio-demographic feature to spinoff regulation, company, business restriction, and preference of founding with student graduating next semester living in capital area or near by. Also, tested factors influencing preference of founding of students to the attitude of spinoff regulation, company and business restriction by covariance structure analysis. In this case, this study also tested regulation effect of parent’s self-employed experience. The results are as follow. First, case of parent’s self-employed experience, case of founding failure factors influencing hesitation, university student who has lower than 600,000won pocket money had positive attitude towards company. Male student, parent’s not having self-employed experience had positive attitude towards government’s business restriction. In the other hand, male student who has higher pocket money and household income had positive attitude towards preference of founding. Second, By covariance structure analysis job and economic outlook environment statically effects the attitude of company. Meanwhile, variable effects business restriction was only economic view. If university student’s economic view was positive, it was also positive on government’s business restriction and if the economic view was negative, it was negative to the other hand too. Third, company’s attitude towards university student’s and business restriction influenced student’s preference of founding. If the attitude of company was positive, the preference of founding was higher, but if the student has positive attitude to business restriction, the preference of founding was getting lower. Forth, by testing the regulation effects on university student 3rd type spinoff regulation and attitude towards company. In case of assistance business starters actively were depend on parent’s self-employed experience. Also, Attitude towards company and business restriction showed regulation effect on preference of founding by parent’s self-employed experience. In case of parent’s self-employed experience, there was much more influence to positive attitude towards company. On the other hand, positive attitude towards business restriction influenced negative attitude towards preference of founding if parent has no experience on self-employed.

6,400원

9

Self-Employment, Social Capital and Social Contexts : Motivations of Korean Immigrant Entrepreneurs in the Argentine Garment Industry

Jihye Kim

재외한인학회 재외한인연구 제34호 2014.10 pp.359-396

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현재 아르헨티나 거주하는 약 2만명의 한국인들 중, 80% 이상이 의류 생산및 유통업에 종사하고 있다. 한국 이민자들의 독특한 사회 문화적 특성과 거주국의 특수한 사회 경제적 환경으로 인해, 아르헨티나 의류업은 1965년 한국 이민이 시작된 이래 한국인들이 아르헨티나 사회에 통합하는 특유한 경로가 되고있다. 아르헨티나 의류업에 종사하는 한국 이민자 20명과의 심층 인터뷰를 바탕으로 이 논문은 이민자 네트워크와 가족 유대 형태의 사회적 자본이 한국 이민자 의류 사업 시작에 결정적으로 작용함을 입증한다. 또한 거주국의 사회 구조 속에서 나타나는 다양한 상황적 요인들이 이민자 사업 동기에 영향을 끼친다는 것이 부각되었다. 특히 동 연구 결과는, 이민자 집단의 특성에만 집중하는기존 연구들과는 달리, 거주국의 광범위한 사회적, 경제적, 구조적 환경이 이민자들의 사업 시작을 결정하는 중요한 요소가 되고 있음을 시사한다.
Of the approximately 20,000 ethnic Koreans in Argentina today,more than 80% are engaged in the garment industry, in both theproduction and the distribution sectors. Since the beginning ofKorean migration to Argentina in 1965, the Argentine garmentindustry has served as a distinctive gateway into the host societyfor most ethnic Koreans because of a combination of uniquesocio-cultural characteristics and values these immigrants bring tobusiness and the particularities of the economic and socialenvironments in the host country. Based on the analysis of 20in-depth interviews with Korean immigrant entrepreneurs in theArgentine garment industry conducted in early 2014, this researchdemonstrates that various factors were involved in the decision offirst-generation Koreans in Argentina to start a garment business. Unlike the traditional views of sociologists, who tend to focus onthe pull and push factors and the role of social capital, such asfamily ties and ethnic networks, the results of this study highlightthe importance of the wider structural, social and economiccontexts in which ethnic businesses operate in determining animmigrant’s entrepreneurial entry decision.

8,200원

10

한국의 복지국가와 중간계급 : 자영업자 문제를 중심으로

윤도현

한국스칸디나비아학회 스칸디나비아 연구 제15호 2014.08 pp.63-102

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한국의 자영업자의 비율은 다른 OECD 국가들에 비해 매우 높다. 하 지만 이들에 대한 사회보장은 역으로 매우 미미한 편이다. 본 연구는 이 러한 문제의식에서 한국 자영업자들의 특성과 문제점을 분석하고, 사회 보장적 대안의 기본 방향을 탐색하고자 하였다. 주요 연구 결과는 다음 과 같다. 첫째, 최선의 사회정책이 일자리와 이를 통한 소득보장이라면, 자영업자문제의 해결에 있어서도 고용확대가 가장 중요하다. 하지만 매 우 높은 자영업자 비율과 자영업자들의 낮은 임노동시장으로의 이동은, 정규직과 비정규직으로 나누어진 이중 노동시장, 비정규직에 대한 낮은 사회보장 수준과 밀접하게 맞물려 있다. 따라서 대규모 구조조정과 비 정규직에 대한 차별을 줄이는 것이 무엇보다 시급하다. 둘째, 대부분의 자영업자의 소득은 1차, 2차 산업 종사자의 소득과 지출에 따라 좌우되 기 때문에, 자영업자의 소득을 증대시키기 위해서는 임금근로자의 실질 임금과 가처분 소득을 늘려야 한다. 셋째, 자영업자에 대한 사회보장을 강화하기 위해서는 단기적으로 사회보험 등의 적용대상을 확대하고 지 원하는 일도 중요하지만, 중장기적으로는 스칸디나비아 국가들처럼 시민권에 근거한, 조세기반적인 보편적 사회서비스를 확대하는 방향으로 나가야 한다. 또한 스웨덴의 복지동맹 사례가 보여주듯이 사회보장의 발전이 계급의 정치세력화를 전제한다면, 자영업자 문제 해결을 위해서 도 계급의 권력자원에 대한 논의는 결코 등한시되어서는 안 된다.
This paper attempts to explore alternatives to the low social security system, especially for the self-employed, focusing on their characteristics and problems in Korea. As a result of this review, I would like to argue as follows; First, if the best social policy is employment policy(and income creation through it), employment-extension is most important, but the relative high rate of self-employed compared with OECD countries and low mobility in the wage labor market are intrinsically related with low wages and low levels of social security in the wage labour market, which is dualized in regular and non-regular status. So, it is necessary and urgent to restrict large-scale restructuring and discrimination against non-regular workers in enterprises. Second, because the income of most self-employed workers depends on the income and expenditure of economically actives in first and secondary industry, it is also necessary to increase real wages and disposable income of wage earners. Third, strengthening the social safety net for the self-employed requires an approach by stages. In this sense, introducing EITC and expanding the coverage of the self-employed in social insurance systems by government will be important reforms in the short run, but to ensure stable life and social security for self-employed workers, citizenship-based, tax-based universal social services must be expanded in the long run.

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