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25

Korean National committee for IUGG (1995-1998)

Kim, Yong-Ha

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.26 No.1 1998 pp.99-100

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24

Spatial and Temporal Variations of Foraminifers as an Indicator of marine Pollution

Shin, Im-Chul, Yi, Hi-Il

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.26 No.1 1998 pp.59-73

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Sediment samples from five stations at the Shihwa Lake sewage outfall, west cost of Korea, were collected to evaluate the effect of the outfall on benthic foraminifers. Heavy metal (Cu and Zn) polluted the eastern part of the Shihwa Lake, adjacent to the Shihwa-Banwol Industrial Complexes, shows barren or nearly barren of benthic foraminifers, and the lowest number of species both at the core top and downcore. Excepting for the barren zone, pyritized benthic foraminifers abundantly occur both at the surface and downcore sediments in the western part of the Shihwa Lake, suggesting that foraminiferal disease by anoxic bacteria. Recent intrusion of pollutants form the Shihwa-Banwol Industrial Complexes and adjacent six major streams severely polluted the Shihwa Lake as shown by the low abundance (number/10 g) of benthic foraminifers, low number of Ammonia beccarii, low species diversity, and absence of both Elphidium spp. and ostracodes at the surface sediments compared of both downcore. Except the barren zone, both pyritized and non-pyritized Ammonia beccarii occur dominantly in the surface sediments and downcore. Elphidium spp. (either pyritized or non-phyritized) do not occur in the surface sediments of whole stations. However, they occur from the entire downcore sediments except in the eastern part of Shihwa Lake. Arenaceous foraminifers do not inhabit in the heavily polluted areas as evidenced by the occurrence of relatively deep core depth (11-15 cm). Ostracodes occur at the downcore sediments, but they do not occur at the surface sediments. Ostracodes also do not occur at the heavily polluted areas in the eastern part of the Shihwa Lake both at the surface and downcore sediments, indicating that the abundance of ostracodes also can be used for a pollution indicator.

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23

A Study of the Diffusion and Rise of Stack Plumes at Coastal Region by Using LIDAR Observation Data

Yoon, Ill-Hee

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.26 No.1 1998 pp.43-58

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The Kwinana Shoreline Fumigation Experiment (KSFE) took place at Fremantle, WA, Australia between January 23 and February 8, 1995. The CSIRO DAR LIDAR measured plume sections from near the Kwinana Power Station (KPS) stacks to up to about 5 km downstream. It also measured boundary layer aerosols and the structure of the boundary layer on some occasions. Both stages A and C of KPS were used as tracers at different times. The heart of the LIDAR system is a Neodymium-doped Yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser operating at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm, with harmonics of 532 nm and 355 nm. For these experiments the third harmonic was used because the UV wavelength at 355 nm is eye safe beyond about 50 m. The laser fires a pulse of light 6 ns in duration (about 1.8 m long) and with an energy (at the third harmonic) of about 70 mJ. This pulse subsequently scattered and absorbed by both air molecules and particles in the atmosphere. A small fraction of the laser beam is scattered back to the LIDAR, collected by a telescope and detected by a photo-multiplier tube. The intensity of the signal as a function of time is a measure of the particle concentration as a function of distance along the line of the laser shot. The smoke plume was clearly identifiable in the scans both before and after fumigation in the thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL). Both power station plumes were detected. Over the 9 days of operation, 1,568 plumes scans (214 series) were performed. Essentially all of these will provide instantaneous plume heights and widths, and there are many periods of continuous operation over several hours when it should be possible to compile hourly average plume statistics as well. The results of four days LIDAR observations of the dispersion of smoke plume in the TIBL at a coastal site are presented for the case of stages A and C.

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22

Analysis on the Characteristics of Climate about Korean Summer Season 1998

Cha, Eun-Jeong, Choi, Young-Jean, Oh, Jai-Ho

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.26 No.1 1998 pp.31-41

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The climatic characteristics of summer in 1998 are analyzed with the weather observational data and the upper air observational data. The temperature of that period is lower than that of normal years and the precipitation is larger. Due to the heavy rainfall which started at July 31, rain pured down compared to normal years and the maximum precipitation recorded at the many observational stations, particularly in Seoul, Kyunggi-Do region and mountanious districts like Taegwallyong, Mt. Sokri and Mt. Chiri. The patterns of general circulations in 1982/98 and 1997/98 are compared each other and are analyzed. The anomaly patterns of stream functions on winter in two El Nio years are simialr. The counterclockwise circulation occurred near the date line and the clockwise circulation was appeared near the Hwanam region and Alaska. These patterns are opposite to those of La Nia year, 1988/89. And the anomaly patterns of 500hPa geopotential height in summer are similar, too. The low temperature and much rain were dominated in summer of 1997/98. These phenomena is similar to the existing results of research, that temperature is low and precipitation is large in summer of El Nio years.

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21

Numerical Case Study of Heavy Rainfall Occurred in the Central Korean Peninsula on July 26-28, 1996

Kim, Young-Ah, Oh, Jai-Ho

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.26 No.1 1998 pp.15-29

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The numerical simulation of heavy precipitation event occurred in the central Korean Peninsula on July 26-28, 1996 was performed using the fine mesh model. ARPS (Advanced Regional Prediction System) developed by the CAPS (Center for Analysis and Prediction of Storms). Usually, the heavy rainfalls occurred at late July in the Korean Peninsula were difficult to predict, and showed very strong rainfall intensity. As results, they caused a great loss of life and property. As it usual, this case was unsuccessful to predict the location of rain band and the precipitation intensity with the coarse-mesh model. The same case was, however, simulated well with fine-mesh storm-scale model, ARPS. Moisture band at 850 hPa appeared along the Changma Front in the area of China through central Korea passed Yellow Sea. Also the low-level jet at 700 hPa existed in the Yellow Sea through central Korea and they together offered favorable condition to induce heavy rainfall in that area. The convective activities developed to a meso-scale convective system were observed at near the Yangtze River and moved to the central Korean Peninsula. Furthermore, the intrusion of warm and moist air, origninated from typhoon, into the Asia Continent might result in heavy rainfall formation through redistribution of moisture and heat. In the vertical circulation, the heavy rainfall was formed between the upper- and low-level jets, especially, the entrance region of the upper-level jet above the exit the region of the low-level jet. The low level convergence, the upper level divergence and the strong vertical wind were organized to the very north of the low level jet and concentrated on tens to hundreds km horizontal distance. These result represent the upper- and low-level jets are one of the most important reasons on the formation of heavy precipitation.

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20

Analysis of 2-Dimensional Shallow Water Equations Using Multigrid Method and Coordinate Transformation

Lee, Jong-Seol, Cho, Won-Cheol

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.26 No.1 1998 pp.1-14

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Various numerical methods for the two dimensional shallow water equations have been applied to the problems of flood routing, tidal circulation, storm surges, and atmospheric circulation. These methods are often based on the Alternating Direction Implicity(ADI) method. However, the ADI method results in inaccuracies for large time steps when dealing with a complex geometry or bathymetry. Since this method reduces the performance considerably, a fully implicit method developed by Wilders et al. (1998) is used to improve the accuracy for a large time step. Finite Difference Methods are defined on a rectangular grid. Two drawbacks of this type of grid are that grid refinement is not possibile locally and that the physical boundary is sometimes poorly represented by the numerical model boundary. Because of the second deficiency several purely numerical boundary effects can be involved. A boundary fitted curvilinear coordinate transformation is used to reduce these difficulties. It the curvilinear coordinate transformation is used to reduce these difficulties. If the coordinate transformation is orthogonal then the transformed shallow water equations are similar to the original equations. Therefore, an orthogonal coorinate transformation is used for defining coordinate system. A multigrid (MG) method is widely used to accelerate the convergence in the numerical methods. In this study, a technique using a MG method is proposed to reduce the computing time and to improve the accuracy for the orthogonal to reduce the computing time and to improve the accuracy for the orthogonal grid generation and the solutions of the shallow water equations.

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19

BIBLOGRAPHY OF GEODEST AND GEOPHYSICS IN KOREA (XXV)

La, Dail, Park, Changbom

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.83-94

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This is the bibliographical compilation of paper in the fields of geodesy and geophysics published in the Republic of Korea during July 1996 to June 1997. Materials were mainly collected from the following publications.

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18

Three-dimensional Numerical Prediction on the Evolution of Nocturnal Thermal High (Tropical Night) in a Basin

Choi, Hyo, Kim, Jeong-Woo

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.57-81

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Numerical prediction of nocturnal thermal high in summer of the 1995 near Taegu city located in a basin has been carried out by a non-hydrostatic numerical model over complex terrain through one-way double nesting technique in the Z following coordinate system. Under the prevailing westerly winds, vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and heat over mountains for daytime hours are quite strong with a large magnitude of more than $120W/\textrm{m}^2$, but a small one of $5W/\textrm{m}^2$ at the surface of the basin. Convective boundary layer (CBL) is developed with a thickness of about 600m over the ground in the lee side of Mt. Hyungje, and extends to the edge of inland at the interface of land sea in the east. Sensible heat flux near the surface of the top of the mountain is $50W/\textrm{m}^2$, but its flux in the basin is almost zero. Convergence of sensible heat flux occurs from the ground surface toward the atmosphere in the lower layer, causing the layer over the mountain to be warmed up, but no convergance of the flux over the basin results from the significant mixing of air within the CBL. As horizontal transport of sensible heat flux from the top of the mountain toward over the basin results in the continuous accumulation of heat with time, enhancing air temperature at the surface of the basin, especially Taegu city to be higher than $39.3^{\circ}C$. Since latent heat fluxes are $270W/\textrm{m}^2$ near the top of the mountain and $300W/\textrm{m}^2$ along the slope of the mountain and the basin, evaporation of water vapor from the surface of the basin is much higher than one from the mountain and then, horizontal transport of latent heat flux is from the basin toward the mountain, showing relative humidity of 65 to 75% over the mountain to be much greater than 50% to 55% in the basin. At night, sensible heat fluxes have negative values of $-120W/\textrm{m}^2$ along the slope near the top of the mountain and $-50W/\textrm{m}^2$ at the surface of the basin, which indicate gain of heat from the lower atmosphere. Nighttime radiative cooling produces a shallow nocturnal surface inversion layer with a thickness of about 100m, which is much lower than common surface inversion layer, and lifts extremely heated air masses for daytime hours, namely, a warm pool of $34^{\circ}C$ to be isolated over the ground surface in the basin. As heat transfer from the warm pool in the lower atmosphere toward the ground of the basin occurs, the air near the surface of the basin does not much cool down, resulting in the persistence of high temperature at night, called nocturnal thermal high or tropical night. High relative humidity of 75% is found at the surface of the basin under the moderate wind, while slightly low relative humidity of 60% is along the eastern slope of the high mountain, due to adiabatic heating by the srong downslope wind. Air temperature near the surface of the basin with high moisture in the evening does not get lower than that during the day and the high temperature produces nocturnal warming situation.

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17

Responses of the Plasmasphere to Impulsive Disturbance in the Magnetotail

Lee, Dong-Hun

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.47-56

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We present a theoretical study on how the plasmasphere responses to the sudden impulses in the magnetosphere. A mechanism on how Pi 2 pulsations are excited in the magnetosphere is also proposed. When impulsive disturbances associated with the substorm onset are assumed in the magnetotail, their propagation toward the sunward direction is investigated with a wave equation. The propagation speed undergoes serious variations owing to the existence of the plasmasphere, which results in various reflection and tunneling of traveling disturbances at the plasmapause. In order to examine the effect of the plasmapause on initial impulsive disturbances, we analytically solve the wave equation based on the model of reasonable Alfven speed profile. The exact solution shows that virtual resonant states exist inside the plasmaspheric cavity. We obtain the result that these unique modes strongly persist for arbitrary incoming impulses from the source in the magnetotail, which quantitatively corresponds to the signature of PI 2 pulsations.

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16

Photoelectron Production and Transport in the Upper Atmosphere

Kim, J-Hoon

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.35-46

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Theory and observations relating to the photoelectrons are reviewed. The photoelectrons play a very important role in the photochemistry and energetics of the upper atmosphere. It is a dominant heating source for the ambient electrons in the ionosphere. This paper covers the solar EUV flux calculation, local photoelectron production rates and the two-stream approximation of the photoelectron transport in the upper atmosphere. Some data are compiled and tabulated for reference.

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15

Seismic Tomography using Graph Theoretical Ray Tracing

Keehm, Young-Seuk, Baag, Chang-Eob, Lee, Jung-Mo

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.23-34

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Seismic tomography using the graph theoretical method of ray tracing is performed in two synthetic data sets with laterally varying velocity structures. The straight-ray tomography shows so poor results in imaging the laterally varying velocity structure that the ray-traced tomographic techniques should be used. Conventional ray tracing methods have serious drawbacks, i.e. problems of convergence and local minima, when they are applied to seismic tomography. The graph theretical method finds good approximated raypaths in rapidly varying media even in shadow zones, where shooting methods meet with convergence problems. The graph theoretical method ensures the globally minimal traveltime raypath while bending methods often cause local minima problems. Especially, the graph theoretical method is efficient in case that many sources and receivers exist, since it can find the traveltimes and corresponding raypaths to all receivers from a specific source at one time. Moreover, the algorithm of graph theoretical method is easily applicable to the ray tracing in anisotropic media, and even to the three dimensional case. Among the row-active inversion techniques, the conjugate gradient (CG) method is used because of fast convergence and high efficiency. The iterative sequence of the ray tracing by the graph theoretical method and the inversion by the CG method is an efficient and robust algorithm for seismic tomography in laterally varying velocity structures.

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14

GPS/Levelling Geoid of the Southern Korean Peninsula

Choi, Kwang-Sun, Lee, Jung-Mo

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.15-22

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The GPS/levelling geoid calculated from GPS survey that data at 123 bench marks represents an appropriate regional geoid of the southern Korean peninsula. The GPS/levelling geoid fits best to the geoid calculated from the EGM96 geopotential model of degree and order to 360 with RMS difference 0.176 m. The good agreement of the GPS/levelling geoid with the EGM96 geoid suggests that the bench mark network is well established in Korea and the EGM96 geopotential model well represents the gravity field in the southern Korean peninsula.

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13

PNU95 Geoid

Park, Kwang-Sun, Kim, Jeong-Hee, Yang, Chul-Soo

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.25 No.1 1997 pp.1-13

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This paper presents a precise geoid (PNU95 Geoid) over the southern half of the Korean peninsula. The geoid using the OSU91A reference gravity model to degree and order of 167 with an integration radius of 27 km fits to the well-distributed 71 GPS data best. The RMS difference between the modeled geoid and the GPS/leveling-implied geoid is 0.15 m, and its accuracy with respect to the GPS/leveling distance is 1.1 ppm. The resulting PNU95 Geoid varies from 21.8 m at the western part of the peninsula, Kanghwa-Do, to 30.2 m at the south-eastern part. Kyungju, generally increasing eastward.

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12

Diurnal Variation of Atomospheric Pollutant Concentrations Affected by Development of Windstorms along the Lee Side of Coastal Mountain Area

Choi, Hyo

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.24 No.1 1996 pp.29-45

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Before (March 26, 1994) or after the occurrence of a downslope windstorm (March 29), the NO, $NO_2$, and $SO_2$ at the ground level of Kangnung city were monitored with high concentrations in the afternoon, due to a large amount of gases emitted from combustion of motor vehicle and heating apparatus, especially near 1600-1800 LST and 2000-2100 LST, but at night, they had low concentrations, resulting from small consumptions of vehicle and heating fuels. When both moderate westerly synoptic-scale winds flow over Mt. Taegwallyang and easterly meso-scale sea breeze during the day, atmospheric pollutants should be trapped by two different wind systems, resulting in higher concentration at Kangnung city in the afternoon. At night, the association of westerly synoptic wind and land breeze can produce relatively strong winds and the dissipation by the winds cause these low concentrations to lower and lower, as nightime goes on. From March 27 through 28, an enforced localized windstorm could be produced along the lee side of the mountain near Kangnung, generating westerly internal gravity waves with hydraulic jump motions. Sea breeze toward inland appartantly confines to the bottom of the eastern side of the mountain, due to the interruption of eastward violent internal gravity waves. As the windstorm moves down toward the ground, an encountering point of two opposite winds approaches Kangnung, and a great amount of NO and $NO_2$ were removed by the strong surface winds. Thus, their maximum concentrations are found to be near 18 and 20 LST, 17 and 21 LST. In the nighttime, the more developed storm should produce very strong surface winds and the NO and $NO_2$ could be easily dissipated into other place. The $SO_2$ concentration had no maximum value, that is, almost constant one all day long, due to its removal by the strong surface winds. Especially, the CO concentrations were slightly lower during the strom period than both before or after the strom, but they were nearly constant without much changes during the during the daytime and nighttime.

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11

Stratospheric Ozone Observations in Korea

Cho, Hi-Ku, Kim, Joon, Chung, Sung-Rae

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.24 No.1 1996 pp.19-27

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The ozone layer monitoring program of the Global Environment Laboratory at Yonsei University in Seoul, established as one of the Global Ozone Observing System($GO_3OS$) of the World Meteorological Organization(WMO), has been carried out daily by measuring total ozone and its vertical distribution using a Dobson Ozone Spectrophotometer(Beck #124) since 1984. In this paper, we review the organization and the historical background of ozone measurements in Korea, describe data acquisition and analysis systems, and briefly summarize the results from our ozone observations.

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10

A Linear Theory of MHD Stability in the Geomagnetotail

Lee, Dae-Young

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.24 No.1 1996 pp.11-18

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A stability analysis in the geomagentotail is presented within MHD limit with a modified form ideal Ohm's law. Using the high ky approximation (ballooning limit), we derive the basic eigenmode equations which can be reduced to the ideal MHD limit. The incompressible limit is numerically solved for a number of model equilibria of tail by Kan [1973], and we have found no unstable Kan equilibrium. Also, an analytic theory is carried out for the case where Bkc is assumed to be constant along the field line, following the idea by Lee and Min [1996]. In that case, it is suggested that the tail stability to the incompressible antisymmetric mode is determined by the ideal MHD.

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9

Bathymetry and Morphotectonic Elements in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea of Korea

Suk, Bong-Chool, Anosov, G.I., Semakin, V.P., Svarichevsky, A.S.

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.24 No.1 1996 pp.1-10

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A detailed bathymetric map is used to construct a morphotectonic map of the Ulleung Basin. The definition of "morphotectonics" and the procedure of the morphotectonic mapping are described in detail. The morphotectonic structural elements of various orders and ranks are also determined using echo-sounding and other geophysical data. Preliminary analysis shows that the newly determined morpho-structural elements coincide with the locations of deeper tectonic features established by the geophysical evidences of the inner sedimentary and/or crustal sections. Therefore, the tectonic zone of the Ulleung Basin has imprinted the patterns of the inherited evolution since Neogene.e Neogene.

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8

BIBLOGRAPHY OF GEODEST AND GEOPHYSICS IN KOREA (XXI)

Kang, In-Joon, Chang, Yong-Ku, Park, Ki-Tae

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.23 No.1 1995 pp.52-65

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This is the bibliographical compilation of papers in the fields of geodesy and geophysics published in the Republic of Korea during July 1994 to June 1995. Materials were mainly collected from the following publications.

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7

Applications of the Sediment-Transport Path Model to the Tidal Flats of Garolim Bay, West Coast of Korea

Shin, Dong-Hyeok, Yi, Hi-Il, Han, Sang-Joon, Oh, Jae-Kyung, Woo, Joong-Sun

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.23 No.1 1995 pp.39-51

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Bidirectional transport trend using the sediment-transport path model was identified in the two areas, sand ridge area and tidal mudflat in Garolim Bay, which is located in the mid-western coast of Korean Peninsular. This model exhibits the two-dimensional view of clear sediment transport trend based on data of changes in sediment statistics such as mean, sorting, and skewness, Garolim Bay was selected to test for the sediment-transport path model developed by McLaren and Bowles [1985]. Line-S, a typical tidal mudflat and representative of the Garolim Bay tidal flats, is well tested by this model, showing a clear seasonal change and coarsening-trend seaward (case C). This indicates that strong ebb currents carried relatively coarser sediments seaward with respect to high energy regime. Seasonally, this energy regime slowly decreases toward the summer in contrast with an increase of energy regime of flood tides, carrying coarser sediments landward (case C) in the summer. However, the Line-D area does not show consistent transport trend with respect to time-series. Separated and scattered events show fining trend landward (case B) in the sand ridge itself. The finining-trend (case B) either seaward and landward is not chiefly important in both the entire Line-D area and sand ridge itself. Also, the coarsening-Trend (case C) landward is not significant in the sand ridge itself. Consequently, in reality, the selection of suitable and representative locations are very important to fit with this model.

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6

Development Mechanisms of Summertime Air Mass Thunderstorms Occurring in the Middle Region of South Korea

Kim, K.E., Heo, B.H., Lee, H.R., Min, K.D.

[Kisti 연계] IUGG한국위원회 Korean journal of geophysical research Vol.23 No.1 1995 pp.34-38

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A diagnostic study on the summertime air mass thunderstorms occurring in the middle region of South Korea was made by analyzing the data of surface and upper air observations as well as the surface and upper level weather charts. The key parameters used in the present study are the amount of precipitable water below 850 hPa level, the vertical profiles of water vapor content and wind, and both the temperature difference and the equivalent potential temperature difference between 850 hPa and 700 hPa levels. It is found from this study that the summertime air mass thunderstorms in the middle region of South Korea can be classified into two distinct types, type I and type II. The thunderstorms of type I occur under the atmospheric conditions of high moisture content, low vertical wind shear in low levels, and conditional instability between 850 hPa and 700 hPa levels. On the other hand, the thunderstorms of type II occur under the atmospheric conditions of less moisture content, higher wind shear and conditional instability. Furthermore, our study suggests that atmospheric instability and the amount of water vapor below 850 hPa level are complementary in the development of air mass thunderstorms. The complementary nature between these two parameters may be an explanation for the thunderstorm development in the areas of low atmospheric water vapor content such as the plains of eastern Colorado.

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