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Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology

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81

Fluorometric Analysis of Transient Gene Expression in Broccoli Seedlings

Shin, Dong-Il, Park, Hee-Sung

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.192-194

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80

Structures of Conopressin-G and -S

Yong, Yeon-Joong, Lee, Eun-Jung, Lim, Yoong-Ho

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.189-191

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79

Structure in Solution of Diploptera punctata Allatostatin-2

Yang, Hee-Jung, Young, Jung-Mo, Lee, Eun-Jung, Lim, Yoong-Ho

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.186-188

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78

Analysis of Fragrance Volatiles of Korean Rosa hybrida Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Cho, Yong-Sik, Cho, In-Hee, Park, Hong-Ju, Chun, Hye-Kyung

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.180-185

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Two different extraction procedures, SDE and SPME, were employed to determine a comprehensive and efficient fragrance profile of Korean Rosa hybrida. Both extraction methods could compensate for each other, covering compounds with diverse boiling point, polarities, and chemical properties. A total of 46 compounds were identified in Mi-hyang. The identified compounds were composed of 17 alcohols, 14 carbonyls, 7 aliphatic hydrocarbons, 2 terpene hydrocarbons, 4 benzenes, 1 ester, and 1 miscellaneous compound. Quantitatively, carbonyls($12.96{\sim}21.79%$ in essential oils of SDE and $2.89{\sim}8.44%$ in SPME headspace) and alcohols($7.98{\sim}11.73%$ in essential oils of SDE and $3.39{\sim}17.35%$ in SPME headspace) were dominant in Mi-hyang's volatiles.

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77

Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Microbial Growth and Qualities in Astragalus membranaceus

Jin, You-Young, Shin, Hee-Young, Ku, Kyoing-Ju, Song, Kyung-Bin

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.176-179

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Electron beam irradiation was applied to examine the microbial growth and qualities of vacuum-packaged Astragalus membranaceus, a Korean medicinal herb. Samples were irradiated at dose of 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16 kGy, respectively. Microbiological data on A. membranaceus showed that populations of total bacteria, yeast and mold, total coliforms were significantly reduced with increase of irradiation dose. Populations of microorganisms in A. membranaceus were decreased by 2-3 log cycles at 8 kGy irradiation. Color measurements showed that electron beam treatment caused negligible changes in Hunter color L, a, and b values of A. membranaceus. Sensory evaluations showed that there were no significant changes among the samples. These results suggest that electron beam irradiated A. membranaceus have better microbial safety and qualities, compared with the non-irradiated control.

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76

Suppression of Clubroot Formation in Chinese Cabbage by the Chitin Compost and Broth

Jin Rong De, Han Tae-o, Kim Yong-oong, Kim Kil-ong

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.171-175

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Chitin compost and broth were used to suppress club root. Individual cabbage seedlings were transplanted into pots(3500 ml) containing a mixture of 3% chitin compost and 50 ml of chitin broth (T1) or the same quantity control compost and control compost broth(T2). The media in each pot was then infected with Plasmodiophora brassicae. Samples were taken at 6, 7 and 8 weeks after transplanting. The population of chitinase producing bacteria in T1 was consistently larger than that observed in T2. Chitinase activity in the T1 rhizosphere was two-fold greater than that of T2 at each time point observed. Shoot dry weight, leaf number and leaf area in T1 were enhanced 20%, 10% and 12% relative to those seen in T2, respectively. The disease index and root mortality at 8 weeks after transplanting were reduced by 50% and 25% in T1 compared to T2, respectively. Results presented in this study are strongly indicative that chitin compost and broth suppress clubroot in Chinese cabbage.

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75

Antifungal and Antioxidative Activities of Yucca smallina Fern

Jin, Yu-Lan, Jung, Woo-Jin, Kuk, Ju-Hee, Kim, Jung-Bong, Kim, Kil-Yong, Park, Ro-Dong

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.165-170

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The antifungal activity of crude methanolic extract and fractions from Yucca smalliana Fern. leaves, roots and flowers were investigated in vitro against a panel of plant pathogenic fungi. The minimal inhibitory concentration(MIC) was determined by an agar dilution method. Preliminary liquid culture and agar plate assays showed that the growth of Fu sarium oxysporum, Phytophthora capsici, Rhizoctonia solani and Botrytis cinerea were inhibited by Y. smalliana extracts. The extracts from flowers and leaves showed antifungal activity of 64.0% and 34.0% against F. oxysporum, 66.0% and 62.0% against P. capsici, and 27.0% and 41.0% against B. cinerea, respectively. The methanolic extract from Y. smallina leaves in distilled water was fractionated using solvents of increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate and butanol. These fractions had a broad spectrum of antifungal activity, found to reside entirely in the butanol and aqueous fraction. The aqueous fraction showed inhibition rate of 60.0, 67.8, 84.6 and 58.3% against F. oxysporum, R. solani, C. gloeosporioides, and B. cinerea, respectively, and the butganol fracgtion showed 36.0, 46.0, 66.1 and 58.3%, respectively. Phenolics(e.g. flavonoids, steroids and terpenoids) were observed in the thin layer profile of the different fractions. Leave extract showed a prominent antioxidant activity totally scavenging the free radical of DPPH at a concentration of 1 mg/ml.

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74

[ $\alpha$ ]-Glucosidase Inhibitors from the Roots of Codonopsis lanceolata Trautv

Jung, Suk-Whan, Han, Ae-Jin, Hong, Hae-Jin, Choung, Myoung-Gun, Kim, Kwan-Su, Park, Si-Hyung

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.162-164

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The roots of Codonopsis lanceolata afforded tangshenoside I(1) and $\beta$-adenosine (2) as $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitors. Their structures were unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR data including HMQC and HMBC experiments. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited weak $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activities in vitro with $IC_{50}$ of 1.4 and 9.3 mM, respectively.

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73

Abiotic Degradation Degradation of the Herbicide Oxadiazon in Water

Rahman Md. Mokhlesur, Park, Jong-Woo, Park, Man, Rhee In-Koo, Kim, Jang-Eok

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.157-161

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The performance of abiotic degradation of oxadiazon was investigated by applying zerovalent iron(ZVI), potassium permanganate($KMnO_4$) and titanium dioxide($TiO_2$) in the contaminated water. Experimental conditions allowed the disappearance of oxadiazon in the abiotic system. The degradation of this herbicide was monitored in buffer solutions having pH 3, 5 and 7 in the presence of iron powder in which the maximum degradation rate was achieved at acidic condition(pH 3) by 2% of ZVI treatment. The oxidative degradation of oxadiazon was observed in aqueous solution by $KMnO_4$ at pH 3, 7 and 10 in which the highest disappearance rate was found at neutral pH when treated with 2% of $KMnO_4$. The catalytic degradation of oxadiazon in $TiO_2$ suspension was obtained under dark and UV irradiation conditions. UV irradiation enhanced the degradation of oxadiazon in aquatic system in the presence of $TiO_2$. Conclusively, the remediation strategy using these abiotic reagents could be applied to remove oxadiazon from the contaminated water.

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72

Analysis of Ash and Trace Metals in Korean Native Bee Honey

Kim, Seok-Chang, Lee, Jong-Tae, Park, Chae-Kyu, Shim, Sang-Kwon, Han, Sang-Bae, Kwak, Yi-Seong, Whang, Mi-Sun, Won, Jun-Yeon

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.154-156

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Trace metals in honey have an influence on the taste of honey along with pollens. Western bee honeys, which are mostly collected from acacia, have less than 0.1% of ash. Savor of Korean native-bee honey is thought to be due to the difference of the contents of trace metals. Korean native-bee honeys collected from Jirisan District, which is the greatest producing area of native-bee honey in Korea, showed high contents of ash. Korean native-bee honeys from the districts other than Jirisan District also showed similar results($0.44{\sim}0.83%$ of ash) to those from Jirisan District. Potassium was found to be the principal factor of high content of ash with over 85% of trace metals in ash.

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71

Auxin Induced Expression of Expansin is Alered in a New Aux1 Allele that Shows Severe Defect in Gravitropic Response

Jeong, Hae-Jun, Kwon, Ye-Rim, Oh, Jee-Eun, Kim, Ki-Deok, Lee, Sung-Joon, Hong, Suk-Whan, Lee, Ho-Joung

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.148-153

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While the underlying molecular mechanism remains to be elucidated, recent studies suggest that polar auxin transport is a key controlling factor in triggering differential growth responses to gravity. Identification of regulatory components in auxin-mediated differential cell expansion would improve our understanding of the gravitropic response. In this study, we identify a mutant designated aux1-like(later changed to aux1), an allele of the aux1 mutant that exhibits a severely disrupted root gravitropic response, but no defects in developmental processes. In Arabidopsis, AUX1 encodes an auxin influx carrier. Since in-depth characterization of the gravitropic response caused by mutations in this gene has been performed previously, we focused on identifying the downstream genes that were differentially expressed compared to wild-type plants. Consistent with the mutant phenotype, the transcription of the auxin-responsive genes IAA17 and GH3 were altered in aux1 plants treated with IAA, 2, 4-D and NAA. In addition, we identified two expansin genes EXP10 and EXPL3 that exhibited different expression in wild-type and mutant plants.

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70

A Rapid PCR-based Assay for Detecting Hepatitis B Viral DNA Using GenSpector TMC-1000

Huh, Bum, Ha, Young-Ju, Oh, Jae-Tak, Park, Eun-Ha, Park, Jin-Su, Park, Hae-Joon

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.143-147

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A rapid PCR-based assay for detecting hepatitis B viral DNA(HBV DNA) in serum and plasma was developed using a new PCR instrument named GenSpector(TMC-1000, Samsung electronics). PCR was carried out using a chip-based platform, which enabled 50 PCR cycles with internal controls, and melting-curve analysis in 30 minutes. Verification of the amplified HBV DNA product and the internal control was based on specific melting temperatures(Tm) analysis, executed by the GenSpector software. Primers were designed within the region conserved through HBV genotypes A to F. The lower limit of detection was 840 copies/ml serum, conducted with serial dilutions of a HBV DNA positive control(ACCURUN 325 series 700, Boston Biomedica Inc.). The assay was also compared to another assay for HBV DNA(Versant HBV DNA 3.0 assay, Bayer HealthCare) for 200 samples(each 100 clinical negative and positive samples). The sensitivity and specificity were 100% matched. This rapid PCR-based assay is specific, reproducible, and enables qualitative detection of HBV DNA.

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69

Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Cytotoxic Effects of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. Bark in vitro

Qu, Guan-Zheng, Lee, Sung-Hyun, Wang, Myeong-Hyeon

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.140-142

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The aim of this study is to investigate in vitro biological properties of Eucommia ulmoides Oliv. bark. Ethyl acetate(EtOAc) fraction from aqueous extract of Eucommia bark showed strong antioxidant activity of $IC_{50}$ 19.2 ${\mu}g/ml$ by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical-scavenging assay. The Eucommia bark extract showed $\alpha$-glucosidase inhibitory activity and inhibited growth of human liver cancer cell, suggesting its potential biological value of anticancer.

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68

Production and Characterization of an Alkaline Protease from Bacillus licheniformis MH31

Yu, Jeong-Hyeon, Jin, Hyun-Seok, Choi, Woo-Young, Yoon, Min-Ho

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.135-139

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A alkalophilic strain, Bacillus licheniformis MH31 producing an alkaline protease was isolated from mine soil of Boryeong in Korea. Production of a high level of alkaline protease was achieved 42 h after incubation when the bacterium was grown at pH 9.0 and $35^{\circ}C$ in Horikoshi medium supplemented with 0.5%(w/v) starch and 1%(w/v) skim milk as carbon and nitrogen source, respectively. The molecular weight of partially purified enzyme was estimated to be 30 kDa by SDS-PAGE and its optimum pH was pH 10. The enzyme showed optimum temperature at $50^{\circ}C$, and was stable up to $60^{\circ}C$ after 1 h incubation. The protease was strongly inhibited by 1 mM of PMSF which was known well as strong inhibitor of serine proteases, but almost not inhibited by 5 mM of EDTA and 1,10-phenanthroline. When the protein hydrolysis products of 1% skim milk by partially purified protease was compared with available commercial proteases using HPLC analysis, most of hydrolysis products were detected below molecular weight of 10,000 and the hydrolysis ratio of purified enzyme was 24.8% lower than those(above 32%) of commercial proteases.

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67

In vitro Anti-fungal Activity of Various Hydroxylated Fatty Acids Bioconverted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa PR3

Bajpai Vivek K., Kim, Hak-Ryul, Kang, Sun-Chul

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.131-134

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The in vitro anti-fungal activity of hydroxylated fatty acids obtained from microbial conversion by Psuedomonas aeruginosa PR3 using ricinoleic acid(RA), eicosadienoic acid(EDA) and conjugated linoleic acid(CLA) as substrates, was investigated. Bioconverted hydroxylated fatty acids showed different anti-fungal activities potentials against the range of phytopathogenic fungi such as Botrytis cinerea, Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotonia sclerotiorum, Colletotricum capsici, Fusarium solani and Phytophthora capsici. RA and EDA showed up to 50% fungal mycelial inhibition at the concentration of $5{\mu}l\;ml^{-1}$. RA, EDA and CLA also exhibited anti-fungal activities with minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC), ranging from 500 to $1000{\mu}g\;ml^{-1}$. Screening was also carried out using varied concentrations of bioconverted RA and EDA for determining the anti-fungal effect on the spore germination of different fungi. Bioconverted RA and EDA showed a considerable degree of spore germination inhibition.

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66

Properties of Oriental Melon Wine Developed by Utilizing Rice Wine Fermentation Method

Kim, Tae-Young, Kim, Sang-Bum, Kim, Jin-Sook, Lee, Sang-Ho

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.4 2006 pp.125-130

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In order to utilize non-commercial melon as alcoholic beverage material, in this study the optimum fermentation method and manufacture conditions were investigated and thereafter the properties of final product were determined. As for melon wine made with only melon juice, sensorial properties, particularly flavor, were not acceptable as alcoholic beverage. To improve the lack of melon wine, we made mash with cooked rice and Nuruk, and then added melon juice during fermentation. Acceptable sensorial properties were obtained in melon wine when 30% extract juice of oriental melon was added after 4 day of fermentation. The alcoholic beverage added melon juice showed much higher yellowness value than that without melon juice indicating that a clear yellow color similar to melon was actually observed in final product. Adding melon juice led little changes in amount and composition of free sugars, organic acids and amino acids and could improve sensorial properties.

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65

Production of 5,7-dihydroxy, 3',4',5'-trimethoxyflavone from 5,7,3',4',5'-Pentahydroxyflavone Using two O-methyltransferases Expressed in Escherichia coli

Kim, Jeong-Ho, Kim, Bong-Gyu, Park, Young-Hee, Han, Jin-Hee, Lim, Yoong-Ho, Ahn, Joong-Hoon

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.3 2006 pp.114-116

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64

Prolyl Endopeptidase Inhibitory Activity of 6-O-Palmitoyl L-Ascorbic Acid

Park, Yoon-Seok, Paik, Young-Sook

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.3 2006 pp.110-113

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Prolyl endopeptidase (PEP, EC 3.4.21.26, also referred to as prolyl oligopeptidase) degrades proline containing, biologically active neuropeptides such as vasopressin, substance P and thyrotropin-releasing hormone by cleaving peptide bonds on carboxyl side of prolyl residue within neuropeptides of less than 30 amino acids. Evaluation of PEP levels in postmortem brains of Alzheimer's disease patients revealed significant increases in PEP activity. Therefore, a specific PEP inhibitor can be a good candidate of drug against memory loss. Upon our examination for PEP inhibitory activity from micronutrients, ascorbic acid (vitamin C) showed small but significant PEP inhibition (13% PEP inhibition at $8{\mu}g{\cdot}ml^{-1}$). Palmitic acid showed almost no PEP inhibition. However, 6-O-palmitoyl ascorbic acid ($\underline{1}$) showed 70% PEP inhibition at $8{\mu}g{\cdot}ml^{-1}$ indicating that hydrophobic portion of the compound $\underline{1}$ may facilitate the inhibitory effect. $IC_{50}$ value of compound $\underline{1}$ was $12.6{\pm}0.2{\mu}M$. The primary and secondary Lineweaver Burk and Dixon plots for compound $\underline{1}$ indicated that it is a non-competitive inhibitor with inhibition constant (Ki) value of $23.7{\mu}M$.

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63

Enhanced Production of L-Aspartate ${\beta}-Decarboxylase$ by Nitrogen Source in Pseudomonas dacunhae

Kim, Dong-Chung, Lee, Sung-Dong, In, Man-Jin

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.3 2006 pp.106-109

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Improvement of L-asparate ${\beta}-decarboxylase$ production from Pseudomonas dacunhae ATCC 21192 was attempted by optimizing fermentation conditions. Optimum carbon and nitrogen sources for cell growth and enzyme production were determined. L-Glutamate (2%) was the most suitable carbon source, and D-glucose, D-glycerol and fumarate repressed enzyme production. Yeast extract (2%) was the most effective as nitrogen source. A slight change of pH to 6.5 from medium pH resulted in a meaningful increase in the production of enzyme. The production of the enzyme was highly improved by using 2% yeast extract and 2% L-glutamate in culture media. Maximum L-asparate ${\beta}-decarboxylase$ activity reached up to over 24 U/mL-broth by 15 h flask fermentation.

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62

Degradation of the Herbicide Butachlor by Laboratory-synthesized Nanoscale $Fe^0$ in Batch Experiments

Kim, Hyang-Yeon, Kim, In-Kyung, Han, Tae-Ho, Shim, Jae-Han, Kim, In-Seon

[Kisti 연계] 한국응용생명화학회 Agricultural chemistry & biotechnology Vol.49 No.3 2006 pp.101-105

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Degradation of the herbicide butachlor was investigated using laboratory-synthesized zerovalent iron ($Fe^0$). The synthesized zerovalent iron was determined to be nanoscale powder by scanning electron microscopic analysis. To investigate degradation of butachlor using the synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron, time-course batch experiments were conducted by treating the solution of butachlor formulation with the iron. More than 90% degradation of butachlor was observed by iron treatment within 24 h. The synthesized nanoscale zerovalent iron showed an increase in particle aggregation in the batch tests. Green rust formation and a pH drop in solutions were observed, suggesting that the oxidation of the iron occurred. When the iron was extracted with dichloromethane, a negligible concentration was found in the extract, suggesting that butachlor did not bind to the iron particles. GC/MS analysis detected the dechlorinated product as a major degradation product of butachlor in the solutions. The data indicate that laboratory-synthesized zerovalent iron functioned as a reductant to remove electron-withdrawing chlorine, giving the dechlorinated product.

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