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## Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials

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자료건수 (79건)
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79

Influence of Biaxial Loads on Impact Fracture of High-Strength Membrane Materials

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.395-413

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78

Centrifugal Infiltration Process of Fibrous Tubular Preform by Al-Cu Alloy

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.381-394

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The kinetics of centrifugal infiltration of fibrous tubular preform is built theoretically, and simulations are conducted to study the effects of various casting conditions on infiltration kinetics and macrosegregation by combining with the energy, mass and kinetic equations. A similarity way is used to simplify the one-dimensional model and the parameter is ascertained by an iterative method. The results indicate that the increase of superheat, initial preform temperature, porosity tends to enlarge the remelting region and decrease copper solute concentration at the infiltration front. Higher angular velocity leads to smaller remelting region and solute concentration at the tip. The pressure in the infiltrated region increase significantly when the angular velocity is much higher, which requires a stronger preform. It is observed that the pressure distribution is mainly determined by the angular velocity, and the macrosegregation in the centrifugal casting is greatly dependent on the superheat of inlet metal matrix, initial temperature and porosity of the preform, and the angular velocity.

77

Hybrid Nanocomposites: Processing and Properties

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.365-379

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Epoxy/S2-glass reinforced composites (SGRPs) infused with Cloisite 30B nanoclays were manufactured using the vacuum assisted resin infusion molding (VARIM) process. Prior to infusion, the matrix and clays were thoroughly mixed using a direct mixing technique (DMT) and a high shear mixing technique (HSMT) to ensure uniform dispersion of the nanoclays. Structures with varying clay contents (1-3 wt%) were manufactured. Both pristine and SGRP nanocomposites were then subjected to mechanical testing. For the specimens manufactured by DMT, the tensile, flexural, and compressive modulus increased with increasing the clay content. Similarly, the tensile, flexural, compressive, interlaminate shear and impact strength increased with the addition of 1 wt% clay: however the trend reversed with further increase in the clay content. Specimens manufactured by HSMT showed superior properties compared to those of nanocomposites containing 1 wt% clay produced by DMT. In order to understand these phenomena a morphological study was conducted. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) micrographs revealed that HSMT led to better dispersion and changed the nanoclay structure from orderly intercalation to disorderly intercalation giving multi-directional strength.

76

The Thermal Stability and Elevated Temperature Mechanical Properties of Spray-Deposited $SiC_P$/Al-11.7Fe-1.3V-1.7Si Composite

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.351-364

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The thermal stability and elevated temperature mechanical properties of $SiC_P$/Al-11.7Fe-1.3V-1.7Si (Al-11.7Fe-1.3V-1.7Si reinforced with SiC particulates) composites sheets prepared by spray deposition (SD) $\rightarrow$ hot pressing $\rightarrow$ rolling process were investigated. The experimental results showed that the composite possessed high ${\sigma}_b$ (elevated temperature tensile strength), for instance, ${\sigma}_b$ was 315.8 MPa, which was tested at $315^{\circ}C$, meanwhile the figure was 232.6 MPa tested at $400^{\circ}C$, and the elongations were 2.5% and 1.4%, respectively. Furthermore, the composite sheets exhibited excellent thermal stability: the hardness showed no significant decline after annealing at $550^{\circ}C$ for 200 h or at $600^{\circ}C$ for 10 h. The good elevated temperature mechanical properties and excellent thermal stability should mainly be attributed to the formation of spherical ${\alpha}-Al_{12}(Fe,\;V)_3Si$ dispersed phase particulates in the aluminum matrix. Furthermore, the addition of SiC particles into the alloy is another important factor, which the following properties are responsible for. The resultant Si of the reaction between Al matrix and SiC particles diffused into Al matrix can stabilize ${\alpha}-Al_{12}(Fe,\;V)_3Si$ dispersed phase; in addition, the interface (Si layer) improved the wettability of Al/$SiC_P$, hence, elevated the bonding between them. Furthermore, the fine $Al_4C_3$ phase also strengthened the matrix as a dispersion-strengthened phase. Meanwhile, load is transferred from Al matrix to SiC particles, which increased the cooling rate of the melt droplets and improved the solution strengthening and dispersion strengthening.

75

Thermostability of Monolithic and Reinforced Al-Fe-V-Si Materials

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.339-350

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Al-Fe-V-Si alloys reinforced with SiC particles were prepared by multi-layer spray deposition technique. Both microstructures and mechanical properties including hardness and tensile properties development during hot exposure process of Al-8.5Fe-1.3V-1.7Si, Al-8.5Fe-1.3V-1.7Si/15 vol% $SiC_P$ and Al-10.0Fe-1.3V-2Si/15 vol% $SiC_P$ were investigated. The experimental results showed that an amorphous interface of about 3 nm in thickness formed between SiC particles and the matrix. SiC particles injected silicon into the matrix; thus an elevated silicon concentration was found around $\alpha-Al_{12}(Fe,\;V)_3Si$ dispersoids, which subsequently inhibited the coarsening and decomposition of $\alpha-Al_{12}(Fe,\;V)_3Si$ dispersoids and enhanced the thermostability of the alloy matrix. Moreover, the thermostability of microstructure and mechanical properties of Al-10.0Fe-1.3V-2Si/15 vol% $SiC_P$ are of higher quality than those of Al-8.5Fe-1.3V-1.7Si/15 vol% $SiC_P$.

74

Design and Performance Evaluation of Mini-Lightweight Piezo-Composite Actuators

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.327-338

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In this paper, through an evaluation process conducted on several designs of mini-LIPCA (Lightweight Piezo-Composite curved Actuator), an optimal design of a mini-LIPCA has been proposed. Comparing with the LIPCA-C2, the design of the mini-LIPCA comes with reduced overall size and a thinner active layer. Since a variation in the number and lay-up of fiber composite layers may strongly affect the performance of the device, one is able to configure several designs of mini-LIPCA. The evaluation process is then followed in order to determine a configuration which characterizes the possibly optimal performance. That is, a design of a mini-LIPCA is said to be optimal if it is capable of producing a maximum out-of-plane displacement. The size of the LIPCA to be investigated was selected to be $10\;mm\;{\times}\;20\;mm$ in which the thickness of PZT plate is about 0.1 mm. The thickness of glass/epoxy and carbon/epoxy are about 0.09 mm and 0.1 mm, respectively. The evaluation process has been conducted thoroughly, i.e., analytical estimation, numerical approximation and the experimental measurement are all involved. Firstly, the design equation was used to calculate essential parameters of proposed lay-up configurations. Secondly, ANSYS, a commercial FEA package, was utilized to estimate displacement outputs of the actuators upon being excited. Finally, experimental measurements were able to verify the predicted results.

73

Synthesis of Needle-Like Aragonite Crystals in the Presence of Magnesium Chloride and Their Application in Papermaking

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.315-326

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PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) and ground calcium carbonate have been widely used in alkaline papermaking. Unfortunately, although increasing filler level in papers can improve the paper properties such as brightness, opacity, stiffness gloss, smoothness, porosity, and printability, as well as decrease cost, some strength of the paper is negatively affected. In this research, needle-like aragonite was synthesized using $Ca(OH)_2$ and $CO_2$ as reactants in the presence of $MgCl_2$ and characterized with scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The physical and optical properties of the paper handsheets containing these needle-like aragonite fillers were evaluated. Results indicated that tensile strength, Z-direction tensile strength and folding endurance of the paper were improved by the needle-like aragonite crystals compared to the paper using commercial PCC (precipitated calcium carbonate) as filler. The stiffness of the paper handsheet on the machine direction was increased, but no evident difference in the cross direction was found. The improvement of paper strength mainly resulted from the twining effect between the aragonite whiskers and paper fibers. The optical properties of the paper were slightly decreased with the use of the needle-like aragonites compared to commercial PCC. These results suggest that paper cost can be decreased by increasing the content of needle-like aragonite filler while paper strength will not be decreased compared to PCC filler.

72

Discrete Optimization for Vibration Design of Composite Plates by Using Lamination Parameters

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.4 2009 pp.297-314

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A design method is proposed to optimize the stacking sequence of laminated composite plates for desired vibration characteristics. The objective functions are the natural frequencies of the laminated plates, and three types of optimization problems are studied where the fundamental frequency and the difference of two adjacent frequencies are maximized, and the difference between the target and actual frequencies is minimized. The design variables are a set of discrete values of fiber orientation angles with prescribed increment in the layers of the plates. The four lamination parameters are used to describe the bending property of a symmetrically laminated plate, and are optimized by a gradient method in the first stage. A new technique is introduced in the second stage to convert from the optimum four lamination parameters into the stacking sequence that is composed of the optimum fiber orientation angles of all the layers. Plates are divided into sub-domains composed of the small number of layers and designed sequentially from outer domains. For each domain, the optimum angles are determined by minimizing the errors between the optimum lamination parameters obtained in the first step and the parameters for all possible discrete stacking sequence designs. It is shown in numerical examples that this design method can provide with accurate optimum solutions for the stacking sequence of vibrating composite plates with various boundary conditions.

71

Bending and Compressive Properties of Crystallized TCP/PLLA Composites

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.287-295

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$\beta$-Tricalcium phosphate ($\beta$-TCP) particles reinforced bioresorbable plastics poly-L-lactide (PLLA) composites were prepared by injection molding. The nominal weight ratio of $\beta$-TCP was selected as 5, 10 and 15%. In order to clarify effects of the PLLA crystallinity on the mechanical properties, the specimens were heat treated isothermally. Results of differential scanning calorimetry indicated that the PLLA crystallinity increased with increasing heat treatment temperature. Bending and compressive tests were conducted on the specimen with different $\beta$-TCP contents and crystallinities. The results show that the bending and compressive moduli increased with increasing $\beta$-TCP contents and crystallinity. On the other hand, bending strength decreased with increasing $\beta$-TCP contents. Maximum bending strength was obtained at the heat treatment of $70^{\circ}C$ for 24 h, whereas compressive 0.2% proof strength increased with increasing heat treatment temperature. This difference is attributed to the difference in the microscopic damages.

70

Tension-Compression Asymmetry in the Off-Axis Nonlinear Rate-Dependent Behavior of a Unidirectional Carbon/Epoxy Laminate at High Temperature and Incorporation into Viscoplasticity Modeling

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.265-285

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Off-axis compressive deformation behavior of a unidirectional CFRP laminate at high temperature and its strain-rate dependence in a quasi-static range are examined for various fiber orientations. By comparing the off-axis compressive and tensile behaviors at an equal strain rate, the effect of different loading modes on the flow stress level, rate-dependence and nonlinearity of the off-axis inelastic deformation is elucidated. The experimental results indicate that the compressive flow stress levels for relatively larger off-axis angles of $30^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$ and $90^{\circ}$ are about 50 percent larger than in tension for the same fiber orientations, respectively. The nonlinear deformations under off-axis tensile and compressive loading conditions exhibit significant strain-rate dependence. Similar features are observed in the fiber-orientation dependence of the off-axis flow stress levels under tension and compression and in the off-axis flow stress differential in tension and compression, regardless of the strain rate. A phenomenological theory of viscoplasticity is then developed which can describe the tension-compression asymmetry as well as the rate dependence, nonlinearity and fiber orientation dependence of the off-axis tensile and compressive behaviors of unidirectional composites in a unified manner. It is demonstrated by comparing with experimental results that the proposed viscoplastic constitutive model can be applied with reasonable accuracy to predict the different, nonlinear and rate-dependent behaviors of the unidirectional composite under off-axis tensile and compressive loading conditions.

69

Characterization of Nonlinear Behaviors of CSCNT/Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Epoxy Laminates

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.251-264

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Nonlinear mechanical behaviors of unidirectional carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates using cup-stacked carbon nanotubes (CSCNTs) dispersed epoxy are evaluated and compared with those of CFRP laminates without CSCNTs. Off-axis compression tests are performed to obtain the stress-strain relations. One-parameter plasticity model is applied to characterize the nonlinear response of unidirectional laminates, and nonlinear behaviors of laminates with and without CSCNTs are compared. Clear improvement in stiffness of off-axis specimens by using CSCNTs is demonstrated, which is considered to contribute the enhancement of the longitudinal compressive strength of unidirectional laminates and compressive strength of multidirectional laminates. Finally, longitudinal compressive strengths are predicted based on a kink band model including the nonlinear responses in order to demonstrate the improvement in longitudinal strength of CFRP by dispersing CSCNTs.

68

Failure Pressure Prediction of Composite Cylinders for Hydrogen Storage Using Thermo-mechanical Analysis and Neural Network

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.233-249

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Safe installation and operation of high-pressure composite cylinders for hydrogen storage are of primary concern. It is unavoidable for the cylinders to experience temperature variation and significant thermal input during service. The maximum failure pressure that the cylinder can sustain is affected due to the dependence of composite material properties on temperature and complexity of cylinder design. Most of the analysis reported for high-pressure composite cylinders is based on simplifying assumptions and does not account for complexities like thermo-mechanical behavior and temperature dependent material properties. In the present work, a comprehensive finite element simulation tool for the design of hydrogen storage cylinder system is developed. The structural response of the cylinder is analyzed using laminated shell theory accounting for transverse shear deformation and geometric nonlinearity. A composite failure model is used to evaluate the failure pressure under various thermo-mechanical loadings. A back-propagation neural network (NNk) model is developed to predict the maximum failure pressure using the analysis results. The failure pressures predicted from NNk model are compared with those from test cases. The developed NNk model is capable of predicting the failure pressure for any given loading condition.

67

Influence of Allylamine Plasma Treatment Time on the Mechanical Properties of VGCF/Epoxy

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.221-232

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The allylamine plasma treatment is used to modify the surface properties of vapor grown carbon fibers (VGCF). It is to improve the interfacial bonding between the VGCF and epoxy matrix. The allylamine plasma process was performed by batch process in a vacuum chamber, using gas injection followed by plasma discharge for the durations of 20, 40 and 60 min. The interdependence of mechanical properties on the VGCF contents, treatment time and interfacial bonding between VGCF/ep was investigated. The interfacial bonding between VGCF and epoxy matrix was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs of nanocomposites fracture surfaces. The changes in the mechanical properties of VGCF/ep, such as the tensile modulus and strength were discussed. The mechanical properties of allylamine plasma treated (AAPT) VGCF/ep were compared with those of raw VGCF/ep. The tensile strength and modulus of allyamine plasma treated VGCF40 (40 min treatment)/ep demonstrated a higher value than those of other samples. The mechanical properties were increased with the allyamine plasma treatment due to the improved adhesion at VGCF/ep interface. The modification of the carbon nanofibers surface was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). SEM micrographs showed an excellent dispersion of VGCF in epoxy matrix by ultrasonic method.

66

Mechanical Properties of MWNT-Loaded Plain-Weave Glass/Epoxy Composites

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.209-219

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Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have shown great potential for the reinforcement of polymers or fiber-reinforced composites. In this study, mechanical properties of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)-filled plain-weave glass/epoxy composites intended for use in radar absorbing structures were evaluated with regard to filler loading, microstructure, and fiber volume fraction. The plain-weave composites containing MWNTs exhibited improved matrix-dominant and interlaminar fracture-related properties, that is, compressive and interlaminar shear strength. This is attributed to strengthening of the matrix rich region and the interface between glass yarns by the MWNTs. However, tensile properties were only slightly affected by the addition of MWNTs, as they are fiber-dominant properties.

65

Effect of NaOH Treatments on Jute and Coir Fiber PP Composites

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.3 2009 pp.197-208

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Changes occurring in jute and coir fiber composites with 2-8% concentration of a NaOH treatment for 24 h were investigated, respectively, for void content, microscopy images, mechanical properties and water absorption. The jute and coir fibers were vacuum dried before molding composite specimens. Mechanical properties indicated good adhesion between natural fibers and PP. Jute fibers, when alkali-treated with 2% concentration for 24 h, showed best improvement in tensile strength by 40% and modulus by 9%, respectively, while coir fibers, when alkali-treated with 6% concentration for 24 h, showed best improvement in tensile strengths by 62% and modulus by 17%, respectively. With 2% concentration of alkali-treatments, the elongation of jute and coir composites reached 8% and 13.5%, respectively. Moisture absorption for jute and coir composites are 50% and 60% lower than untreated fiber composites, respectively.

64

Synthesis of Needle-like Aragonite from Limestone without Calcinations in the Presence of Magnesium Sulfate

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.2 2009 pp.187-195

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Much attention has been paid to the processing of inorganic whisker, especially calcium carbonate whisker, which can be used as reinforcement materials of polymer composite due to its low price. Unfortunately, the present synthesis technique of calcium carbonate whisker starts from calcinations of limestone, which involves high energy consumption and furthermore is a highly environment polluting reaction. In this report, needle-like aragonite was synthesized with a reversible solution reaction from limestone without calcination. Optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were used to characterize the morphology and crystal structure of intermediates as well as that of the product, aragonite. GCC (grinding calcium carbonate) powder was dissolved in an aqueous solution of magnesium sulfate with reflux and air flush. EDTA titration was used to evaluate reaction rate of the dissolution. A kinetics equation of the dissolution reaction was constructed, which displayed second-order kinetics with respect to the concentration of magnesium sulfate. A rate constant of $0.0015\;l^{-3}{\cdot}mol^{-1}{\cdot}h^{-1}$ was obtained. The dissolution reaction gave fiber-like magnesium hydroxide sulfate and gypsum crystal. Then needle-like aragonite with a length of $9.13\;{\pm}\;1.02\;{\mu}m$ and an aspect ratio of $5.64\;{\pm}\;1.37$ was synthesized from the dissolution product with $CO_2$ bubbling at $70^{\circ}C$.

63

Biodegradable Starch-Based Resin Reinforced with Continuous Mineral Fibres-Processing, Characterisation and Mechanical Properties

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.2 2009 pp.167-185

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Environmental problems caused by extensive use of polymeric materials arise mainly due to lack of landfill space and depletion of finite natural resources of fossil raw materials like petroleum or natural gas. The substitution of synthetic petroleum-based resins with natural biodegradable resins appears to be one appropriate measure to remedy the above-mentioned situation. This study presents the development of a composite that uses environmentally degradable starch-based resin as matrix and natural mineral basalt fibres as reinforcement, and investigates the fibre's and the composite's mechanical properties. The tensile strength of single basalt fibres was verified by means of single fibre tensile tests and statistically investigated by means of a Weibull analysis. Prepreg sheets were manufactured by means of a modified doctor blade system and hot power press. The sheets were used to manufacture specimens with fibre volume contents ranging from 33% to 61%. Specimens were tested for tensile strength, flexural strength and interlaminar shear strength. Composites manufactured during this study exhibited tensile and flexural strength of up to 517 MPa and 157 MPa, respectively.

62

Effective Properties of Multi-layered Multi-functional Composites

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.2 2009 pp.153-166

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A matrix method for evaluating effective electro-magneto-thermo-elastic properties of a generally anisotropic multilayered composite is presented. Physical variables are categorized into two groups: one that satisfies the continuity across the interface between layers and another that satisfies an average inter-layer compatibility (which is also exact). The coupled electro-magneto-thermo-elastic constitutive equation is accordingly reassembled into submatrices, which leads to the derivation of concise and exact matrix expressions for effective properties of a multilayered composite having the coupled physical effects. Comparing the results for a purely elastic multiplayer with those from other theoretical approaches validates the developed method. Examples are given for a PZT-graphite/epoxy composite and a $BaTiO_3-CoFe_2O_4$ multiplayer which exhibit piezo-thermoelastic and magnetoelectric properties, respectively. The result shows how a strong magnetoelectric effect can be achieved by combining piezoelectric and piezomagnetic materials in a multilayered structure. The magnetoelectric coefficient of the $BaTiO_3-CoFe_2O_4$ multiplayer is compared with those for fibrous and particulate composites fabricated with the same constituents.

61

Similarity Relations of Resin Flow in Resin Transfer Molding Process

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.2 2009 pp.135-152

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Liquid molding processes, such as resin transfer molding, involve resin flow through a porous medium inside a mold cavity. Numerical analysis of resin flow and mold filling is a very useful means for optimization of the manufacturing process. However, the numerical analysis is quite time consuming and requires a great deal of effort, since a separate numerical calculation is needed for every set of material properties, part size and injection conditions. The efforts can be appreciably reduced if similarity solutions are used instead of repeated numerical calculations. In this study, the similarity relations for pressure, resin velocity and flow front propagation are proposed to correlate another desired case from the already obtained numerical result. In other words, the model gives a correlation of flow induced variables between two different cases. The model was verified by comparing results obtained by the similarity relation and by independent numerical simulation.

60

Improvement of Out-of-Plane Impact Damage Resistance of CFRP Due to Through-the-Thickness Stitching

[Kisti 연계] 한국복합재료학회 Advanced composite materials : the official journal of the Japan Society of Composite Materials and the Korea Society for Composite Materials Vol.18 No.2 2009 pp.121-134

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The present study investigated, both experimentally and numerically, the improvement of low-velocity impact damage resistance of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) laminates due to through-the-thickness stitching. First, we conducted drop-weight impact tests for stitched and unstitched laminates. The results of damage inspection confirmed that stitching did improve the impact damage resistance, and revealed that the improvement effect became greater as the impact energy increased. Moreover, the stitching affected the through-the-thickness damage distribution. Next, we performed FEM analysis and calculated the energy release rate of the delamination crack using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). The numerical results revealed that the stitching affected the through-the-thickness damage distribution because the stitch threads had a marked effect on decreasing both the modes I and II energy release rate around the bottom of the laminate. Comparison of the results for models that contained delaminations of various sizes revealed that the energy release rate became lower as delamination size increased; therefore the stitching improved the impact resistance more effectively when the impact energy was higher.

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