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## Agricultural and biosystems engineering

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75

Effect of Air-Phase Germination with Anion Radiation and Water-Spraying on Germination Ratio, Sprout Growth, and GABA Contents of Germinated Brown Rice

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.7 No.1 2006 pp.42-47

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of air-phase germination with water-spraying and anion stimuli on germination ratio, sprout growth and ${\gamma}$-aminobutyric acid (GABA) of brown rice. Air-phase germination method with intermittent spraying water improved germination ratio and sprout growth by about 100% compared with the conventional water-soaking method. Anion radiation was applied during the germination process and improved the germination ratio, sprout growth and color quality of the germinated brown rice. Germination ratio and sprout growth were improved up to 9% with anion radiation, and its brightness was higher than brown rice germinated with no anion radiation. The air-phase germination with water-spraying improved the GABA content of germinated brown rice by about 8-9 times compared with that of brown rice.

74

Spectral Sensing for Plant Stress Assessment - A Review -

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.7 No.1 2006 pp.27-41

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Assessment of nitrogen and chlorophyll content from crop leaves can help growers adjust N fertilizer rates to meet the demands of the crop. Numerous researchers have presented their studies about spectral signature of plant leaves to characterize the plant features. However, interrelational review and summary were limited and a communication gap exists between the plant science and optical engineering. Understanding the mechanism of leaf interaction to electromagnetic radiation and factors affecting spectrophotometric measurements can enhance the foundation of optical remote sensing technologies. This paper provides extensive review of previous works in optical sensing and explains the basics of plant optics, spectral measurements for plant stress, factors that affect sensitivity to spectral analysis, and applications that deploy optical remote sensing technologies.

73

On-the-go Nitrogen Sensing and Fertilizer Control for Site-specific Crop Management

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.7 No.1 2006 pp.18-26

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

In-field site-specific nitrogen (N) management increases crop yield, reduces N application to minimize the risk of nitrate contamination of ground water, and thus reduces farming cost. Real-time N sensing and fertilization is required for efficient N management. An 'on-the-go' site-specific N management system was developed and evaluated for the supplemental N application to com (Zea mays L.). This real-time N sensing and fertilization system monitored and assessed N fertilization needs using a vision-based spectral sensor and controlled the appropriate variable N rate according to N deficiency level estimated from spectral signature of crop canopies. Sensor inputs included ambient illumination, camera parameters, and image histogram of three spectral regions (red, green, and near-infrared). The real-time sensor-based supplemental N treatment improved crop N status and increased yield over most plots. The largest yield increase was achieved in plots with low initial N treatment combined with supplemental variable-rate application. Yield data for plots where N was applied the latest in the season resulted in a reduced impact on supplemental N. For plots with no supplemental N application, yield increased gradually with initial N treatment, but any N application more than 101 kg/ha had minimal impact on yield.

72

Analysis of Planocentric Gear

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.7 No.1 2006 pp.13-17

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The planocentric gear, known as wobble mechanism, has been used for speed reducing mechanism as an ingenious mechanism. The modem application can be found in the backrest adjusting mechanism of a vehicle reclinable seat, fluid pumps and aircraft hoist and winches. Higher speed reduction ratios, high load capacity, lower weight, and compactness are the main advantages of this gear. This paper presents velocity and static force analysis to investigate the friction lock of the planocentric gear. The rectilinear tooth profile is used to maximize the speed reduction ratio. The equivalent linkage system is used for the analysis of instantaneous motion. As the results, the transmission efficiency of the planocentric gear is found and the friction lock of the system is determined for the friction coefficients of journals. A numerical example that illustrates the developed analysis is presented.

71

Development of Real-Time Internal Quality Evaluation Technique for Korean Red Ginseng using NIR Spectroscopy

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.7 No.1 2006 pp.8-12

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study was conducted to develop a real-time internal quality evaluation technique for Korean red ginseng using NIR spectroscopy while they were moving to be graded. Internal qualities of Korean red ginseng were defined by color, amount of white core and cavity in the red ginseng. To evaluate the internal quality, PLS (Partial Least Square) model was developed. Spectrum saturation can be occurred when most red ginseng has a sound internal quality expressed by higher light transmittance ratio, but that could not found in the ginseng of internal white core under the same light situation. And, if spectrum saturation is obtained, it is hard to identify the exact information of internal quality. In order to evaluate of the internal quality regardless of having internal normal core or white core, an integral time controlled method was used to obtain traditional spectrum. This procedure was applied in real-time process when red ginseng was moving to be graded in the line. Among the 450 samples including 223 internal normal ginsengs and 227 internal white core ginsengs, 315 ginsengs (70%) were used to develop a calibration model and 135 ginsengs were spent to validate the model. The result of quality evaluation by the model was very good showing SEP and bias were 0.3573 and 0.0310, respectively, and the accuracy was 95.6%.

70

Finite Element Prediction of Temperature Distribution in a Solar Grain Dryer

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.7 No.1 2006 pp.1-7

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

A need exists to monitor and control the localized high temperatures often experienced in solar grain dryers, which result in grain cracking, reduced germination and loss of cooking quality. A verified finite element model would be a useful to monitor and control the drying process. This study examined the feasibility of the finite element method (FEM) to predict temperature distribution in solar grain dryers. To achieve this, an indirect solar grain dryer system was developed. It consisted of a solar collector, plenum and drying chambers, and an electric fan. The system was used to acquire the necessary input and output data for the finite element model. The input data comprised ambient and plenum chamber temperatures, prevailing wind velocities, thermal conductivities of air, grain and dryer wall, and node locations in the xy-plane. The outputs were temperature at the different nodes, and these were compared with measured values. The ${\pm}5%$ residual error interval employed in the analysis yielded an overall prediction performance level of 83.3% for temperature distribution in the dryer. Satisfactory prediction levels were also attained for the lateral (61.5-96.2%) and vertical (73.1-92.3%) directions of grain drying. These results demonstrate that it is feasible to use a two-dimensional (2-D) finite element model to predict temperature distribution in a grain solar dryer. Consequently, the method offers considerable advantage over experimental approaches as it reduces time requirements and the need for expensive measuring equipment, and it also yields relatively accurate results.

69

Fractionation of Chinese Cabbage Juice

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.77-82

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

The fractionation of green juice could be one of the ways to treat the green juice for saving the bio re-sources by using the basic processes of protein coagulation and separating juice coagulation into protein paste and brown juice and storing the final products. The fractionation of Chinese cabbage juice can be accomplished by applying the combine method of the formic acid with rate of 0.3% and the propionic acid with rate of 0.1 % added 4 hours later in the juice with maximum recovery of protein coagulation. The separation of coagulation into the protein paste and the brown juice completed in 6.5 hours by set up method in a special designed storage. The protein paste could be stored safely for 30days in anaerobic condition.

68

Effect of Processing Method on Change of Water Soluble Dietary Fiber of Fagopyrum tataricum

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.70-76

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Seed, stem and sprout of F. tataricum were separately milled using the ultra fine mill under the same condition to investigate the effect of roasting or extruding on the particle size, microstructure and water solubility of dietary fiber. The mean particle size of MR (roasting) is increased in stem and sprout, and that of ME (extruding) is increased in seed, compared to that of control. The microscopic views of seed show that control has the spherical shape but ME the larger and irregular shape, and those of stem and sprout show that control has the needle like shape but ME more rounded shape. Water solubility index of ME is much higher than that of control or MR in seed, stem and sprout. It shows that seed, stem and sprout are damaged more in extruding than in roasting, and the starch and cell wall structure must be destroyed to change the water insoluble dietary fiber into the water soluble dietary fiber.

67

An Experimental Study on a Windheat Generation System with a Savonius Wind Turbine

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.65-69

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

A windheat generation system with a Savonius windturbine was developed and the performance was evaluated through field tests. The system consisted of a heat generation drum, heat exchanger, water storage tank, and two circulation pumps. Frictional heat is created by rotation of a rotor inside the drum containing thermo oil, and was used to heat water. In order to estimate the capacity of this windheat generation system, weather data was collected for one year at the site near the windheat generation system. Wind Power from the savonius wind turbine mill was transmitted to the heat generation system with an one-to-three gear system. Starting force to rotate the savonius wind turbine and the whole system including the windheat generation system were 1.0 and 2.5 kg, respectively. Under the outdoor wind condition, maximum speed of the rotor in the drum was 75rpm at wind speed 6.5 m/sec, which was not fast enough to produce heat for greenhouse heating. Annual cumulative hours for wind speeds greater than 5 m/sec at height of 10, 20, 30 m were 190, 300 and 1020 hrs, respectively. A $5^{\circ}C$ increase in water temperature was achieved by the windheat generation system under the tested wind environment.

66

The Changes in the Physical Properties of Soil with Tillage Methods (I)

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.59-64

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

In the study, the cone index, the cohesion and the internal resistant angle of soil were measured before and after tillage in order to suggest relative improvement in soil properties. The tillage methods tested in the study were five combinations of plow and rotary tillage operation and the experiments were performed on five selected test fields. The maximum tillage depth was 20 cm under the ground. The CIs for all the tillage operations were improved in comparison with those before tillage. The best combination of tillage operations for improving the CIs of soil was one plow operation followed by one rotary. After applying the tillage operations, the internal resistance angle reduced by 7-8 degree and the cohesion decreased up to about $1N/cm^2$ in comparison with those before tillage. We concluded that the cone index, the cohesion and the internal resistant angle of soil could be used as measures for representing the relative degree of tillage for a specific tillage operation. In addition, the study was useful as a basic research tool for developing an decision making system that determines an optimal tillage method with soil properties.

65

Tele-robotics in Agriculture - Tomato Harvesting Experiment -

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.54-58

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

In this study, tele-robotics was researched to actualize robots in agriculture. The robot system consisted of a data collecting robot, several robots that performed their own agricultural operations, a server, client computers and networks between robots and computers. In this paper, as a first step, harvesting experiments were carried out. From the results, it was observed that the tele-robotics had feasibility to propel the robotization in agriculture. The tele-robotics has advantages not only that human workers are released from the severe working environment but also that the greenhouse can be monitored and controlled anytime and anywhere.

64

Controller for Single Line Tracking Autonomous Guidance Vehicle Using Machine Vision

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.47-53

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

AMachine vision is a promising tool for the autonomous guidance of farm machinery. Conventional CCD camera for the machine vision needs a desktop PC to install a frame grabber, however, a web camera is ready to use when plugged in the USB port. A web camera with a notebook PC can replace existing camera system. Autonomous steering control system of this research was intended to be used for combine harvester. If the web camera can recognize cut/uncut edge of crop, which will be the reference for steering control, then the position of the machine can be determined in terms of lateral offset and heading angle. In this research, a white line was used as a cut/uncut edge of crop for steering control. Image processing algorithm including capturing image in the web camera was developed to determine the desired travel path. An experimental vehicle was constructed to evaluate the system performance. Since the vehicle adopted differential drive steering mechanism, it is steered by the difference of rotation speed between left and right wheels. According to the position of vehicle, the steering algorithm was developed as well. Evaluation tests showed that the experimental vehicle could travel within an RMS error of 0.8cm along the desired path at the ground speed of $9\sim41cm/s$. Even when the vehicle started with initial offsets or tilted heading angle, it could move quickly to track the desired path after traveling $1.52\sim3.5m$. For turning section, i.e., the curved path with curvature of 3 m, the vehicle completed its turning securely.

63

On-the-go Soil Strength Profile Sensor to Quantify Spatial and Vertical Variations in Soil Strength

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.2 2005 pp.39-46

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Because soil compaction is a concern in crop production and environmental pollution, quantification and management of spatial and vertical variability in soil compaction for soil strength) would be a useful aspect of site -specific field management. In this paper, a soil strength profile sensor (SSPS) that could take measurements continuously while traveling across the field was developed and the performance was evaluated through laboratory and field tests. The SSPS obtained data simultaneously at 5 evenly spaced depths up to 50 em using an array of load cells, each of which was interfaced with a soil-cutting tip. Means of soil strength measurements collected in adjacent, parallel transects were not significantly different, confirming the repeatability of soil strength sensing with the SSPS. Maps created with sensor data showed spatial and vertical variability in soil strength. Depth to the restrictive layer was different for different field locations, and only 5 to 16% of the tested field areas were highly compacted.

62

The Processing Technology of Soy Protein Meat Analog Using Twin-Screw Extruder - Heat Transfer Analysis of Cooling Die -

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.1 2005 pp.27-33

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Soy protein meat analog was produced using a twin-screw extruder attached with a cooling die. Heat transfer analysis was performed for cooling dies with various die sizes at the four different moisture contents of feed during extrusion process. The experimental design consisted of two cooling die widths (30 and 60 mm), three cooling die lengths (100, 200, and 300 mm), four product moisture contents (71.2, 67.0, 61.6 and 55.8%), and water and water plus ethylene glycol as cooling material. When water was used as cooling medium, the values of equivalent overall heat transfer coefficient $(U_e)$ for each die width of 30 and 60 mm were in the range of 187.0 - 341.4 and $358.5-191.6W/m^2^{\circ}C$ depending on the size of die length. Convective heat transfer coefficients between cooling water and inside die wall of cooling channel $(h_c)$ for both die widths of 30 and 60 mm were 588.5, 416.1, and $339.8W/m^2^{\circ}C$ for each die length of 100, 200, and 300 mm. Convective heat transfer coefficients between product and inside die wall of product channel $(h_p)$ for each die width of 30 and 60 mm were in the range of $434.6-888.1W/m^2^{\circ}C$ and $460.7-1014.5W/m^2^{\circ}C$ depending on the size of die length. When water plus ethylene glycol was used as cooling medium, the values of $U_e$ were in the range of $143.9-319.6W/m^2^{\circ}C$ and $177.8-332.7W/m^2^{\circ}C$ for each die width of 30 and 60 mm depending on the size of die length.

61

Factors Affecting Performance of a Proto type Windheat Generation System

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.1 2005 pp.22-26

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

A wind-heat generation system was developed and the system consisted of an electric motor, a heat generation drum, a heat exchanger, two circulation pumps and a water storage tank. The heat generation drum is an essential element determining performance of the system. Frictional heat was generated by rotation of a rotor in the drum filled with a working fluid, and the heat stored in the fluid was used to increase water temperature through the heat exchanger. Effects of some factors such as rotor shape, kind and amount of working fluid, rotor rpm and water flow rate in the heat exchanger, affecting the system performance were investigated. Amounts of heat generated were varied, ranging from 126,000 to 32,760 kJ/hr, depending on combination of the factors. Statistical analysis using GLM procedure revealed that the most influential factor to decide the system performance was amount of the fluid in the drum. Experiments showed that the faster the speed of the rotor, the greater heat was obtained. The greatest efficiency of the heat generation system, electric power consumption rate vs gained heat amount of water, was about 70%. Though the heat amount was not enough for plant bed heating of a 0.1-ha greenhouse, the system would be promising if some supplementary heat source such as air- water heat pump is added.

60

Development of Nondestructive Grouping System for Soil Organic Matter Using VIS and NIR Spectral Reflectance

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.1 2005 pp.15-21

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study was conducted to develop a nondestructive grouping system for soil organic matter using visible (VIS) and near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method. The artificial light was irradiated on the cut soil surface at 15 to 20 cm depths to reduce the errors of light at open field. The reflectance energy from the cut soil surface was measured to group the soil organic matter using VIS/NIR light sensor with narrow band pass filter. From reflectance spectra of soil samples, the sensitive wavelengths for measuring the soil organic matter were selected and compared to previous research results. The grouping system for soil organic matter consisted of light sensor with band pass filter measuring the reflectance energy of the cut soil surface, global positing system (GPS), analog-to-digital (AD) converter, computer and operating software. The regression models to predict the soil organic matter were developed and evaluated. From field test, the accuracies of the developed light sensor system were 81.3% for five-stage grouping of the soil organic matters and 91.0% for three-stages grouping of the soil organic matters, respectively. It could be possible to support the decision making for variable rate applications with the developed grouping system for soil organic matter in precision agriculture.

59

Development of a Real-time Grouping System of Rice Crop Canopy Chlorophyll Contents

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.1 2005 pp.8-14

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study was carried out to develop a real-time grouping system of chlorophyll contents of rice crop canopy for precision agriculture. The system measured reflected light energy of a rice canopy on a paddy field from visual to near-infrared range and analyzed the collected information of chlorophyll contents of rice crop canopy with given position data. The four filters, 560 nm $({\pm}10nm)$, 650 nm $({\pm}25nm)$, 700 nm $({\pm}12nm)$, and 850 nm $({\pm}40nm)$, were used for a multiple regression to estimate the chlorophyll contents of rice crop canopy. Every $0.2m^2$ area of the open field was inspected at a distance of 1 m above the rice canopy. According to the results of verification test, the chlorophyll content grouping by a commerical chlorophyll meter (SPAD) and by the developed system showed 58.7% match for five-stage chlorophyll contents of rice crop canopy grouping and 93.5% for the $five{\pm}1-stage$ grouping. In addition, the results showed 63.0% match for three-stage grouping and 100.0% for the $three{\pm}1-stage$ grouping.

58

Ground-based Remote Sensing Technology for Precision Farming - Calibration of Image-based Data to Reflectance -

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.6 No.1 2005 pp.1-7

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Assessing health condition of crop in the field is one of core operation in precision fanning. A sensing system was proposed to remotely detect the crop health condition in terms of SP AD readings directly related to chlorophyll contents of crop using a multispectral camera equipped on ground-based platform. Since the image taken by a camera was sensitive to changes in ambient light intensity, it was needed to convert gray scale image data into reflectance, an index to indicate the reflection characteristics of target crop. A reference reflectance panel consisting of four pieces of sub-panels with different reflectance was developed for a dynamic calibration, by which a calibration equation was updated for every crop image captured by the camera. The system performance was evaluated in a field by investigating the relationship between com canopy reflectance and SP AD values. The validation tests revealed that the com canopy reflectance induced from Green band in the multispectral camera had the most significant correlation with SPAD values $(r^2=0.75)$ and NIR band could be used to filter out unwanted non-crop features such as soil background and empty space in a crop canopy. This research confirmed that it was technically feasible to develop a ground-based remote sensing system for assessing crop health condition.

57

Development of the Processing System for Pre-washed Rice

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.5 No.2 2004 pp.60-63

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

Demand for development of processing systems for pre-washed rice and propagation of the systems has recently been on the rise, because rice-cooking requires watering 15 times the rice quantity to cook, as in case of the regular rice currently being circulated in Korean market, in addition to paying the trouble of washing it for cooking, and besides the milky turbid water coming from the rice-washing contributes to water contamination. In this study, therefore, a processing system for pre-washed rice was designed and built with rice surface polishing devices that adopted abrading and airing methods, an electrostatic method and a method using a fine watering, to conduct its performance test. The result showed that turbidity of the wash water, which is the base to determine the pre-washed rice standard, turned out 47.33 ppm and 48.00 ppm respectively for 800 kg/hr and 1,000 kg/hr supplies, which meets the standard for the processing system free from rice-washing for cooking. The quantity of watering at this experiment was only 0.43 times the rice, thus resulting in curtailment of process-watering by approximately $69\%$ compared with the existing wet-type pre-washed rice processing system popular in Korean market.

56

Development of a Vacuum Nozzle Seeder for Large Seeds in Cucurbitaceae

[Kisti 연계] 한국농업기계학회 Agricultural and biosystems engineering Vol.5 No.2 2004 pp.55-59

협약을 통해 무료로 제공되는 자료로, 원문이용 방식은 연계기관의 정책을 따르고 있습니다.

This study aimed to develop a seeder for sowing large seeds such as those of fruit vegetables used as rootstocks in grafting. It investigated how the nozzle diameter and the nozzle's vacuum pressure affected the seeding performance. This study found that a nozzle diameter of 1.5 mm was capable of sowing most of the seed sizes used in this study. The highest seeding rates for 'Chambak', 'Tuktozwa', and 'Hukjong' were $97.6\%$, $98.8\%$, and $97.6\%$, respectively. Lineup status after sowing was good. The working performance was 75.6 sheets/hr. An average seeding rate of 1 grain was $97.8\%$.

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